A Retired Professor With Some Words

About Anthropology and Creativity

 

Charles F. Urbanowicz, Ph.D. /Professor Emeritus of Anthropology

California State University,Chico / Chico, CA 95929-0400

curbanowicz@csuchico.edu or csurbanowicz@gmail.com

 

7 February 2019

 

Pleasenote:  This page (http://www.csuchico.edu/~curbanowicz/FORUMFebruary2019.html) has numerous additional statements and references not specifically referred to in the 7 February 2019 presentation but they did contribute to the overall PowerPoint presentation that day.

 

 

INTRODUCTION& BACKGROUND:

 

"The tragedy of the world is that those who areimaginative have but slight experience and those who are experienced havefeeble imaginations.  Fools act onknowledge without imagination.  Thetask of a university is to weld together imagination and experience [stressadded]."  Alfred NorthWhitehead, 1933, The Adventure ofIdeas, no page number. 

 

A member of the Anthropology faculty since August 1973 I retired in 2005 andwas awarded the title of Professoremeritus; I then taught for five years under FERP (Faculty Early Retirement Program) and completely retired in December 2009.  This is my 41st Anthropology Forum presentation.  Professor Turhon Murad gave the first Anthropology Forum infall 1973 and I gave the second onNovember 7, 1973.  My last Forum presentation (World WarII, 1931-1945:  Locations, Images,and Words) was on 3 September 2015 andis available on the web as a video presentation (please see references).

 

"I quote others only the better to express myself." (Michel Eyquem de Montaigne [1533-1592] French philosopher/essayist); or, in another translation: "I only quote othersto make myself more explicit." (Essays, translated by J.M.Cohen, 1958, page 52).

 

"Theanthropologist is a human instrument studying other human beings and theirsocieties. Although he [and she!] has developed techniques that give him [andher] considerable objectivity, it is an illusion for him to think he can remove his [or her] personality from his work and become a faceless robot or a machine like recorder of human events [stress added]." Hortense Powdermaker, 1966, StrangerAnd Friend: The Way Of An Anthropologist, page 19.

 

"The Russians have a proverb: He lieslike an eyewitness. Few eyewitnesses see it all, fewer still understand all theimplications. And theirreports are always personal. Yet what they see is essential. History beginswith people caught in the moment-by-moment rush of events. The correspondent on the scene shares thejolt of joy or horror in watching the world change in an instant. Personal biasbecomes part of the story, andoften makes the account more vivid [stress added]." David Colbert [Editor], 1997, Eyewitnessto America: 500 Years of America in the Words of Those Who Saw It Happen (NY: Pantheon Books), page xxvii.

 

“He [or she] who receives an idea from me,receives instruction himself without lessening mine; as he [or she] who lightshis taper at mine, receives light without darkening me.” Thomas Jefferson(1743-1826)

"The word "anthropology"first appeared in the English language in 1593 (the first of the "ologies,"incidentally, to do so). The word "ethnology" made its firstappearance in an 1830 letter by André Marie AmpŹre (1775-1836)and appeared in print for the first time in 1832. The short-lived Sociétés observateurs de l'homme was founded in Paris in 1799 by LouisFrancois Jauffret (1770-1850) and this was eventually followed by the 1839 formation of Société ethnologique de Paris, by William F. Edwards (1777-1842). Thislatter organization lasted until 1848 but no one seems to have a goodimpression of the term "ethnology" as used by Edwards...."Charles F. Urbanowicz, 1992, Four-Field Commentary. Newsletter of the American AnthropologicalAssociation, 1992,Volume 33, Number 9, page 3. [And see:http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Pub_Papers/4field.html]

 

  "It hasoften been said--I don't know if it is universally true but it is probably truefor many of us--that the reason we took up anthropology was that we haddifficulty in adapting ourselves to the social milieu into which we wereborn." Claude Lévi-Strauss (1908-2009) In Le G.Charbonnier, 1969, Conversationswith Claude Lévi-Strauss (London:Jonathan Cape Ltd), page 17. [This is a 1969 translation of the 1961 Entretiensavec Claude Lévi-Strauss.]

 

"If there is one thing thatanthropologists of the 20th Century have demonstrated it is the position that there is no onesingle culture which can serve as the sole model of analysis of other cultures.Perhaps the most important point of modern 20th century Anthropology has beenthe detailed and documented account of the tremendous range of variation of'cultures of this planet' and this is a distinct move away from various 19thcentury, and apparently some 20th century views, which offer a monolithicinterpretation of CULTURE against which 'lesser' cultures can beappropriately ranked! [stress added]." Charles F. Urbanowicz, 1978, Cultural Implications of ExtraterrestrialContact and the Colonization of Space. TheIndustrialization of Space: Advances in the Astronautical Sciences, Edited by Richard A. Van Patten et al.,(San Diego, CA: Published for the American Astronautical Society Publication byUnivelt, Inc.), pages 785-797, page 793.

 

 

SCIENCE AND ANTHROPOLOGYDEFINED:

 

The 1964 publicationof Arthur Koestler entitled The Act of Creation is introduced. One definition of science is "theintellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structureand behavior of the physical and natural world through observation andexperiment" (New Oxford American Dictionary installed on my computer). I describe science as"the systematic reduction of error and stress the Appreciationof Basic Cultural Diversity Everywhere.

 

"You are what you know. ...Today we live according to the latest version of how the universe functions. This viewaffects our behaviour and thought, just as previous versions affected those wholived with them. ...At any time in the past, people have held a view of the waythe universe works which was for them similarly definitive, whether it wasbased on myths or research. Andat any time, that view they held was sooner or later altered by changes in thebody of knowledge" [stress added]. James Burke, 1985, The Day The Universe Changed (Little Brown), page 9.

 

"Modern science is based onthe Latin injunction ignoramus - 'we donot know'.  It assumes that wedon't know everything.  Even morecritically, it accepts that the things that we think we know could be provenwrong as we gain more knowledge. No concept, idea or theory is sacred and beyond challenge." YuvalNoah Harari, 2015, Sapiens:  A Brief History of Humankind (HarperCollins), page 250.

 

"No scientific theory is acollection of facts. ... The act of fusion is the creative act. All science isthe search for unity in hidden likenesses. The search may be on a grand scale, as inthe modern theories which try to link the fields of gravitation andelectromagnetism. ... Thescientist looks for order in the appearance of nature by exploringsuch likenesses. For order does not display itself of itself; if it can be saidto be there at all, it is not there for the mere looking. There is no way ofpointing a finger or a camera at it;order must be discovered and, in a deepsense, it must be created. What we see, and as we see it, is meredisorder. ... Science finds order and meaningness in our experience, and setsabout this in a quite different way. ... Thediscoveries of science, the works of art are explorations--more, explosions ofa hidden likeness. The discovery or the artist presents inthem two aspects of nature and fuses them into one. This is the act ofcreation, in which an original thought is born, and it is the same act inoriginal science and original art.... [stress added] Jacob Bronowski, 1956, ScienceAnd Human Values, pp.12-19.

 

"The cutting edge ofknowledge is not in the known but in the unknown, not in knowing but inquestioning. Facts, concepts, generalizations, and theories are dullinstruments unless they are honed to a sharp edge by persistent inquiry aboutthe unknown" (Ralph H. Thompson, 1969, Learning to Question. The Journal of HigherEducation, Vol. XL, No. 6, pages 467-472, page 467).

 

"…it'stechnology married with liberal arts, married with the humanities, that yieldsus the results that makes our heart sing."  Steve Jobs (1955-2011) in Walter Isaacson, 2014, The Innovators:  How a Group of Hackers,Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution (NY:  Simon& Schuster), page 482,

 

 

LIFEIS CUMULATIVE:  Video snippet from the 1968 video Why Man Creates [The Edifice].

 

"Mumble,mumble, roar!.

Thelever.

Harry, doyou realize you just invented the wheel?

I know, I know.

Bronze,Iron.

Halt.

All wasin chaos 'til Euclid arose and made order.

 

What isthe good life?

And howdo you lead it?

Who shallrule the state? 

Thephilosopher king

Thearistocrat.

Thepeople. 

You mean all the people?

What isthe nature of the good?

What isthe nature of justice?

What ishappiness? 

HailCaesar!

Roman law is now in session.

Allah bepraised, I've invented the zero.

What?

Nothing,nothing.

What isthe shape of the earth?

Flat.

Whathappens when you get to the edge?


You falloff.

Does theearth move?

Never!

The earthmoves.

The earthis round.

The bloodcirculates.

There areworlds smaller than ours.

There areworlds larger than ours. 

Hey,whadya doing?

I'mapaintin' the ceiling.

Whatdyadoing?

I'ma paintin' the floor.

Darwinsays man is an animal.

Rot.

Man isnot an animal.

Animal.

Man.

Is.

Isn't. 

Hmmm.

Shall we start from the beginning?

I'm abug, I'm a germ.

LouiePasteur!

I'm not abug, I'm not a germ. 

Think itwill work Alfred?

Let'sgive it a try.

Whadyathink

It worked.

All menare created equal....

Life,Liberty, and the pursuit....

Workersof the world....

Governmentof the people by the people....

The worldmust be made safe....

The warto end all wars....

A leagueof nations....

I see onethird of a nation ill-housed....

Oneworld....

Help!"

(Why Man Creates)

"Life is indeed cumulativeand a lot of everything goes into who, what, and why each of us is what we are today and how we do what we do and when andwhere we do it; or as the words over the entrance of Kendall Hall, on thecampus of CSU, Chico has it inscribe: Today Decides Tomorrow!"  CharlesF. Urbanowicz, 2014, http://www.csuchico.edu/~curbanowicz/DCRETIREMENTPAPER2014.html [Cruising Into Retirement As AnAnthropologist. For the 113th Annual Meeting of the American AnthropologicalAssociation, Washington, D.C., December3-7].

 

"You've got to be taught to love and hate,

Before you are six or seven or eight,

To hate all the people your relatives hate,

You've got to be carefully taught."

Richard Rogers and Oscar Hammerstein, Tales of the SouthPacific

 

 

PACIFIC ANTHROPOLOGY: Research was conducted in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga in 1970 and continues to the present through on-going research andvarious cruises.  World War II (1931-1945) was an important factor in the lives of the people of thePacific and my research also includes aspect of the war in the Pacific, as wellas in the CBI (China-Burma-India) (please see Urbanowicz references at the endof this paper).

 

"On January 30, 1995, the Smithsonian Institutionannounced the scrapping of the exhibit at its National Air and Space Museum(NASM) commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of the surrender of Japan and theend of World War II.  Thispainful outcome issued from months of intense national controversy over thetexts, pictures, and artifacts planned for the show, in essence over how thenation should remember the ending of the war[stress added].  Waldo Heinrichs, 2007, The Enola Gay and Contested Public Memory, in MarcGallicchio [Editor], 2007, TheUnpredictability of the Past: Memories of the Asia-Pacific War in U.S.-East Asian Relations(Duke University Press), pages 201-233, page 201.

 

 

ON INTELLIGENCE AND CREATIVITY: The 1983publication of Howard Gardner entitled Frames of Mind:  The Theory of Multiple Intelligences is introduced. Various personalities and controversies are also mentioned in passing.

 

"In my view, if we are to encompass adequately therealm of human cognition, it is necessary to include a far wider and moreuniversal set of competencies than we have ordinarily considered."  Howard Gardner, 1993, Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences[Tenth Anniversary edition], BasicBooks), page x.  These are, in alphabetical order:  Bodily & Kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal,Linguistic, Logical & Mathematical, Musical, Naturalistic, and Visual.

 

"Malinowski's [1884-1942] positionin British anthropology is analogous to that of Boas [1858-1942] in AmericanAnthropology.... Like Boas,Malinowski was a Central European naturalscientists brought by peculiar circumstances to anthropology and to theEnglish-speaking world. LikeBoas, he objected to armchair evolutionism and invented a fieldwork traditionbased on the use of native language in 'participant observation'. Furthermore, both Boas and Malinowski were pompous but liberalintellectuals who built up very strong followingsthrough their postgraduate teaching [stress added]." Alan Barnard, 2000, History and Theory in Anthropology (Cambridge University Press), pages 65-66.

 

"Anthropology is the science of the sense of humour. It can be thus defined without too muchpretentiousness or facetiousness. Forto see ourselves as others see is is but the reverse and the counterpart of thegift to see others as they really are and as they want to be: And this is the metier of the anthropologist. He [and she!] hasto break down the barriers of race and cultural diversity; he has to find thehuman being in the savage; he has to discover the primitive in the highlysophisticated Westerner of to-day, and, perhaps, to see that the animal, andthe divine as well, are to be found everywhere in man [stress added]." Bronislaw Malinowski,Introduction. Julius E. Lips, 1937, The SavageStrikes Back (Hyde Park, NY: University Books), pagesvii-ix, page vii.

 

"Bronislaw Malinowski [1884-1942],my father, was strongly influenced by women all hislife: by his Polish mother, his two British wives, his women pupils; by womennot his pupils with whom he had intellectual friendships; and by the women ofvarious nationalities whom he loved. He also had three daughters, of whom I amthe youngest [stress added]." Helena Wayne (Malinowska), 1985, Bronislaw Malinowski: The Influence ofVarious Women on His Life and Works. AmericanEthnologist, Vol. 12, No.3, pages 529-540, page 529.

 

Bronislaw Malinowski, the originator of modern anthropological field method, keptsuch diaries in New Guinea and Melanesia in 1914-15 and 1917-18, and it is to the discredit of allconcerned that they have been committed to print. ...The context of the diaryadds nothing at all to our understanding of Malinowski's work as ananthropologist. ... Malinowski's widow, who holds thecopyright, justifies the publication by claiming that these documents give'direct insight into the author's inner personality'. They do nothing of thesort, but both Malinowski and his loved ones survive their sacrifice to Mammonremarkably well [stress added]." Edmund Leach, 1967, AnAnthropologist's Trivia [originally published in The Guardian on 11 August 1967 as a review of A Diary in the Strictest Senseof the Term]. StephenHugh-Jones and James Laidlaw [editors], 2000, TheEssential Edmund Leach Volume I: Anthropology and Society (Yale University Press), pages 61-62.

 

Ruth Benedict [1887-1948] "…she made us aware of thesubtleties, complexities, and the mysterious wholeness of cultures. Her close associate andfriend, Margaret Mead [1901-1978, took the issue to the field, bringing lessons from the children ofnature in the idyllic South Seas that would help us get rid of ourold-fashioned moral hang-ups about sex and childhood (Mead 1928 [Coming of Age in Samoa: APsychological Study of Primitive Youth For Western Civilization]). She belonged to the 'flapper'generation that inaugurated the first emancipation from Victorian constraints. Mead's research methods wereoverblown, but her impact was great both on the public and on the profession [stress added]." Walter Goldschmidt, 2000, Historical Essay: A Perspective onAnthropology. AmericanAnthropologist, Vol. 102,No. 4, December, pages 789-807, page 793.

 

"Any account of Mead's work on Samoa [or perhaps all ofher work?] must consider thecontroversy surrounding its accuracy. In 1983, several years after her death, DerekFreeman published his detailed refutation of her work. More recently, Freeman has continued his attack withattempts to prove that Mead built her description of adolescent sexuality onscanty information gleaned from a hoax perpetrated by her informants. He hasalso argued that she was young and credulous, that she had a poor grasp of thelanguage, that she did not carry out her investigations properly, that Comingof Age in Samoa [1928] is littered with errors, that she twisted the factsto suit her (and Boas' and Benedict's) preconceptions, and that she was entirely wrong in herportrayal of Samoa [stress added]." Hilary Lapsley, 1999, MargaretMead And Ruth Benedict: The Kinship of Women(Amherst: U Mass Press), pages 142-143.

 

"I read the descriptions of thecorrespondence between Margaret [Mead, 1901-1978] and Ruth [Benedict,1887-1948] and Edward Sapir [1884-1939], and the poems they wrote to each other,knowing now that at some stage Ruth and Margaret decided that neither of themwould choose further intimacy with Sapir, but rather they preferred each other[page 125]. Margaret workedhard and incessantly to sustain relationships, caring most about those in whichdifferent kinds of intimacy supported and enriched each other, the sharing of afine meal, the wrestling of intense intellectual collaboration, the delights oflovemaking. Her letter takes the death of Ruth Benedict in 1948 and the dissolution of her marriage to myfather [Gregory Bateson, 1904-1980] gradually becoming irreversible in the same period, as theend of a kind of completeness. Ruth and Gregory were the two people she lovedmost fully and abidingly, exploring all the possibilities of personal andintellectual closeness. The intimacy to which Margaret and Ruth progressedafter Margaret's completion of her degree became the model for one axis of herlife while the other was defined in relation to the men she loved or married.After Margaret's death, I asked my father how he had felt about the idea ofMargaret and Ruth as lovers, a relationship that had begun before Margaret andGregory met, and continued into the years of their marriage. He spoke of Ruthas his senior, someone for whom he had great respect and always a sense ofdistance, and of her remote beauty [stress added]." Mary Catherine Bateson, 1984, Witha Daughter's Eye: A Memoir of Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson (NY: Morrow), page 117 [and page 125 aswell].

 

"Darwin taught us all to see more clearly what everyonehad seen, and Darwin also taught us to think, along with him, what no one elsehad thought. No branch of science is more dominated by a single theory, by asingle great idea, than is the whole of biology by the idea of evolution byNatural Selection." J. Livingston and L. Sinclair, 1967, DarwinAnd The Galapagos, n.p.

 

"He [Charles Darwin] believed that the natural world wasthe result of constantly repeated small and accumulative actions, a lesson he had first learned whenreading Lyell's Principles of Geology on board the Beagle and had put to work ever since. ... No one, not even Lyell himself, or any of Darwin'sclosest friends and supporters, accepted as ardently as Darwin that the bookof nature was about the accumulative powers of the small [stress added]." Janet Browne, 2002, CharlesDarwin: The Power of Place - Volume II of a Biography (NY: Alfred A. Knopf), page 490.

 

 

CONCLUSIONS:  1769+

 

"To become trustworthyanthropologists, we must learn how to observe human cultures in a methodicaland objective manner, free from preconceptions and prejudices.  That's what you study at the departmentof anthropology, and that's what enabled anthropologists to play such a vitalrole in bridging gaps between different cultures." Yuval Noah Harari, 2018, 21 Lessons for the 21st Century(UK:  Penguin Random House), page314.

 

"Since 1969, the place of history of anthropologywithin the discipline has changed substantially. The postmodernist turn to reflexivity in the humanities andsocial sciences has made practicing anthropologists more conscious of their ownstandpoint(s) and the groundedness of present practices in past histories. History itself has come tobe seen as contingent, relative to a standpoint, interpretation rather than adirect representation of the past [stress added]." Regna Darnell, 1998, AndAlong Came Boas:Continuity And Revolution In Americanist Anthropology (Philadelphia: John Benjamin PublishingCo.), page xiv.

 

"Anthropology is thescience of the sense of humour. It can be thus defined without too muchpretentiousness or facetiousness. Forto see ourselves as others see is is but the reverse and the counterpart of thegift to see others as they really are and as they want to be: And this is the metier of theanthropologist. He [and she!] has to break down the barriers of race andcultural diversity; he has to find the human being in the savage; he has todiscover the primitive in the highly sophisticated Westerner of to-day, and,perhaps, to see that the animal, and the divine as well, are to be foundeverywhere in man [stress added]." Bronislaw Malinowski, 1937, Introduction. Julius E. Lips, 1937, The Savage Strikes Back (Hyde Park, NY: University Books), pages vii-ix,page vii.

 

"Though it may be given to us for a moment to enter intothe soul of a savage and through his eyes to look at the outer world, and feelourselves what it must feel to him to behimself--yet our final goal is to enrich and deepen our own world's vision,to understand our own nature and to make it finer, intellectually andartistically.  In grasping theessential outlook of others, with the reverence and real understanding, dueeven to savages, we cannot but help widening our own.  We cannot possibly reach the finalSocratic wisdom of knowing ourselves if we never leave the narrow confinementof the customs, beliefs and prejudices into which every man is born.  Nothingcan teach us a better lesson in this matter of ultimate importance than thehabit of mind which allows us to treat the beliefs and values of another manfrom his point of view.  Nor hascivilized humanity ever needed such tolerance more than now, when prejudice,ill will and vindictiveness are dividing each European nation from another,when all the ideals, cherished and proclaimed as the highest achievements ofcivilization, science and religion, have been thrown to the winds.  The Science of Man, in itsmost refined and deepest version should lead us to such knowledge and totolerance and generosity, based on the understanding of other men's point ofview [italics in originalbut stress added."  Bronislaw Malinowski, 1922, Argonauts of the Western Pacific:  An Account of Native Enterprise andAdventure in the Archipelagoes of Melanesian New Guinea [1961 E.P. Dutton edition], page 517-518.

 

"The unit of survival [or adaptation] is organism plusenvironment. We are learningby bitter experience that the organism which destroys its environment destroysitself. If,now, we correct the Darwinian unit of survival to include the environment andthe interaction between organism and environment, a very strange and surprisingidentity emerges: the unitof survival turns out to be identical with the unit of mind" [italics in original; stress added]." Gregory Bateson [1904-1980],1972, Steps To An Ecology of Mind (NY: Ballantine Books), page 483.

 

"Science is converging….Intelligenceis decoupling from consciousness….highly intelligent algorithms may soon knowus better than we know ourselves. What will happen to society, politics and daily life when non-consciousbut highly intelligent algorithims know us better than we know ourselves?"Yuval Noah Harari, 2017. HomoDeus:  A Brief history of Tomorrow[first published in Israel, in Hebrew, in 2015], page 402.

 

"When this circuit learns your job, what are you goingto do?" Marshall McLuhan & Quentin Fiore, 1967, TheMedium Is The Massage,page 20.

 

# # #

 

REFERENCES:  Pleasenote, not all of the items listed below were specifically referred to in the 7February 2019 presentation at TheAnthropology Forum but they all didcontribute in some manner to the overall presentation.

 

Alan Barnard, 2000, Historyand Theory in Anthropology (Cambridge University Press).

 

H. G. Barnett, 1953, Innovation: The Basis of Cultural Change (New York: McGraw-Hill).

 

Mary Catherine Bateson, 1984, Witha Daughter's Eye: A Memoir of Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson (NY: Morrow).

 

Gregory Bateson, 1972, Steps ToAn Ecology of Mind (NY: Ballantine Books),

 

Martha Warren Beckwith [Translatorand Editor], 1951, TheKumulipo:  A Hawaiian Creation Chant (The University of ChicagoPress).

 

Otto L. Bettnann, 1974, The Good Old Days - They Were Terrible! (New York: Random House).

 

Jacob Bronowski, 1956, ScienceAnd Human Values,

 

Janet Browne, 2002, CharlesDarwin: The Power of Place - Volume II of a Biography (NY: Alfred A. Knopf).

 

James Burke, 1985The Day The Universe Changed (Boston/Toronto: Little, Brown and Company).

 

Christopher Cerf and VictorMavasky, 1984, The ExpertsSpeak:  The Definitive Compendium of Authoritative Misinformation(NY:  Pantheon Books).

 

G. Charbonnier, 1969, Conversations with Claude Lévi-Strauss (London: Jonathan Cape Ltd), page 17. [This is a 1969 translation of the 1961 Entretiensavec Claude Lévi-Strauss.]

 

Jean Christensen, 2000, Mead's 'Coming of Age in Samoa' Called Worst Nonfictionof Century.  The San FranciscoChronicle, February 2.

 

Robert C. Christopher, 1984, The Unplanned Obsolescence of a Great Book on Japan[namely Ruth Benedict's 1946 TheChrysanthemum And The Sword: Patterns of Japanese Culture].  The Wall Street Journal,January 31, page 24.

 

J. M. Cohen [translator], 1958,  Essays[of Montaigne].

 

Thomas M. Coffey, 1970, Imperial Tragedy:  Japan In World War II - The First DaysAnd The Last (NY:  The World Publishing Company).

 

David Colbert [Editor], 1997, Eyewitnessto America: 500 Years of America in the Words of Those Who Saw It Happen (NY: Pantheon Books).

 

Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, 1996, Flow:  And The Psychology of Discovery and Invention (HarperCollins).

 

Regna Darnell, 1998, AndAlong Came Boas:Continuity And Revolution In Americanist Anthropology (Philadelphia: John Benjamin PublishingCo.), page xiv.

 

Charles R. Darwin, 1839a, Journal and Remarks 1832-1836, Vol. III of Narrativeof the Surveying Voyage of His Majesty's Ships Adventure and Beagle.

 

Charles R. Darwin, 1839bThe Voyage of the Beagle.

 

Charles R. Darwin, 1859, On The Origin of Species…. [andsubsequent, and all different, editions of 1860, 1861,1866, 1869, and 1872].

 

Joan Druett, 2011, Tupaia: The Remarkable Story of Captain Cook's Polynesian Navigator.

 

Kirk M. Endicott and Robert Welsch[Editors], 2001, Taking Sides:  Clashing Views on Controversial Issuesin Anthropology (McGraw-Hill/Dushkin).

 

Edmund J. Farrell, Thomas E. Gage,Jogn Pfordresher, and Raymond J. Rodrigues [Editors], 1974, Science fact Fiction (Scott,Foresman and Company).

 

Derek Freeman, 1999, The Fateful Hoaxing of Margaret Mead:  A Historical Analysis of Her SamoanResearch (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press).

 

Ute Gacs, Alisha Khan, JerrieMcintyre, and Ruth Weinberg [Editors], 1989, Women Anthropologists:  Selected Biographies(University of Illinois Press).

 

Marc Gallicchio [Editor], 2007, The Unpredictability of the Past:  Memories of the Asia-Pacific War inU.S.-East Asian Relations (Duke University Press).

 

HowardGardner, 1993, Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences[Tenth Anniversary edition], BasicBooks).

 

Walter Goldschmidt, 2000, Historical Essay: A Perspective on Anthropology. American Anthropologist, Vol. 102, No. 4, December 2000, pages789-807.

 

Malcolm Gladwell, 2000, The Tipping Point:  How Little Things CanMake A Big Difference (NY:  Little, Brown and Company).

 

Yuval Noah Harari, 2015,Sapiens:  A Brief History ofHumankind (HarperCollins).

 

Yuval Noah Harari, 2017.Homo Deus:  A Brief history ofTomorrow [first published in Israel, in Hebrew, in 2015].

 

Yuval Noah Harari, 2018,21 Lessons for the 21st Century (UK:  Penguin Random House).

 

Hal Hellman, 1998, GreatFeuds in Science:  Ten of theliveliest disputes ever (John Wiley & Sons).

 

Christina Hellmich and Line Clausen Pederson et al., 2018, Gauguin:  A Spiritual Journey (Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco and DelMonicoBooks).

 

Lane Ryo Hirabayashi, 1999The Politics ofFieldwork:  Research in an American Concentration Camp (Tuscon:  Universityof Arizona Press).

 

K.R. Howe[Editor], 2006, VakaMoana:  Voyages of theAncestors (Universityof Hawai'i Press).

 

H. Stuart Hughes, 1964, History As Art And As Science:  Twin Vistas on the Past.

 

Walter Isaacson, 2014, The Innovators:  How a Group of Hackers,Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution (NY:  Simon& Schuster).

 

Steven Johnson, 2014, HowWe Got to Now:  SixInnovations That Made the Modern World [Glass, Cold, Sound, Clean, Time, andLight] (NY:  RiverheadBooks).

 

VeraJohn-Steiner, 1985, Notebooksof the Mind:  Explorations of Thinking (NY:  Harper & Row Publishers).

 

Harvey A. Katz,Martin Harry Greenberg, and Patricia S. Warrick [Editors], 1977, Introductory Psychology ThroughScience Fiction, Second Edition (Chicago:  Rand McNallyCollege Publishing).

 

Rob Kirkpatrick, 2011, 1969: The Year That Changed Everything.

 

Arthur Koestler, 1964, The Act of Creation:  A study of theconscious and unconscious in science and art (NY:  DellPublishing Co.).

 

Hilary Lapsley, 1999, MargaretMead And Ruth Benedict: The Kinship of Women(Amherst: U Mass Press).

 

Edmund Leach, 1967, An Anthropologist's Trivia [originallypublished in The Guardian on 11 August 1967 as a review of A Diary in the Strictest Senseof the Term]. StephenHugh-Jones and James Laidlaw [editors], 2000, TheEssential Edmund Leach Volume I: Anthropology and Society (Yale University Press), pages 61-62.

 

Julius E. Lips, 1937, The SavageStrikes Back (Hyde Park, NY: University Books).

 

 J. Livingstonand L. Sinclair, 1967, Darwin And The Galapagos.

 

Helena Wayne (Malinowska), 1985, Bronislaw Malinowski: The Influence ofVarious Women on His Life and Works. AmericanEthnologist, Vol. 12, No.3, pages 529-540.

 

Bronislaw Malinowski, 1922, Argonauts of the Western Pacific:  An Account of Native Enterprise andAdventure in the Archipelagoes of Melanesian New Guinea [1961 E.P. Dutton edition].

 

Bronislaw Malinowski, 1929, The Sexual Life of Savages in North-WesternMelanesia:  An Ethnographic Accountof Courtship, Marriage and Family Life Among the Natives of the TrobriansIslands, British New Guinea.

 

Bronislaw Malinowski, 1967, A Diary in the Strictest Sense of the Term[with a "Preface" by his widow, Valetta Malinowska, who decided topublish the diary; "Introduction" by Raymond Firth; translated byNorbert Guterman] (London:  Routledge& Kegan Paul).

 

James Martin, 1987, Technology's Crucible.

 

Carol Mason, Martin HarryGreenberg, Patricia Warrick [Editors], 1974, Anthropology Through Science Fiction (NY:  St. Martin's Press).

 

Marshall McLuhan& Quentin Fiore, 1967, The Medium Is TheMassage.

 

Willis E. McNellyand Leon E. Stover [Editors], 1972, Above the Human Landscape:  An anthology of social science fiction (Pacific Palisades, CA:  Goodyear Publishing Company).

 

Margaret Mead, 1928, Coming of Age in Samoa: A Psychological Studyof Primitive Youth for Western Civilization.

 

Margaret Mead, 1930, Growing up in New Guinea.

 

James A. Michener, 1946Tales of the South Pacific (FawcettCrest Books).

 

John W. Milstead, Martin HarryGreenberg, Joseph D. Olander, and Patricia Warrick [Editors], 1974, Sociology Through Science Fiction(NY:  St. Martin's Press).

 

Joseph D. Olander, Martin H.Greenberg, and Patricia Warrick [Editors], 1974, American Government Through Science Fiction(Chicago:  Rand McNally CollegePublishing Company).

 

Joseph D. Olander and Martin HarryGreenberg {Editors], 1977, CriminalJustice Through Science Fiction (NY/London:  New Viewpoints).

 

Douglas L. Oliver, 1989The Pacific Islands [Thirdedition] (University of Hawai'i Press).

 

Hortense Powdermaker, 1966, StrangerAnd Friend: The Way Of An Anthropologist.

 

David Price, 1998, Gregory Bateson and the OSS:  World War II and Bateson's Assessmentof Applied Anthropology.  HumanOrganization, Vol. 57, No.. 4, pages 379-384.

 

David Price, 1999, Coming a Cropper in Samoa [being an essay on DerekFreeman's 1998 The FatefulHoaxing of Margaret Mead]. The Wall Street Journal, March 3.

 

David Price, 2008, Anthropological Intelligence:  The Deployment and Neglect of AmericanAnthropology in the Second World War (Duke University Press).

 

Royston M. Roberts, 1989, Serendipity:  Accidental Discoveries in Science (NY:  John Wiley & Sons, Inc.).

 

Paul Shankman, 2009, The Trashing of Margaret Mead:  Anatomy of an AnthropologicalControversy (University of Wisconsin Press).

 

Denise Shekerjian, 1990, Uncommon Genius:  How Great Ideas Are Born[Tracing The Creative Impulse With Forty Winners Of the MacArthur Award](NY:  Penguin Books).

 

James P. Spradley and George E.McDonough, 1973, AnthropologyThrough Literature:  Cross-CulturalPerspectives (Boston: Little, Brown and Company).

 

Hilary Spurling, 2005, Matisse The Master - A Life of Henri Matisse:The Conquest of Colour, 1909-1954 (NY:  Alferd A, Knopf).

 

Georger R. Stewart, 1949, Earth Abides:  Men go and come, but Earth Abides [Ecclesiastes,1,4] (NY:  Ace Books, Inc.).

 

Leon E. Stover and Harry Harrison[Editors], 1968, Apeman, Spaceman.

 

Ralph H. Thompson, 1969, Learning to Question. The Journal of HigherEducation, Vol. XL, No. 6, pages 467-472.

 

Charles F. Urbanowicz, in progress, http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/VariousCruiseMaps.html[CruiseMaps Only]

 

1968 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Malinowski1968.html [Comments on Bronislaw Malinowski. For a University of Oregon ANTH 507 Graduate Seminar, October 29, 1968.]

1969 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/1969Levi-StraussPaper.html[A Selective View of Lévi-Strauss' Intellectual Antecedents For the 68th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 20-24, 1969.]

1970 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/NatureCulture1970.html[Mother Nature, Father Culture. For the 28th Annual Meeting of the Oregon Academy of Science, Eugene, February 28, 1970.]

1971 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/1971TonganPaper.html[Tongan Culture: From the 20th Century to the 19th Century. For the 70th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, New York, New York, November 17, 1971.]

1972 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/1972TonganPaper.html[Tongan Social Structure: Data From An Ethnographic Reconstruction. For the 71st Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association,Toronto, Canada, December 2, 1972].

1973 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/1973Forum.html[Science Fiction. For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, November 7, 1973.)

1975a http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Drinking.pdf[ Drinking in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga. Ethnohistory, Vol. 22, No. 1: 33-50.]

1975b http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/ChangeInRankAndStatus.pdf[Change in Rank and Status in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga.] Psychological Anthropology, edited by T. R. Williams (Mouton), pp. 559-575.

1977a Evolution of Technological Civilizations: What is Evolution,Technology, and Civilization? (For the Symposium on "The Search For Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence at NASA/Ames Research Center Moffett Field, California, February 24-25.)

1977b http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/ScienceFictionTeaching1977.pdf [The Philosophical Implications of Science Fiction For The Teaching of Anthropology. The University Journal [CSU, Chico], Number 9, Fall 1977, pages 16-20.]

1977c http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Tourism_in_Tonga.pdf [Tourism in Tonga: Troubled Times.Hosts and Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism, edited by V. Smith (University of Pennsylvania), pp. 83-92.]

1977d http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/MotivesAndMethods.pdf [Motives and Methods: Missionaries in Tonga in the Early 19th Century. The Journal of the Polynesian Society, Vol. 86, No. 2: 245-263.]

1978 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/CulturalImplications-1978.pdf [Cultural Implications of Extraterrestrial Contact and the Colonization of Space. The Industrialization of Space: Advances in the Astronautical Sciences, edited byRichard A. Van patten, Paul Siegler, and E.V.B. Stearns (American Astronautical Society, San Diego, CA), Vol. 36, Part 2, Advances In The Astronautical Sciences, pages 785-797; originally presented at the 23rd Annual Meeting of the American Astronautical Society, San Francisco, CA, October 18-20, 1977.)

1980 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/1980PolynesianPaper.html [Women In The Pacific: Some Polynesian Examples. For The "Asia and Pacific" Section of the 28th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Ethnohistory, San Francisco, California, October 23-25.)

1983 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/1983TonganPaper.html[Christian Missionaries in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga: Late 18th Century & Early 19th Century Activities. For the Annual Meeting of the American Historical Association, San Francisco, California, for the Symposium entitled "Missions and Missionaries in the Pacific: An Overview" on December 28.)

1984 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/GoodScienceFiction.pdf[The Role of "Good" Science Fiction and Space Applications and The Future. Space and Society: Challenges and Choices, edited by Anaejionu et al.(American Astronautical Society, San Diego, CA), Vol. 59: 309-329.]

1989a http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Tourism_in_Tonga_revisited.pdf [Tourism in Tonga Revisited: Continued Troubled Times? Hosts And Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism, edited by V. Smith, 2nd Edition (University of Pennsylvania), pp. 105-117.]

1989b http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Satellites.pdf [Satellites: The Global Village and Tele-Education. Space 30: A Thirty Year Overview of Space Applications and Exploration, edited by Pelton et. al (Alexandria, VA), pp. 90-105.

1989c http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Forum/Hawaii1989.html [The Islands of Hawai'i: 750A.D. to 1989. For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, September 21.)

1990a http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Forum/March1990.html [Perspectives on Science Fiction and Science Fact, For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, March 8.)

1990b http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/1990DossierOnDarwinLetter.html[A Dossier on Darwin: A Letter to the Editor; originally published in the Chico [California] Enterprise-Recordon September 26, 1990, page 4B.]

1991 [with C. Louis Nevins] Extra-Terrestrial Education: Not Science Fiction at All. (For the Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C., February 14-19).

1992 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Pub_Papers/4field.html[Four-Field Commentary]. Published in the Newsletterof the American Anthropological Association, 1992, Volume 33, Number 9, page 3.]

1999 Performed as "Ferapont Spiridonych" in the CSU, Chico Spring 1999 production of Anton Chekhov's The Three Sisters, directed by Dr. Sue Pate (March 10-14); please see here for Sandra L. Barton's rendition of Ferapont and how portrayed).

2002a Teaching As Theatre. Strategies in Teaching Anthropology, Second Edition (2002), edited by Patricia Rice & David W. McCurdy, Editors (NJ: Prentice Hall), pages 147-149.

2002e http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/NewMoonFall2002.html [The New Moon (of Fall 2002) @ CSU, Chico, directed by Professor Joel Rogers, October 23-27, 2002, the Fall 2002 operetta; also performed as M. Beaunoir.

2002d http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/aStoryof2027.html [A "Story" (Vision or nightmare?) of the Region in 2027.) (For classroom use at CSU, Chico, September 30.)

2002c http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/ANTH300Fall2002.htm [Intellectual History Comments for ANTH 300 (Fall 2002).] (For CSU, Chico ANTH 300, Core Seminar in Anthropology, September 18.)

2002b Dramaturge and performed as "Abraham Kaplan" in the CSU, Chico Spring 2002 production of Elmer Rice's Street Scene (March 6-10), directed by Dr. Randy Wonzong.

2003a http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/30YearsOfAnthroForums.html [The Anthropology Forum: 1973->2003. For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, May 15, 2003.)

2003b http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/30YearsPartTwoAnthroForums.html [The Anthropology Forum: 1973->2003, Part II. For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, September 4, 2003.)

2003c http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/DestinationPolynesia.html[Destination Polynesia: Tahiti And The Neighbor Islands. For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, November 6).

2004a http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/PacificWAMLApril2004.html[Mapping The Islands of the Pacific: Islanders and Others (Including Cook and Darwin). For a presentation at the WAML (Western Association of Map Libraries) Conference, April 29-30, 2004, at CSU, Chico.]

2004b http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/CELTOctober2004Darwin.html[The Darwin Project: 1996 to 2004! For the Tenth Annual Conference on Learning and Teaching sponsored by CELT (Center for Excellence in Learning and Teaching), October 21-22, 2004, at CSU, Chico, October 21].

2004c http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/RECR50Fall2004.htm[Continuing Interests In "Gaming" (Fall 2004). CSU, Chico RECR [Recreation] 50, Hospitality industry, at CSU, Chico, October 29.]

2004d http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/TahitiAndEuropeansFa2004.html[Europeans in Tahiti: From Cook to Gauguin. For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, November 4.]

2005a http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Tahiti2005.html [Tahiti: From 1971 To 2004/2005! For a presentation at the Anthropology Forum at California State University, Chico, on May 5, 2005.]

2005b http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/WorldWarIIEnds2005.html [World War II Ends! For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum at CSU, Chico, September 1.]

2005c http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/ENRMeetingSep2005.html[A Personal View of the Millennial Student. For a presentation at the Annual CSU, Chico Enrollment Management Meeting, September 16.]

2000 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/PHIL321Fall2005.html [Urbanowicz on Darwin And Human Happiness. For a presentation in Professor Robert Stewart's PHIL 321 (ETHICS AND HUMAN HAPPINESS) at CSU, Chico, November 30.] 

2007 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/PearlHarbor2007.html[Pearl Harbor After Sixty-Six Years and World War II in the PTO (Pacific Theater of Operations)]. For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum at CSU, Chico, December 6.]

2012 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curbanowicz/ANTHROFORUMSPRING2012.html [Pacific Travelers, presented with Sadie Urbanowicz. For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum at CSU, Chico, April 12, 2012.]

2014 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curbanowicz/DCRETIREMENTPAPER2014.html [Cruising Into Retirement As An Anthropologist. For the 113th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Washington, D.C., December 3-7, 2014].

2015 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curbanowicz/FORUMWWII2015.html [World War II, 1931-1945: Words, images, And Locations. For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum at CSU, Chico, September 3 and the video that was made of the presentation is available at https://media.csuchico.edu/media/WORLD+WAR+II%2C+1931-1945A++Locations%2C+Images%2C+and+Words/0_8k46sng7 (50:29)].

2017 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Fall2017ANTH467.html [Thoughts On EO9066: 1942-1988. For a presentation in Professor William Nitzky's CSU, Chico ANTH 467 (Exhibit Research, Design, and Installation].

2018 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/SeabournSojournOctober2018List.html[October-November References for the Seabourn Sojourn cruise} October 15, 2018 to November 19, Los Angeles to Auckland, New Zealand].

AlfredNorth Whitehead, 1933, The Adventureof Ideas.

 

Robin W.Winks, 1987, Cloak & Gown:  Scholars In The Secret War, 1939-1961 ( NY:  WilliamMorrow and Company Inc.).

 

AndreaWulf, 2012, Chasing Venus:  The Race To Measure The Heavens (NY:  AlfredA. Knopf).

 

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