Charles F.Urbanowicz, Ph.D.

Professor Emeritus ofAnthropology

California StateUniversity, Chico

Chico, CA 95929-0400



1 December 2014


This page printed from:


A PowerPoint version of this paper will be presented on December 6, 2014, at the 113th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Washington, D.C., December 3-7, 2014. The session is entitled a "40-Year Retrospective on Hosts And Guests AndThe Future of Tourism Research: Producing The Anthropology of Tourism (Part 1)."  This paper was placed on the World Wide Web on 1 December 2014.





As a result of a 1972 meeting with Valene Smith I have been privilegedand fortunate to be a friend and colleague since 1973.  With a chapter in each of her volumesof  Hosts and Guests, I know that tourism is a majorindustry.  My 1977 H&Gchapter in Valene's pioneering book was based on a presentation at the 73rdannual meeting of the American Anthropological Association in 1974 and it dealt with tourism in the Polynesian Kingdomof Tonga, location of my dissertation research of 1970-1971. My 1989 H&Gchapter had a brief update on Tonga and the Chapter in the 2001 H&G volume dealt with researchinto tourism and gambling (or gaming).  Since 2004 I have lectured on various cruises and have sharedanthropological insights with passengers on Cunard, Holland America, Princess,as well as Royal Caribbean International.  This presentation discusses thevalue of anthropology from the perspective of one who communicates with guestson cruise ships.













"With the possible exception of the equator, everything begins somewhere." C. S. Lewis (1898-1963)


As the abstract and this web page should make abundantly clear, I am deeply and thoroughly indebted to my friend and colleague, Dr. Valene Smith, Professor Emerita whoencouraged me to participate in all three volumes of Hosts and Guests: TheAnthropology of Tourism and who was responsible for getting mehired at California State University, Chico!  The Annual Meetings are a time to search for a job as well as presenta paper and attend sessions dealing with current research or debatethe latest controversy or honor an individual for their work in thediscipline.  For almost fivedecades, since my first Annual Meeting paper in 1968, I have participated in all aspects of the meetings and I was delighted to be included in a panel of presentations acknowledging and honoring the work of Valene Smith.


As a pioneering researcher and excellent writer, Valene has been described as "the Margaret Mead of the anthropology of tourism" (Eric Cohen, 2002,Tourism Recreation Research, Vol. 27, Pages 108-111, page 108). In1972-1973 I had a one-year teachingappointment at the University of Minnesota and was searching for anotherjob.  At the Annual Meeting inToronto in 1972 I presented apaper on my 1970-1971dissertation research dealing with the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga.  At those meetings I was interviewed byValene and in 1973 waseventually hired at CSU, Chico. Since that year I have been privileged to be her colleague and friendand have had a chapter in all three volumes of Hosts and Guests, the first of which was published in 1977.  My first chapter was based on a 1974 presentation for our Annual Meetings and dealt with tourism in Tonga.  The 1989 H&G chapter had an update onTonga and the 2001 H&G chapter dealt with research into tourism and gambling (or gaming) in North America. I have always been grateful to Valene Smith for getting me to California State University, Chico and Professor emeritus Keith Johnson for enabling me stay at California State University, Chico. I retired in December 2009 and since 2004 I have lectured and shared anthropological insights with passengers on various cruise lines, such as Cunard, Holland America, Princess, and Royal Caribbean International and hence the rationale for the title of this paper. The purpose of this web paper, as well as the time-constricted PowerPoint presentation is not only to point out the impact that Valene had on the study of tourism as a legitimate subject area but also to point out what it is that I do on cruise ships and how I got into a position of obtaining a "free" cruise (of which there is no such thing) and cruising into retirement as an anthropologist!


On a cruise, lectures are provided on days-at-sea by the two-or-three lecturers who may be on board the ship. Depending on the itinerary, the topics I present to an audience (that can be as many as five hundred individuals on a large ship) include "Peoples and Cultures of the Pacific" as well as Paul Gauguin, World War II, Charles Darwin, Peopling and Prehistory of North and South America, as well as one of my favorites: Science, Technology, and Creativity.  As of this date I have lectured on selected itineraries of the following ships and in alphabetical order they are: Amsterdam (2008 & 2013), Oosterdam (2012), Pacific Princess (2006), Paul Gauguin (2007), Prinsendam (2009), Queen Elizabeth (2012), Queen Elizabeth 2 (2007), Queen Victoria (2011), Rhapsody of the Seas (2011), Rotterdam (2010), Ryndam (2008), Sapphire Princess (2007 & 2014), Spirit of Oceanus (2009), Statendam (2013 & 2014), Star Princess (2012), Tahitian Princess (2004 & 2005), Volendam (2010 & 2014), and Zaandam (2008 & 2011). By the numbers, in ten years, I have provided numerous lectures on 18 ships for 24 cruises, for a total of 521 days (please see Figure V at the end of this web paper). Of the 18 ships, eight of them have been Holland America ships and since Holland America currently has fifteen ships in their fleet, I have been fortunate to have provided lectures on more than half the fleet! In 2015 my wife, Carol "Sadie" Urbanowicz, and I are both scheduled to lecture on the Statendam as well as the Ocean Princess. Sadie has also provided lectures on several of the above ships. All of these lecturing cruises, except for the 2008 Ryndam cruise, were in the Pacific. The Ryndam cruise was a 12-day cruise from Fortaleza, Brazil, to Rio de Janeiro, and I presented lectures on peopling and prehistory of South America, the research of Charles Darwin as well as Brazilian activities in World War II.  My wife and I also learned a new definition for the carrier that flew us to South America, DELTA, resulting in a chapter in our forthcoming book tentatively entitled The Laundress and the Lecturers. (For specific cruise maps please C.F. Urbanowicz, in progress). Many of my cruise presentations have been developed out research and lectures done for classes at California State University, Chico, and I have built on those lectures and created many new presentations since I retired in 2009.


Building on the words of the noted author and scholar, C.S. Lewis (1898-1963), the 67th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association in Seattle in 1968 was the first I ever attended and it was the location of my first (co-authored) paper for an American Anthropological Association Meeting. Prior to Seattle I had presented a single paper at a regional meeting while I was an undergraduate student.   In 1968 I was a second-year graduate student at the University of Oregon and a fellow graduate student, Dennis Roth, and I had worked on an extensive research paper in our first year of graduate school, 1967-1968.  We submitted the results of that research for possible presentation at the Annual Meetings and it was accepted for Seattle! Dennis made the presentation and "Scale Analyses and the Elaboration of Menstrual Taboos" is on the web ( and Charlie 1968 Paper.pdf). Our wives, who accompanied us to Seattle, got a kick out of our "expertise" in this anthropological subject (especially when Dennis and I discussed the paper in public places when the four of us were together, definitely breaking a taboo)! I presented my own first paper in 1969 for the 68th Annual Meetings in New Orleans entitled "A Selective View of Lévi-Strauss' Intellectual Antecedents" (  This paper resulted from a yearlong graduate seminar at the University of Oregon. I believe in the cumulative nature of things and in attending and presenting one's ideas and research at professional meetings.


I was awarded the Ph.D. in Anthropology in 1972 and Dennis was awarded his in 1974. I followed the traditional academic route; from 1972 until 2009 I was involved in teaching, first at the Universityof Minnesota for the 1972-1973 academic year and then at California State University, Chico from 1973 until I fully-retired in December 2009.  For several years (1975-1988) I held administrative positions at CSU, Chico and for the 1997-1999 Academic Years I was designated as one of five "Master Teachers" of the university (which had approximately 1,000 teachers and 16,000 students at that point in time).  Dennis became employed asan anthropologist with the United States federal government and eventually wasthe Chief Historian for the United States Forest Service and he retired in 2004 (see Roth 1989 & Rothand Harmon 1995).  Dennis continued to be an observer ofthe human condition and became an accomplished photographer and essayist (Roth 1990 & 2006).


The discipline of anthropology has certainly grown from the 100sof papers at that 1968 three-and-a-half day meeting to 1000s ofpapers at present three-and-a-half-day meetings. An individual cannot possibly attend all of the sessions at any professional meeting and what this always said to me, and which I conveyed to my students when I began full-time teaching in 1972 is that no one single anthropologistknows everything about anthropology!  Forty-two years later I still believein that statement.  In  1968, Dennis read the paper to the assembled audience;the presentation this year is in a PowerPoint format and covers the first five"Headings" that begin this web paper.  There are items in this web paper not in the PowerPoint presentation and vice versa,but so it goes!


As mentioned above, more than a decade ago Eric Cohen, in Tourism andRecreational Research, wrote about Valene:


"ValeneSmith is the Margaret Mead [1901-1978] of the anthropology of tourism; she played a pioneering role in the initiation of the field as an academicenterprise, contributed to its theoretical foundations, conducted extensive empirical research on tourism-related topics in diverse settingsand--last but not least--contributed significantly to the popularizationof the field, primarily through her 'Hostsand Guests,' several editions of which span a quarter of a century [stress added]." Eric Cohen, 2002, Review of Hostsand Guests Revisited: Tourism Issues of the 21st Century. In Tourism Recreation Research, 2002,Vol. 27, pages 108-111, page 108.


I must add that Valene may be compared to the amazing Isabella Lucy Bird (1831-1904) who traveled across the planet in the 19th century and wrote of her amazing adventures. Valene has traveled the globe and is well known in California:  in addition to having a facility on the Chico campus named for her, namely the "Valene L. Smith Museum of Anthropology" Valene's teaching abilities also had her recognized as the "Outstanding Professor" of the (then 19-campus) California State College System in 1981-1982.  For additional information about Valene please see her delightful web site,, where you will see the words of Vincent Van Gogh (1853-1890): "Life is a journey not a destination"


While Valene was teaching she also traveled widely, conducted her own research into tourism and wrote extensively. Her approach in analyzing tourism, namely the four "H's" of History, Heritage, Habitat, and Handicrafts"and all that is subsumed under that, is invaluable.  (Historyincorporates topics such as war, floods, earthquake and disease; Heritage refers to language, religion, social organization,political systems, values, and beliefs; Habitat means location, climate, landscape, and the like; and, finally, Handicrafts, namely the raw materials, the tooling uses, exports,trade, and gifts involved in the interaction between "hosts andguests").  Valene has inspiredme, and others, and encouraged me to become what I am today and do what I dotoday.


The PowerPoint presentation (and this paper) discusses thevalue of anthropology from the perspective of one who communicates with guestson cruise ships and provides some suggestions for those who might be interestedin this.  As the abstract submitted on 30January 2014 pointed out, since 2004 I have lectured on numerous cruises and have shared anthropological insights with numerous cruise guests: lecturing on a cruise ship means that there are no exams to prepare and grade, no term papers to assign or read, and unlike a typical university classroom, on a cruise ship the guests applaud after each presentation! Given the choices of activities on a cruise ship, if guests do not wish to attend a presentation they don't have to be there but those who are there are interested in what you are talking about. You have an interested audience and/but, you had better be prepared for them!  I began lecturing before I fullyretired in December 2009 but the first 2004-2005 lecturing assignment, twenty-days of cruising from Tahiti through French Polynesia and the Cook Islands, encouraged me to go "cruising into retirement as an anthropologist" and hence the title of this 11th paper (for our Annual Meetings since the first co-authored paper with Dennis Roth in 1968). As an aside, the reason I create web pages such as these to accompany a somewhat ephemeral PowerPoint presentation came to me from the Anthropologist June Helm who was a well-noted anthropologist and who died in 2004. June was born in 1924  and I in 1942, and although we were separated by 18 years in age, anthropology drew us together at various meetings. The following appeared in the Anthropology Newsletter in January 2005:


"June Helm, who died February 4, 2004, was President of the AAA [American Anthropological Association] (1985-1987)....Following the list of her publications she appended the comment: 'NB: I have never included 'paper read' and 'invited lectures' in my CV. If there are no published versions, I consider them ephemera [stressadded]. Nancy Oestrich Lurie, Anthropology in the Liberal Arts. AnthropologyNewsletter, January 2005, page 4.


The PowerPoint presentation is over at the end of my allotted 15-minutes of time in Washington D.C. but the written word is not ephemeral and hence this web paper. It It is delightful to be retired (and still maintain my interest in Anthropology and share that enthusiasm and interest with cruise guests) but I do not miss the seemingly-endless meetings and Tenure-and-Promotion discussions, as well as the "interdisciplinarity" of Anthropology as well as jargon-ladendiscussions (and papers). 





"Travelis fatal to prejudice, bigotry and narrow-mindness."

(SamuelLanghorn Clemens, also known as Mark Twain (1835-1910), The Innocents Abroad, 1869)


As pointed out, I was born in 1942 in Jersey City, New Jersey, and in the late 1950s I was interested in attending the United States Military Academy at West Point.  Working with various individuals I was able to get a Congressional Appointment as a "first alternate" to West Point but when I took the physical examination I was deemed of insufficient height for admission (or simply "too short").  After high school graduation in 1960 I attended New York University (with several scholarships) for the 1960-1961 academic year. I promptly flunked out of NYU after one year! I enlisted in the United States Air Force (1961-1965) and while stationed at Blaine Air Force Station, Washington, I re-discovered higher education.  In 1963 I first learned about anthropology in a course which was taught on the base at night, over several weeks, by a young anthropologist who became quite prominent in the discipline: Lionel Tiger (born in 1937).  Lionel was teaching an "extension" course for Western Washington State College, located in Bellingham, and I became fascinated with anthropology.  In 1963 I also met and married my wife, Sadie, who hasalways encouraged me in my educational interests and we have traveled togetherever since.  Sadie has also lectured on various cruises and our presentations complement one another (see Urbanowicz and Urbanowicz 2012).


After receiving an Honorable Discharge in 1965, I once again began my full time academic career and began taking a variety of courses at Western (now Western Washington University), including one from Professor Colin E. Twedell (1899-1998), a fascinating individual who taught about peoples and cultures of the Pacific. The most important person, however, who inspired me to obtain the Ph.D. in Anthropology was Herbert C. Taylor, Jr. (1924-1991) also a Professor at Western.  After I graduated in 1967 with a B.A. in Sociology-Anthropology I was accepted into the Ph.D. program at the University of Oregon, Eugene.  It must be pointed out that although I am in the range of years to be called a "Vietnam Veteran" I never served overseas (a point which I make abundantly clear when I provide lectures on cruises that can have several retired military personnel or their children or now their grandchildren).  Sadie graduated from Western in 1965 and after I was discharged in that year I was eligible for the then current "G.I. Bill."  These benefits were combined with the salary that Sadie made while teaching in Marietta, Washington (1965-1967) while I was completing my undergraduate degree at Western.  When I began graduate work at the University of Oregon in 1967, with an NDEA (National Defense Education Act) Fellowship, Sadie taught in Springfield, Oregon (1967-1970) until we went to the Pacific in 1970.  I received my M.A. in Anthropology in 1969 and then the Ph.D. in 1972 based on research dealing with the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga.  In Eugene, Homer G. Barnett (1906-1985) was my island inspiration and so I became an anthropologist interested in the Pacific because of my undergraduate and graduate professors.  I was also aware of the outstanding work of other Pacific researchers, such as Douglas L. Oliver (1913-2009) and Harry E. Maude (1906-2006) and I entered into correspondence with them while a graduate student. In Honolulu in 1970, while en route to Tonga, I met Oliver who had retired from Harvard and was then at the University of Hawai'i.  After discussing my own research interests on the impact of missionaries in Tonga, he graciously allowed me to read a manuscript version of his fantastic Ancient Tahitian Society (eventually published in three volumes in 1974).  I believe in communication and had corresponded with Lévi-Strauss (1908-2009) for my 1969 AAA paper, sending him some rough ideas, and his positive comments and our paper-correspondence encouraged me to make some professional decisions which I might not have done had he not been so generous with his time.  I have always enjoyed and appreciated his following words:


"It hasoften been said--I don't know if it is universally true but it is probably truefor many of us--that the reason we took up anthropology was that we haddifficulty in adapting ourselves to the social milieu into which we wereborn." In G. Charbonnier, 1969, Conversations with Claude Lévi-Strauss(London: Jonathan Cape Ltd), page 17. [A 1969 translation of the 1961Entretiens avec Claude Lévi-Strauss.]


After receiving the Ph.D. in 1972 I continued my academic career and my first full-time teaching assignment was a one-year (temporary) sabbatical replacement position at the University of Minnesota for the 1972-1973 academic year.  Previous "snail mail" correspondence encouraged me to contact people for various reasons and for the 1972 Annual Meetings of the American Anthropological Association and I organized a session entitled "Recent Work in Samoa and Tonga: Methodological Situations and the Data." I was able to get Margaret Mead, Lowell Holmes, and Bob Tonkinson to be discussants. My presentation, "Tongan Social Structure: Data From AnEthnographic Reconstruction" (,was based on my 1970-1971 fieldworkdealing with the Polynesian Kingdom Tonga.  Other papers that day that, based on their own recent fieldwork, were made by my colleagues Shulamit Decktor-Korn, Keith Morton (1945-1992), and Frank Young.


As written, I met Valene at those 1972 Toronto meetings and was interviewed by her for a tenure-track teaching position at "Chico State" beginning in August 1973.  By the time I was offered an Anthropology position in early 1973, due to budgetary problems in California, the Department of Anthropology had "lost" the coveted tenure-track position!  Thanks, however, to the excellent work of the then department chair, now Professor Emeritus Keith Johnson, by August 1973 a temporary appointment was cobbled together and a few years later I was fortunate to obtain a tenure-track position and was awarded tenure and promoted to Associate Professor in 1977.  In 1982 I was promoted to Professor and retired from full-time teaching in May 2005 and my colleagues gave me the title of Professor Emeritus of Anthropology. The California State University System had a program known as FERP (Faculty Early Retirement Program) and I participated in this, teaching every fall semester for five years, until December 2009 when I completely retired.


While teaching at Chico State I was invited by Valene toprepare and present a paper for the 1974meetings in Mexico City and my paper was entitled "Tongan Tourism Today:Troubled Times?"  That paperformed the basis for the chapter which appeared in the 1977 outstanding volume of Hosts and Guests (  Unfortunately, because of monetaryconstraints, namely a relatively low salary and growing family (our son hadbeen born in 1972), I was unable to attend the Mexico City meetings but a colleague, Phyllis Quinn, presented the paper for me. While one cannot predict the future, we can invent it, as Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) stated, intranslation, "fortune favors the prepared mind."  I also like the words of Gary Player(born in 1935) who stated"The harder you work the luckier you get."   In 1972I could never have predicted that I would eventually have three separatechapters published in the three editions of Hosts and Guests.  The 1989 chapter was entitled "Tourism in TongaRevisited: Continued Troubled Times? ( Just as the first 1977 chapter in Hosts And Guests resulted from a paper prepared for a professional meeting session organized by Valene, the third 1994 chapter resulted from a session Valene organized for the 14th ICAES (International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences) Meetings on the Anthropology of Tourism. This was the 2001 chapter in H&G entitled "Gambling Into The 21st Century" (Gambling_into_the_21st_cent.pdf). 


Life is indeed cumulative and a lot of everything goes into who, what, and why each of us is what we are today and how we do what we do and when and where we do it; or as the words over the entrance to Kendall Hall, onthe campus of CSU, Chico has it inscribed: Today Decides Tomorrow!





"He [CharlesDarwin (1809-1882)] believed that thenatural world was the result of constantly repeated small andaccumulative actions, a lesson he hadfirst learned when reading Lyell's Principles of Geology [1830] aboard the Beagle and had put towork ever since….No one, not even Lyell [1797-1875] himself, or any of Darwin's closest friends andsupporters, accepted as ardently as Darwin that the book of naturewas about the accumulative powers of the small [stress added]."Janet Browne, 2002, CharlesDarwin: The Power of Place - Volume II of a Biography (NY: Alfred A.Knopf), page 490.


Just as no single anthropologist knows everythingabout anthropology, neither does anyone know everything about Peoples andCultures of the Pacific!  The Pacific Ocean (the largest geographical feature on this planet) is immense and the islands are incredible (although there are storms and activities out there that one definitely wants to avoid) but the word "pacific" is a bit of a misnomer. Looking at the island world of the Pacific, one can hardly surpass the words of James A. Michener (1907-1997):

"I wish I could tell you about the SouthPacific. The way it actually was. The endless ocean. The infinite specks ofcoral we call islands. Coconut palms nodding gracefully toward the ocean. Reefsupon which waves broke into spray, and inner lagoons lovely beyonddescription." James A. Michener, 1946, Tales of the South Pacific (Fawcett Crest Books, page 9).

When looking at "cultures" of the Pacificthe area has traditionally been "divided" as follows:

"The terms Polynesia,Melanesia and Micronesia should also be used carefully. This three-waydivision was first used by DumontD'Urville [1790-1842] in the 1820s, and the terms came into currency after themid-nineteenth century. These remain useful to designate broad geographicregions but they should not be seen, as they once were, as denotingcultural regions, since to do so is tocontinue with a range of nineteenth-century racial assumptions andclassifications [stressadded]." K.R. Howe, 2003, The Quest For Origins: Who First DiscoveredAnd Settled The Pacific Islands? (Honolulu: University of Hawai'iPress), page 25.


In lectures on cruises, I give a general overview of theislands that we will be going to on that specific cruise and then concentrateon how the islanders "discovered" the islands, how they adapted totheir environment, and how the islands were "re-discovered" bynon-islanders.  I also point outsome specifics about language and the differences between "high"islands and "low" islands or atolls.  I have followed the words of the distinguished Pacific expert Patrick Vernon Kirch who points out that professional papers and presentations are written for fellow experts, but beware:


"Written for otherscientists and scholars, these are couched in the coded language of academia, for this is how we are trained to write, and howwe train our students.  Theacademic world is a self-contained and self-perpetuating guild.  It isnot easy, I have come to realize, for a layperson to pick up one of thesearticles or monographs and comprehend what is being related.  Too many technical terms get in theway, not to mention an assumed background level of knowledge.  As with any guild, this is the wayscholars shield themselves from would-be intruders on our turf [stress added]." Patrick Vinton Kirch, 2012,A Shark Going Inland Is My Chief: The Island Civilization of Ancient Hawai'i, page xiii(University of California Press).


In my cruise presentations I avoid jargon and would never includesomething like the following when discussing anthropology:


"Our  association's history suggests that anthropology was an early adopter of an  alchemic interdisciplinarity.We are a scientific practice of multivocality,  committed to conversations across networks,interests, and perspectives…. the 2014annual meeting theme,  offers a provocation to examine the truths we encounter, produce and  communicate throughanthropological theories and methods. As a discipline built  on blendingarchives of narratives, actions, sediment and bone, anthropology  haswell-established methods for grappling with complex, multidimensional artifacts. But what are our epistemological commitments to the ways wemake  scientific knowledge today?What impact do our epistemic convictions and  predilections have, intended or not? What goals do we want to setfor  ourselves? What partnerships should we build? What audiences shouldwe seek?  And how will the truths we generate change as we contend with radical shifts in  scholarlypublishing, employment opportunities, and labor conditions for anthropologists, as well as the politics of circulating theanthropological  records we produce [stress added]? (  


These are topics which cruising guests probably will not be interested in, but obviously certain anthropologists are! Incidentally, individuals cruise for a wide variety of reasons and the guest-lecturer must do his or her best to accommodate the audience at the lectures because (#1) some people cruise for the particular destinations on that specific cruise, (#2) some people cruise because of a particular cruise line, (#3) some people choose a cruise because of the length of the cruise (some people like "sea days" and other do not), (#4) some people cruise because of the "luxury" of the cruise and being served, (#5) some people cruise to give their partner a rest (as in the case of care-givers), (#6) some people cruise because it is a specialized cruise, (#7) some people cruise to get away from the bad weather, (#8) and some people just like to cruise!


In 2003, while I wasstill teaching full-time at CSU, Chico, I received an e-mail from a bookingagency, Sixth Star Entertainment & Marketing [] who handle all types of personnel for cruise ships. They "found me on the web" and contacted me about the possibility of lecturing on various cruises. I responded to their e-mail and submitted lecture outlines, had a telephone interview, and obtained letters of recommendation from campus colleagues, including a letter from Valene who was wrote a letter for me (on 15 October 2003) both as an anthropology colleague and a CTC or Certified Travel Consultant.  After I passed the Sixth Star screening process, Sixth Star began sending me specific information about providing lectures on various cruises throughout the Pacific.  Just as we are evaluated in the academic world for various "promotions" so evaluations are made for the lecturers on cruise ships and Sadie and I continue to lecture.


The first 2004 cruise-lecturing assignment through Sixth Star Entertainment, from Tahiti through French Polynesia and then the Cook Islands, as part of the Princess Cruises "Scholarship@Sea" program, convinced me that this was what I wanted to do after finishing full-time teaching.  I decided to retire at the end of the 2004-2005 Academic Year and as a result of FERP I was able to teach in the fall and not teach in the spring (when we cruised) until I completely retired in December 2009. After establishing a lecturing "track record" I began to contact cruise lines directly through information on their web sites.  Although I still receive occasional information about potential lecturing cruises from Sixth Star, I am now working with a wonderful individual at Bramson Entertainment Marketing Bureau [] in New York City  Another agency that I have been in contact with, in addition to direct contact with the appropriate individuals at Princess Cruises and Cunard who are responsible for booking speakers (and entertainers), include Compass Speakers And Entertainment Inc. [] and the now defunct To Sea With Z.


When lecturing about Charles Darwin I often utilize four videos which were made on my campus. Working with extremely talented individuals, four "Darwin videos" were created wherein I portray Darwin in the first person. The four Darwin videos are currently available on the web and may be accessed through "The Darwin Project:  1996 to 2004! [].


When I present information concerning World War II in the Pacific, although the United States of America did not enter World War II until 1941 as a result of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, in Asia the beginning of World War II can be traced to Japanese aggression in 1931. 

"The Pacific War beganwith the invasion of China in 1931. Widely condemned by the League of Nations and many other countries as a violation of the Kellogg-Briand Non-Aggression Pact and the Nine Power Treaty on China, the attack made Japan more isolated and desperate and ultimately led to war with America and England [stressadded]." Saburo Ienaga, 1968[1978 translation], ThePacific War, 1931-1945: A Critical Perspective on Japan's Role in World War II (NY:Random House), page 3.


Similar words appear in the English version of Shunsuke Tsurumi's 1986publication of An Intellectual History of Wartime Japan 1931-1945,originally published in Japanese in 1982).  In the English version we read thefollowing:


"We may date thebeginning of World War II from the start of the Sino-Japanese War in 1931, theFifteen Years' War.  When Japanese Army Leaders began thefighting in Manchuria in 1931 and on this pretext established a puppetgovernment in north-east China, they introduced to the world a new tactic,which was later to be used by Mussolini and Hitler [stress added]." Shunsuke Tsurumi, 1986, ofAn Intellectual History of Wartime Japan 1931-1945 (London: KPI), page 2.


Even though Americans may "date" the beginning of World War II to the 7th of December 1941, Europeans use a date of September 1939 and individuals in Asia see the global conflictbeginning in 1931: culturalperspective is important on how you interpret history and events in the world! Some trace the origins of World War II in Europe tothe Spanish Civil War that began in 1936.  As Antony Beever haswritten in an intriguing 1982publication entitled The Spanish Civil War, nothing is everreally simple:

"The Spanish civil war isprobably the most convincing reminder that the last word on history isimpossible. The absolute truth about sucha politically passionate subject can never be known, because nobodycan discard prejudices sufficiently [stress added]." Antony Beever, 1982, The SpanishCivil War (NY: Peter Bedrick Books), page 8.


Given the number of days on a cruise, for a 45-minute lecture, sometimes I cover the background leading up to World War II, including European events and the rise of Japan as a major force in the world.  Meiron and Susie Harrishave an outstanding 1991 publication that I heartily recommend for an understanding of certain aspects of the Japanese military mind well before December 7, 1941, and how the military came to power in Japan, building on age-old Japanese ideas and incorporating information (and technology) from everywhere:

"Across the whole spectrumof its modernization, Japan would be eclectic in her choice of models--America for the beginnings of her education system, Britain for her railway network and her navy, France for her centralized banking methods.  But in the crucial spheres of politicsand military matters, she turned regularly if not exclusively toward Germany [stressadded]."  Meirion and SusieHarris, 1991, Soldiers of theSun:  The Rise And Fall Of TheImperial Japanese Army (NY: Random House), page 48.


Japan changed and was involved in what came to beknown as "World War I" (formerly known as "The Great War")and then World War II.  MaxHastings (in his outstanding 2007publication entitled Retribution: The Battle For Japan, 1944-45,adds to our understanding and interpretation of what is termed World War IIwith the following:

"Our understanding of the events of 1939-45 might be improved by adding a plural and calling them the Second World Wars. The only common strand in the struggles whichGermany and Japan unleashed was that they chose most of the same adversaries [stress added]." (Max Hasting, 2007, Retribution:The Battle for Japan, 1944-45 [NY: Vintage Books, page 3].)


Doing my own research and cruising through, andlanding on, many of the islands that were important locations of various WorldWar II battles in the Pacific I am a firm believer in the following statementby Paul Fussell (who was in the infantry in Europe during World War II):

"The degreeto which Americans register shock and extraordinary shame about the Hiroshimabomb [on August 6, 1945] correlates closely with lack of information about thePacific war." Paul Fussell, 1988, ThankGod For the Atomic Bomb And Other Essays (NY: Summit Books), page25.


I believe in this statementand will continue to believe in it.


There is no monolithic "history of Anthropology" and as we delve deeper into the history of our discipline, so do prejudicial views tint and filter all of our attitudes, behaviors, conversations, and printed words (including this web page and the 6 December 2014 presentation). While I admire the outstanding research and excellent writing of Kirch in A Shark Going Inland Is MyChief:  The Island Civilization ofAncient Hawai'i, I did not appreciate hiswords concerning the 1947 drift voyage of Thor Heyerdahl (1914-2002) from South America to French Polynesia.   Kirch wrote of the "cleverest public-relations scheme ever devised" and the "fact" that a "black-and-white from made from during the voyage was a hit in movie theaters" (pages 59-60). Kirch failed to point out that the movie which Heyerdahl had filmed (and directed) while on the drift voyage won the Academy Award in the 24th Academy Awards Ceremony as the Best Documentary Feature for 1951.  It was clearly more than a "hit" in movietheaters! 


Kirch also wrote (page 9) about the Hawai'ian Islands that "Certainly, there is no firm evidence that the Spanish [navigators in the Pacific] ever called in the islands before Cook" and ignores the writings of Robert A. Langdon (1924-2003) as well as others which have statements such as the following: "there is some evidence that Hawai'i was visited by Spanish sailors around 1627 AD" []:


"There's no real evidence for Spanish galleons in Hawaii before Cook, but there are claims that the San Juanillo was wrecked near Maui in 1578 and the Santo Cristo de Burgos was lost off Kona in 1693 (or 1696) [stress added, Ed Murphy, 4 March 2011,]


In 1971 I met Robert Langdon and Harry Maude in Canberra, Australia.  Bob and I discussed his magnificent microfilming project of Pacific manuscript materials and I asked Harry about a definition of "ethnohistory" that he had used in a 1971 article in The Journal Of Pacific History. His explanation of his use of the term "ethnohistory" was less than satisfying to me and six years later I responded to his definition in a 1977 article that was published in The Journal of The Polynesian Society. I always have believed in what I do. In 1975 Bob published The Lost Caravel and received a two-year fellowship from the Australian National University in Canberra:


"Langdon's premise that 'most schools and universities, especially in Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Islands, still teach the doctrine that the myriad islands of the Pacific were virtually sealed off from outside influences until the era of Captain Cook' (p. vii) may be true, But tell this not in Portugal, Spain, and Holland, and vouch it not among the scholars of ancient Chinese voyages or among the natives of Hawaii or Fiji. If Cook's voyages 'opened' the Pacific to the European world, it is still true that the Pacific was already known to the Pacific peoples of that era. As we who teach North American and comparative Commonwealth native studies are wont to remind our students: 'Columbus may have discovered America, but the natives knew it was there all along.' [stress added] (Barry Morton Gough, 1989, Pacific Studies, Vol. 13, No. 1, page 166).


A succinct statement on the debate concerning Spanish voyagers in Hawai'i may be the following:


"Amateur historian Rick Rogers just knows Europeans visited the islands two centuries before Captain Cook landed in 1778. Trying to prove it and convince professionals, that's another story. He's battled historians and archaeologists -- most with many more degrees on their walls than he has -- who say he has no proof to back up his theory. They, like the history books, stick to the idea that Cook was the first European to step onto Hawaii, two centuries after Rogers thinks other Europeans landed here. Some politely concede his version of history could have happened, but that there's no proof. Others are more blunt.  No Europeans contributed to Hawaiian culture before Cook, Thomas S. Dye, a professional archaeologist, said bluntly. "I don't think Rick's work is worth a story," he said [stress added]. [Alana Samuels, 18 January 2010,]


In all that we read about the past (or learn and think about the present), we should also consider the words Winston Churchill (1874-1965) who was the Prime Minister of The United Kingdom for most of the duration of World War II. Churchill said to have written "History will be kind to me for I intend to write it."





"Lisa, get awayfrom that jazzman! Nothing personal. I just fear the unfamiliar [stressadded]." Marge Simpson, February 11, 1990, Moaning Lisa.Matt Groening et al., 1997, TheSimpsons: A Complete Guide To Our Favorite Family (NY: HarperCollins), page 22


Be prepared, have back-up lectures, make sure the technology works, and perhaps (above all) try to be accommodating and not a problem to the cruise staff! As a lecturer on a cruise, one normally reports to the "Cruise Director" but over the years it is often now the "Assistant Cruise Director" or the "Event Manager" (depending on the cruise line) who then reports to the Cruise Director. Familiarize yourself with the available technology and the excellent technicians who allow you to do what you do on the cruise! When working with the various booking agencies, or working directly with the cruise lines, it is always best to be succinct in all of your communications and keep to schedules and deadlines! If you are planning to do any extensive traveling that takes you overseas (and eventually gets you back to the United States), you might consider getting Transportation Security Administration TSA PRECHK for expedited boarding [ Transportation Security Administration] as well as the United States Customs and Border Protection Global Online Enrollment System or GOES [ Global Online Enrollment System].  Both are extremely handy to have!!If


It is interesting to consider the changes that have occurred since I began providing lectures a mere ten years ago on various cruises.  Granted, when I began full-time teaching at the Universityof Minnesota in fall 1972, slides (and overhead transparencies) were the way to augment lectures and E. Adamson Hoebel  (1906-1993) was providing on-campus closed-circuit lectures on Anthropology to 100s (if not 1000s) of students.  When I began teaching at CSU, Chico inAugust 1973, films, slides, and overhead transparencies were still the way to provide visual information about anthropology.  VHSinformation, or ROA (Record of the Air) video snippets were also being used inthe classroom.  (I am, of course,writing as a cultural anthropologist and not a physical anthropologist orarchaeologist who has a whole panoply of instructional aides to utilize,although these too have changed over the past four decades.)  By the time I fully retired in December 2009, slides had become somewhat passé, if not extinct, and in 2014 everything is PowerPoint! (Technology for the classroom continues to change on my campus and I am delighted that I am retired!)


In all of my cruise presentations, I present my background credentials (as I have done here) which includes my academic history and where my wife and I have traveled (and lectured) in the Pacific.  I make up specialized "reading lists" for each cruise and provide a handout on the cruise and references to lengthier web-based reading lists such as the expanded references for the April 2014 Sapphire Princess cruise []. All of the readings lists are based on a massive set of readings, including web pages, which I have read and consulted over the decades (Urbanowicz, in progress).  On that page I point out the page isupdated on an occasional basis and includes academic publications, touristinformation, various web pages, as well as items that might be found in a city, county,college, or university library. The following words of the distinguishedPacific scholar O. H. K. Spate (1911-2000) are well worth considering:  


"If it would take a lifetime to visit all the shores and islands of the Pacific, one sometimes feels it would take nine lives to master fully the vast literature of the deep. All that the explorer can do is to mark some positions and take some soundings.... [stress added]." Oskar Hermann Khristian Spate, 1979, TheSpanish Lake (University of Minnesota Press), page x.


I change the lectures andreading lists around for the itineraries: cruising towards Australia and/or new Zealand I will incorporate moreinformation about those two nations, including indigenous inhabitants and theimpact of World War II in the Pacific such as Wright's 2003Pacific War:  New Zealand and Japan1941-1945, Crawford's 2000 KiaKaha:  New Zealand in the Second World War, and Thompson'swonderful 2008 publication entitled PacificFury:  How Australia and her Allies Defeated the Japanese.  It is a wonderful publication because of the sub-title as well as theinformation it contains and itwas given to me as a gift from an Australian on one of the cruises I lecturedon!


I do cover certain aspects of World War II in Europe, pointing out the outstanding 1996 publication by Cloud and Olson entitled The Murrow Boys:  Pioneers on the Front Lines ofBroadcast Journalism. While most cruise guests (and readers of this paper) may be familiar with the dulcet tones of Edward R. Murrow (1908-1965) when he was broadcasting from London during World War II, they may not be familiar with the "boys" (and women!) that Murrow hired to cover the war. The book points out the problems of censorship that the pioneer journalists of the day had to deal with, censorship from all sides!  Although the book focuses on Europe, information about the CBI, or China-Burma-India Theater of World War II is covered. When presenting lectures dealing with World War II, while I may include books on the reading list for the guests, I do not necessarily emphasize certain topics unless someone comes up to me and we have a one-on-one-conversation.  There are several recent publicationsthat tend to damage, or even destroy, what has been called the exploits of the"greatest generation" (and I have met several of the Pacific WorldWar II veterans on various cruises). Items I do not necessarily emphasize in my lectures include Bailey and Farber's 1994, The First Strange Place: Race And Sex in World War II Hawaiiand publications such as What Soldiers Do:  Sex And The American GI In World War II France by Mary Louise Roberts (2013) or The Deserters:  A Hidden History of World War II by Charles Glass (2013).  This is afascinating book for it points out and documents that fact that almost "50,000American and 100,000 British soldiers deserted from the armed forces during theSecond World War" (page xi). For Americans, such activities were in the European Theater of Operations (since it was difficult to desert from a Pacific island).


"Courts-martial convicted 1,963 soldiers in the EuropeanTheater of Operations for outright desertion and another 494 for 'Misbehaviorbefore the enemy' (which often included desertion in battle).  Most received sentences of about twentyyears at hard labor, and all but one of 139 death sentences for desertion werecommuted.  Special and summarycourts-martial convicted more than 60,000 troops of being AWOL [Absent Without OfficialLeave], and a further 5,834 cases of AWOL were serious enough to be tried by the more formalgeneral courts-martial, which handed out sentences averaging fifteen years athard labor." Charles Glass, 2013,The Deserters:  A Hidden History ofWorld War II (The Penguin Press, page 203). 


In keeping with my anthropology background, I point out the works of anthropologists who have worked in the Pacific on issues concerning World War II, such as White and Lindstrom's The Pacific Theater:  Island Representations of World War II (1990) and TheTyphoon of War:  Micronesian Experiences of the Pacific War (2001) by Poyer et al.  There is also the excellent 1988publication of the Solomon Islands College of higher Education and theUniversity of The South Pacific entitled Bikfala Faet:  Olketa Solomon Islanda Rimembarem WolWo Tu, or The Big Death: Solomon Islanders Remember World War II.  Thiswonderful publication has parallel chapters in pidgin and English and has beenused as a text so islanders could read the story of selected battles of WorldWar II in their own words - excellent! When lecturing on a cruise from the antipodes towards North America, I will provide one lecture (or several) on peopling and prehistory of North and South America.  Time andgeography (or the environment) are my organizing principles for any cruise andI also take into consideration the cultural background the guests, be they fromAsia, Europe, or North America.





"Old age has away of forcing a person back upon themselves. The pace of life slows and bringswith it a natural inclination to reflect upon the past." Linda Lear, 2007,Beatrix Potter: A Life InNature (NY: St. Martin's Press), page 427.


"There aremany things about life that do not change with age. Older people have someadvantage over the young because, having been young and having been old, theyknow both ages. Young people, on the other hand, can only guess what it mustlike to be old. I know exactly what it islike to be young and what it is like to be old. I am aware of myself now andremember what I was like then [stress added]." Andy Rooney, 2002, Common Nonsense Addressed to theReading Public (NY: Public Affairs), page 161.


I have learned a great deal since my wife and I firsttraveled to Hawai'i in 1970 and things have changed quite a bit since I became involved in the ever-changing discipline of anthropology many years ago. I continue to express my appreciation to Valene Smith and Keith Johnson for having faith in me more than forty years ago and getting me to where I am today. My wife Sadie has also played an important and incredible part in path I have traveled. She is wonderful and I truly appreciate and love her.


The anthropologist Hortense Powdermaker (1900-1970) wrote the following:


"The anthropologist isa human instrument studying other humanbeings and their societies. Although he [and she!] has developed techniquesthat give him [and her] considerable objectivity, it is an illusionfor him to think he can remove his [or her] personality from his work andbecome a faceless robot or a machinelike recorder of human events [stressadded]." Hortense Powdermaker, 1966, Stranger And Friend: The Way Of AnAnthropologist, page 19.


We all have our own unique personality which influences how we see and interpret the world and skills as well as luck are almost equally important at times in what we do!


Concerning your own interest and should you wish to cruise into your own retirement, (#1) do your homework, do your research, and learn about the industry and  (#2)  assuming that you are good at something, be better!  Become the best possible expert you can be in your area and form your own opinions about what it is you are expected to be an expert at--become the best possible you that you can become not a second-hand somebody else. I also recommend (#3) be honest with yourself and know your own strengths and weaknesses and have passion in what you do: passion, patience, and persistence and a positive attitude are all important in what you attempt to do in life, be it cruising or simply living. Valene exemplifies these 4p's to which I must add a fifth "p" namely, pioneer in the area of the "Anthropology of Tourism." 


"Life is action andpassion; therefore, it is required of a man [or any individual!] that he [orshe] should share the passion and action of his [or her] time at peril of beingjudged not to have lived." Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. (1841-1935)


If you are a cultural anthropologist, read original ethnographies; if you do archaeology or forensic anthropology or museum studies, read original works by the pioneers of those areas in the fascinating field that is Anthropology! Be prepared to change your opinion and avoid what David Dobbs referred to, in commenting on the opinions of the distinguished Swiss-American naturalist Louis Agassiz (1807-1873), namely that towards the end of his life Aggasiz had "something worse than ignorance" namely "calcification of both mind and ego" (David Dobbs, 2005, Reef of Madness: Charles Darwin, Alexander Agassiz, And the Meaning of Coral[NY: Pantheon Books], page 95); and have that positive attitude!


Finally, I end with the translated words of the French philosopher and essayist Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (1553-1592), "I quote others only the better to express myself" or, in another translation: "I only quote othersto make myself more explicit." (Essays, translated by J.M.Cohen, 1958, page 52). I began these "reflections" with C.S. Lewis (1898-1963) and end with him:

"What C.S.Lewis called the 'snobbery of chronology' encourages us to presume that justbecause we happen to have lived after our ancestors and can read books whichgive us some account of what happened to them, we must also know better thanthem. We certainly have more facts at ourdisposal. We have more wealth, both personal and national, better technology,and infinitely more skilful ways of preserving and extending our lives. Butwhether we today display more wisdom or common humanity is an open question, and as we look back to discover how people coped with the daily difficulties of existence a thousand [or less!] years ago, we might also consider whether, in all our sophistication, we could meet the challenges of their world with the same fortitude, good humour, and philosophy" [stressadded]." Robert Lacey & Danny Danziger, 1999, The Year 1000: WhatLife Was Like At The Turn of the First Millennium - An Englishman's World,page 201.


# # #






FIGURE I: Selected Anthropology Annual Meetings, 1967-1992



FIGURE II: Most Recent Cruise, Volendam} September 24, 2014 -> October 19, 2014

FIGURE III: Composite Cruises} December 20, 2004 -> October 19, 2014

FIGURE IV: Composite Locations} December 20, 2004 -> October 19, 2014

FIGURE V: Number of Days Lecturing on Cruises} December 20, 2004 -> October 19, 2014


FIGURE VI: Spirit of Oceanus} Pape'ete, Tahiti to Guam: 13 February 2009 -> 13 March 2009
FIGURE VII: Perhaps the most exceptional cruise (Feb 13->March 13, 2009)
FIGURE VIII: The Beginning and the End of WWII for the United States of America




SOME WEB SITES THAT MIGHT BE OF VALUE: [Vacations to Go] [CruiseTimetables] [Last Minute Cruise Deals] [Cruise Ship Calendar] [Cruise Lines & Cruise Related Links] [Cruise Reviews, Cruise Deals and Cruises - Cruise Critic] [Ship Parade: The Online magazine dedicated to cruise ships][Your Resource for the Other Information About the Cruise Industry] [Transportation Security Administration] [Global Online Enrollment System]






THE FOLLOWING is from Brian David Burns, 2008, Cruise Confidential:  A Hit Below The Waterline, page 369 ["Provisions for an average seven-day cruise on a mid-sized cruise ship with about 2,000 passengers and almost 1,000 crewmembers."].


45 bottles of sherry

120 pounds of herbs and spices

150 bottles of rum

200 bottles of gin

200 bottles of champagne

290 bottles of vodka

350 bottles of whiskey

350 pounds of crab

450 pounds of jelly

600 gallons of ice cream

600 bottles of assorted liqueurs

1,680 pounds of sausage

1,750 pounds of cereal

1,936 pounds of cookies

1,976 quarts of cream

2,100 pounds of lobster

2,450 tea bags

2,458 pounds of coffee

3,156 pounds of turkey

3,260 gallons of milk

3,400 bottles of assorted wines

3,800 pounds of rice

4,600 pounds of veal

5,040 pounds of lamb

5,750 pounds of sugar

7,216 pounds of pork

10,100 bottles/cans of beer

10,211 pounds of chicken

13,851 pounds of fish

15,150 pounds of potatoes

20,003 pounds of fresh fruit

24,236 pounds of beef

25,736 pounds of fresh vegetables

110,820 eggs



SELECTED REFERENCES (some of which have been cited in the body of this paper):


Beth Bailey & David Farber, 1994, The First Strange Place:  Race And Sex in World War II Hawaii (Free Press).


Antony Beever, 1982, The Spanish Civil War (NY:  Peter Bedrick Books).


Brian David Burns, 2008, Cruise Confidential:  A Hit Below The Waterline (Palo Alto:  Travelers' Tales)


Daniel Allen Butler, 2002, Warrior Queens: The Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth in World War II (Stackpole Books).


G. Charbonnier, 1969, Conversations with Claude Lévi-Strauss (London: Jonathan Cape Ltd), page 17. [A 1969 translation of the 1961 Entretiens avec Claude Lévi-Strauss.]


Stanley Cloud and Lynne Olson, 1996, The Murrow Boys:  Pioneers on the Front Lines of Broadcast Journalism (Houghton Mifflin Company).


John Crawford, 2000, Kia Kaha:  New Zealand in the Second World War (Oxford University Press).


Bob Dickinson and Andy Vladimir, 1997, Selling the Sea:  An Inside Look at the Cruise Industry (New York:  John Wiley & Sons, Inc.).


David Dobbs, 2005, Reef of Madness: Charles Darwin, Alexander Aggasiz, And the Meaning of Coral (NY: Pantheon Books).


Paul Fussell, 1988, Thank God For the Atomic Bomb And Other Essays (NY: Summit Books).


Kristoffer A. Garin, 2005, Devils on the Deep Blue Sea:  The Dreams, Schemes And Showdowns That Built America's Cruise-Ship Empires (Viking).


Mark Gaouette, 2010,  Cruising For Trouble:  Cruise Ships As Soft Targets For Pirates, Terrorists, and Common Criminals (Praeger).


Christopher A. Garin, 2005Devils on the Deep Blue Sea:  The Dreams, Schemes And Showdowns That Built America's Cruise-Ship Empires (New York:  Viking).


Charles Glass, 2013, The Deserters:  A Hidden History of World War II (The Penguin Press).


Matt Groening et al., 1997, The Simpsons: A Complete Guide To Our Favorite Family (NY: HarperCollins).


Barry Morton Gough, 1989, Pacific Studies, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 166-168.


Meirion and Susie Harris, 1991, Soldiers of the Sun:  The Rise And Fall Of The Imperial Japanese Army (NY: Random House).


Max Hasting, 2007, Retribution: The Battle for Japan, 1944-45 (NY: Vintage Books).


K.R. Howe, 2003, The Quest For Origins: Who First Discovered And Settled The Pacific Islands? (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press).


Saburo Ienaga, 1968 [1978 translation], The Pacific War, 1931-1945: A Critical Perspective on Japan's Role in World War II (NY: Random House).


Stuart Inder, 1 November 2003,


Patrick Vinton Kirch, 2012, A Shark Going Inland Is My Chief:  The Island Civilization of Ancient Hawai'i, (University of California Press).


Ross A Klein, 2002, Cruise Ship Blues:  The Underside of the Cruise Industry (Gabriola Island, British Columbia, Canada:  New Society Publishers).


Ross a. Klein, 2005, Cruise Ship Squeeze:  The New Pirates of the Seven Seas (British Columbia:  New Society Publishers).


Robert Lacey & Danny Danziger, 1999, The Year 1000: What Life Was Like At The Turn of the First Millennium - An Englishman's World.


Robert Langdon, 1975, The Lost Caravel (Sydney:  Pacific Publications).


Robert Langdon, 1988, The Lost Caravel Re-explored (Canberra:  Brolga Press).


Linda Lear, 2007, Beatrix Potter: A Life In Nature (NY: St. Martin's Press).


Maude, H. E., 1971, Pacific History - Past, Present, and Future in The Journal of Pacific History, Vol. 6, page 3-24.


James A. Michener, 1946, Tales of the South Pacific (Fawcett Crest Books).


Hortense Powdermaker, 1966, Stranger And Friend: The Way Of An Anthropologist.


Lin Poyer, Suzanne Falgout & Laurence Marshall Carucci, 2001, Typhoon of War:  Micronesian Experiences of the Pacific War (University of Hawai'i Press).


Mary Louise Roberts, 2013, What Soldiers Do:  Sex And The American GI In World War II (University of Chicago Press).


Andy Rooney, 2002, Common Nonsense Addressed to the Reading Public (NY: Public Affairs).


Dennis Roth and Charles F. Urbanowicz, 1968, and Charlie 1968 Paper.pdf [Scale Analyses and the Elaboration of Menstrual Taboos. For the 67th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Seattle, Washington, November 21-26, 1968.]


Dennis Roth, 1974, The Friar Estates of the Philippines (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation in Anthropology, University of Oregon).


Dennis Roth, 1989, History in the U.S. Forest Service.  The Public Historian, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 49-56.


Dennis Roth, 1990, Rhythm Vision:  A Guide to Visual Awareness (College Station, Texas:  Intaglio Press).


Dennis Roth, 2006, Oozing the Moon:  A Sky and Night Woods Guide to the Galaxy (McKinleyville, CA:  Fithian Press).


Dennis Roth and Frank Harmon, 1995, The Forest Service in the Environmental Era (Washington, DC:  History Unit, Public Affairs Office).


Alana Samuels, 18 January 2010,


Solomon Islands College of higher Education & the University of The South Pacific, 1988, entitled Bikfala Faet:  Olketa Solomon Islanda Rimembarem Wol Wo Tu, or The Big Death:  Solomon Islanders Remember World War II (Suva).


Oskar Hermann Khristian Spate, 1979, The Spanish Lake (University of Minnesota Press).


Peter Thompson, 2008, Pacific Fury:  How Australia and her Allies Defeated the Japanese (Australia:  William Heinemann).


Shunsuke Tsurumi, 1986, An Intellectual History of Wartime Japan 1931-1945 (London: KPI).


Charles F. Urbanowicz, in progress[Cruise Maps Only]


Charles F. Urbanowicz, in progress[Various Cruise References]


C.F. Urbanowicz, 1969,  [A Selective View of Lévi-Strauss' Intellectual Antecedents. For the 68th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 20-24, 1969.]


C.F. Urbanowicz, 1972a, Tongan Culture:  The Methodology of an Ethnographic Reconstruction (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation in Anthropology, University of Oregon).


C.F. Urbanowicz, 1972b [Tongan Social Structure: Data From An Ethnographic Reconstruction. For the 71st Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association,Toronto, Canada, December 2.]


C.F. Urbanowicz, 1974, Tongan Tourism Today: Troubled Times? (For the 73rd Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Mexico City, November 19-24.)


C.F. Urbanowicz, 1977a, [Tourism in Tonga: Troubled Times. Hosts and Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism, edited by V. Smith (University of Pennsylvania), pp. 83-92.]


C.F. Urbanowicz, 1977b,[Motives and Methods: Missionaries in Tonga in the Early 19thCentury. The Journal of the Polynesian Society, Vol. 86, No.2: 245-263.]


C.F. Urbanowicz, 1989, [Tourism in Tonga Revisited: Continued Troubled Times? Hosts And Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism, edited by V. Smith, 2nd Edition (University of Pennsylvania), pp. 105-117.]


C.F. Urbanowicz, 1991, [Prelude to Pearl Harbor: Operation Hawai'i. For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, December 5.]


C.F. Urbanowicz, 1994, The Gaming Heritage: A Natural For Some (And Problems For Others?). For the Annual Meeting of the Society for Applied Anthropology, Cancun, Mexico, April 13-17.


C.F. Urbanowicz, 1998, [Gambling (Gaming) In The United States of American From An Anthropological Perspective] for the 14th ICAES (International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences) Meetings on the Anthropology of Tourism for the 1998 Congress held at Williamsburg, Virginia, July 26-August 2, 1998.)


C.F. Urbanowicz,  2001, Gambling_into_the_21st_cent.pdf [Gambling Into The 21st Century. Hosts And Guests Revisited: Tourism Issues of the 21st Century, edited by Valene Smith and Maryann Brent (NY: Cognizant Communication Corp.), pp. 69-79.


C.F. Urbanowicz, 2004a, [The Darwin Project: 1996 to 2004! For the Tenth Annual Conference on Learning and Teaching sponsored by CELT (Center for Excellence in Learning and Teaching), October 21-22, 2004, at CSU, Chico, October 21].


C.F. Urbanowicz, 2004b,[Europeans in Tahiti: From Cook to Gauguin. For the CSU,Chico Anthropology Forum, November 4.]


C.F. Urbanowicz, 2005[World War II Ends! For the CSU, Chico AnthropologyForum at CSU, Chico, September 1.


C.F. Urbanowicz, 2009, Final Words And Cruising Into Retirement[Final Words And Cruising Into Retirement. For the CSU,Chico Anthropology Forum at CSU, Chico, December 10,2009.]


C.F. Urbanowicz and "Sadie" Urbanowicz, 2012, [Pacific Travelers, presented with Sadie Urbanowicz. For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum at CSU, Chico, April 12, 2012.]


C.F. Urbanowicz, 2014a, [References for the Sapphire Princess} April 3, 2014 to April 29, Los Angeles to Osaka].


C.F. Urbanowicz, 2014b, [September-October 2014 References for the Volendam} September 24, 2014 to October 19, 2014, Vancouver to Sydney].


Douglas Ward, 2014, Cruising & Cruise Ships:  29th Year of Publication (Berlitz).


Geoffrey M. White & Lamont Lindstrom, 1990, The Pacific Theater:  Island Representations of World War II (Melbourne University Press).


Matthew Wright, 2003Pacific War:  New Zealand and Japan 1941-1945 (Auckland:  Reed Publishing).


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[1 December 2014} word count ~10,800]