FOR THE FINAL UPDATE TO THIS GUIDEBOOK onDecember 8, 2008, please click please click here.[Today in History][Anthropology In The News} From Texas A&M University][GOOGLE} News Information from all over!][Earthweek} A Diary of the Planet][Worldometers} Real time world statistics][Earth View!]


Dr. Charles F. Urbanowicz / Professor Emeritus of Anthropology


California State University, Chico / Office: Butte 202

Proseminar in the History of Theory and Method in Anthropology [Course Number 2768/2769]

Office Hours} Mon + Wed} 8 -> 8:30 + 2 -> 4pm and by appointment; Office Phone: (530) 898-6220 / Dept: (530) 898-6192.

Mon & Wed} 4 -> 5:15pm in Butte 319.

Office Phone: (530) 898-6220 / Dept: (530) 898-6192


© Copyright [All Rights Reserved] Charles F. Urbanowicz / August 25, 2008} This copyrighted Fall 2008 Anthropology 496 Guidebook and Selected Anthropology Essays by Urbanowicz, printed from, is intended for use by students enrolled at California State University, Chico, in the FALL Semester of 2008 and unauthorized use / publication is definitely prohibited.

DESCRIPTION} ANTH 496: Prerequisites ENGL 130 (orits equivalent) with a grade of C- or higher; ANTH 303. Theinvestigation of the theory and method in anthropological thought andpractice from the nineteenth century to the present. Seminar formatThis is a writing proficiency, WP course; a grade of C- orbetter certifies writing proficiency for majors. Formerly ANTH 296.(The 2007-2009 University Catalog, page 189).

DESCRIPTION of ANTH 496H: Prerequisites ENGL 130(or its equivalent) with a grade of C- or higher; ANTH 303,acceptance into the Honors Program. The investigation of the methodand theory of anthropological thought of the last century is directedto individual research interests and problem development for thehonors thesis. Seminar format. This is a writing proficiency,WP course; a grade of C- or better certifies writingproficiency for majors. Formerly ANTH 296H. ( The 2007-2009University Catalog, page 189).

ANTH 496 / ANTH 496H is the designated WP (WritingProficiency) class for the Anthropology Major and the Department ofAnthropology graduation literacy certification requires that you passthis course at the "C-" level. A "Criteria ofWriting Proficiency" appears at the end of this syllabus. The"World Wide Web" and the implications of this technology forAnthropology will also be discussed throughout the semester andvarious appropriate web sites will be introduced throughout thesemester. In addition, the Anthropology 496 Guidebook and SelectedAnthropology Essays by Urbanowicz required text on the webwill be updated at various times throughout the semester.[Please click here for theclickable "Web Table of Contents." Please see belowfor some URLs that might be of value to you for this course (as wellas other courses).]  

Meryl W. Davies & Piero (2002) IntroducingAnthropology.
L.L. Langness (2005) The Study of Culture: ThirdEdition.
C.F. Urbanowicz (2008) Fall 2008 Anthropology 496 Guidebookand Selected Anthropology Essays by Urbanowicz,l.

English Language Dictionary.
William A. Strunk, Jr. (2000) The Elements of Style (4thedition).
The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2008.


DUE on 9/22/2008 or 9/24/2008
EXAM I (25%)
Monday, October 6, 2008
Monday, October 20, 2008
EXAM II (25%)
Wednesday, November 12, 2008
November 20, 2008 (Thu) -> November 22, 2008 [Sun]
November 24, 2008 (Mon) -> November 28, 2008 [Fri]
August 25, 2008 -> December 10, 2008
DUE by December 15, 2008

NOTE: If you have a documented disability that may requirereasonable accommodations, please contact Disability Support Services(DSS) for coordination of your academic accommodations. DSS islocated in the University Center (behind Kendall Hall). The DSS phonenumber is 898-5959 V/TTY or FAX 898-4411. Visit the DSS website at

D. Bidney (1953), Theoretical Anthropology[GN/24/B492/1967]
D.J. Boorstin (1983),The Discoverers[CB/69/B66/1983]
J. Clifford & G. Marcus (1986), Writing Culture: ThePoetics and Politics of Ethnography[GN/307.7/W75/1986]
E.L. Cerroni-Long (1999), Anthropological Theory in NorthAmerica [GN/33/A444/1999]
E. Daniel & J. Peck (1996), Culture/Contexture:Explorations in Anthropology and Literary Studies[GN/307.7/C85/1996]
R. Darnell (1974), Readings in the History of Anthropology[GN/17/D35]
A. de Malefijt (1974), Images of Man[GN/17/D44/1974]
M. di Leonardo (1991), Gender At The Crossroads ofKnowledge: Feminist Anthropology in the Postmodern Era[GN/33/G46/1991]
P. A. Erickson [with L. Murphy] (1998), A Historyof Anthropological Theory [GN/33/E74/1998]
R. Fox (1994), The Challenge of Anthropology: OldEncounters and New Excursions [GN/29/F69/1994]
R. Fox (1997),Conjectures & Confrontations: Science,Evolution, Social Concern [GN/468/F69]
U. Gacs et al. [Editors] (1988), WomenAnthropologists: Selected Biographies[GN/20/W63/1988]
C. Geertz (1988), Works And Lives: The Anthropologist AsAuthor [GN/307.7/G44/1988]
C. Geertz (1995), After The Fact: Two Countries, FourDecades, One Anthropologist [GN/21/G44/A3]
D. Hakken (1999), Cyborgs@Cyberspace? An Ethnographer Looksto the Future [QA/76.9/C66/H34/1999]
M. Harris (1968), The Rise of Anthropological Theory[GN/17/H3]
M. Harris (1999), Theories of Culture in PostmodernTimes [GN/357/H39/1999]
Hayes & Hayes (1970), Claude Lévi-Strauss: TheAnthropologist as Hero [GN/21/L4/H3]
H. R. Hays (1958), From Ape to Angel[GN/405/H34]
J. Helm (1966), Pioneers of American Anthropology
C. Herbert (1991), Culture And Anomie: EthnographicImagination In The Nineteenth Century[GN/357/H47/1991]
C. Hinsley (1981), Savages and Scientists: TheSmithsonian.... [GN/17.3/U6/H56]
A. Kardiner & E. Preble (1961), They Studied Man[GN/405/K3]
A.L. Kroeber & C. Kluckhohn (1952),Culture: A CriticalReview [GN/27/K7]
A. Kuper (1973), Anthropology and Anthropologists[GN/17/K26]
G. Marcus & M. Fischer (1986), Anthropology As CulturalCritique: An Experimental Moment In The Human Sciences, 2ndEdition [GN/345/M37/1999]
T.W. Luke (2002), Museum Politics: Power Plays At TheExhibition [AM/151/L85/2002].
G. Marcus (1998), Ethnography Through Thick And Thin[GN/345/M373/1998]
M. Mead & R. Bunzel (1960), The Golden Age of AmericanAnthropology [E/77/M48]
A. Montagu (1974), Frontiers of Anthropology[GN/17/M/59/1974]
Naroll & Naroll (1973), Main Currents in CulturalAnthropology [GN/17/N37/1973]
T.K. Penniman (1936), A Hundred Years of Anthropology[GN/17/P4]
R.T. Pennock [Editor] 2001, Intelligent DesignCreationism and Its Critics: Philosophical, Theological, andScientific Perspectives [BS/652/P44/2001]
H. Powdermaker (1966), Stranger and Friend[HM/73/P67]
A.S. Ryan [Editor], (2002), A Guide To Careers inPhysical Anthropology [GN/62/G85/2002]
S. Silverman (1981), Totems and Teachers: Perspectives onthe History.....[GN/17/T69]
J.S. Slotkin (1965), Readings in Early Anthropology[GN/17/S46]
G.W. Stocking (1995), After Tylor: British SocialAnthropology 1888-1951 [GN/308.3/G7/S74/1995]
F.W. Voget (1975), A History of Ethnology[GN/17/V63]

AND PLEASE CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING WORDS: "Read not tocontradict and confute; nor to believe and take for granted; nor tofind talk and discourse; but to weigh and consider. Some booksare to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewedand digested; that is, some books are to be read only in parts;others to be read but not curiously; and some to be read wholly, andwith diligence and attention." Francis Bacon (1561-1626), Englishessayist and philosopher; also: please do not followthe words of Groucho Marx (1890-1977): "From the moment I pickedyour book up until I laid it down I was convulsed with laughter. Someday I intend reading it." PLEASE think about the following forthis class (and ALL of your classes):

"Your instructor, however knowledgeable and good at communicating, cannot talk about everything at once. He or she cannot tell you at the same time about specific ethnographic cases and different kinds of societies, or about epistemological assumptions about how we learn things at the same time as about ethnographic field work methods, or about heuristic theories at the same time as about specific understandings of particular cultural patterns. He or she cannot tell you about Darwin [1809-1882] and Mendel's [1822-1884] contribution to evolution at the same time he or she is discussing the details of Australopithecus robustus, much less the ecological context and why we think the population that this fossil represents adapted to life on the savanna. You eventually need to know all of these things and how they influence one another, but you cannot learn all of it at once. Be patient; you will catch on [stress added]." Philip Carl Salzman and Patricia C. Rice, 2004, Thinking Anthropologically: A Practical Guide For Students (NJ: Pearson/Prentice-Hall), page 2.

"A play [or a classroom lecture or a publicpresentation] should make you understand something new. If ittells you what you already know, you leave it as ignorant as you wentin [stress added]." (The character John Wisehammer. InTimberlake Wertenbaker's Our Country's Good [basedupon the novel The Playmaker by Thomas Keneally], 1989, Act II,sc. 7, page 89.]

A NOT SO BIG SECRET: #1} The information (or "meaning") that you will get out of this course will be in direct proportion to the energy you expend on assignments and requirements: readings, writing assignment, examinations, and thinking assignments. #2} I will try to provide you with new information and ideas every class period! PS: "He'd tell us to learn from what happened to him." [Ron Weasley to Hermione Granger in] J.K. Rowling, 2007, Harry Potter And The Deadly Hallows (Arthur A. Levine Books/Scholastic Inc.), page 95.
SPECIAL:Anthropology & Cyberspace: "We can chart our future clearlyand wisely only when we know the path which has led to the present."Adlai E. Stevenson (1900-1965)

FOR A "ROUGH" MASTER CHART OF IDEAS AND ASSUMPTIONS FOR VARIOUSANTHROPOLOGISTS (located towards the end of this web Guidebook- or "roughly" in the middle-of-the-printed-volume), please clickhere and please read and thinkabout the words of John Godfrey Saxe (1816-1887) at the end of thatbrief section.

"Old age has a way of forcing a person back upon themselves. The pace of life slows an brings with it a natural inclination to reflect upon the past." Linda Lear, 2007, Beatrix Potter: A Life In Nature (NY: St. Martin's Press), page 427.


ALL ANTHROPOLOGY MAJORS SHOULD KNOW ABOUT the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (1968) [REF/H40/A2I/5] the International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (2001) [REF/H41/I58/2001] AS WELL AS the Annual Review of Anthropology [GN/1/B52] and Archaeological Method And Theory (edited by Schiefer) [CC/A242/Vol 1, 1989->], AND the Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology (Edited by D. Levinson and M. Ember) [ref/GN/307/E52/1996]), AS WELL AS the various miscellaneous publications and journals available in Butte 305 (Ethnographic Laboratory). (Incidentally, you might find information on the Annual Review of Anthropology at this URL:;  AND DON'T FORGET about: "The eHRAF Collection of Ethnography, available on the web, is a small but growing collection of HRAF full text and graphical materials supplemented, in some cases, with additional research through approximately the 1980's. The eHRAF Collection of Ethnography includes approximately 48 cultures, and regular additions are planned." (See


Plagiarism, in the 2007-2009 University Catalogue (page 51), is defined as follows: "Copying homework answers from your text to hand in for a grade; failing to give credit for ideas, statement of facts, or conclusions derived from another source; submitting a paper downloaded from the Internet or submitting a friend's paper as your own; claiming credit for artistic work (such as a music composition, photo, painting, drawing, sculpture, or design) done by someone else." AND SEE: please note the following: "B. Plagiarism will lead to grade reduction [for] the course and could lead to suspension from the University. (You are responsible to the standards appearing in the University's catalogue and the student handbook. Please read the University's pamphlet, Academic Honesty, an Ounce of Prevention.) Copies of this handbook are available at the Student Judicial Affairs Office in Kendall Hall [stress added]."

"The worst case of plagiarism on record at Chico StateUniversity was when someone copied and turned in an entire master'sthesis. With plagiarism said to be on the rise here and nationwide,the university, along with representatives from the AssociatedStudents government, has been meeting to discuss the matter ofplagiarism on campus and what to do about it. ... When the CSUsigned up with on a trial basis last year, a searchof 1,150 papers found 46 of them [4%] had 70 to 100 percentof their text matching papers in the site's database[stress added]." Devanie Angel, 2003, Cheaters arenever beaters. The Chico News and Review, February 13,2003, page 9.


1.  Understand from an anthropological perspective thephenomenon of culture as it differentiates human life from other lifeforms. Understand the roles of human biology and cultural processesin human behavior and evolution.

2.  Develop an ability to critically address ethicaland moral issues of diversity, power, equality, and survival from ananthropological perspective.

3.  Know substantive data and theoretical perspectivesin the subdisciplines of anthropology. Know the history ofanthropological theory and be conversant in major issues in eacharea. 

4.  Be familiar with the forms of anthropologicalliterature and basic data sources.  Know how to access,interpret, evaluate, and apply such information, using a range ofsources and information technologies.

5.  Grasp the methodologies of the subdisciplines ofanthropology.  Be able to apply appropriate methods whenconducting anthropological research.

6.  Be able to present and communicate the results ofanthropological research.

Please Click on the Week To Get To TheExact Week In This Web Guidebook; click hereto get to the listing of URLs listed in this Guidebook; andplease click here for abrief "Disclaimer Essay" by Urbanowicz.

WEEK 1. August 25& 27, 2008: Mon & Wed} Introduction & Overview to thecourse. The profession: 1967-2008+ Please glance at the requiredtexts and any of the RESERVE items by Wednesday, September 3,2008.

WEEK 2. Campus closed MondaySeptember 1, 2008 & Wednesday: September 3, 2008 } History oftheory continued. Key concepts, as well as Pre/Post-Darwinindividuals and information.

WEEK 3. September 8 & 10,2008 } Some 19th Century research in Europe and America(Cross-Cultural Research, Including HRAF): Pre-Boas, Darwin,Spencer, Morgan, Tyler, Frazer, Powell, Pitt-Rivers, Prichard, etal. and Darwin (1809-1882) in context.

WEEK 4. September 15 &17, 2008: Mon & Wed} Darwin, Spencer, Morgan, Tylor, Frazer etal. continued, into the 21st Century. Preliminarydiscussion of your term paper topic interests.[TO BE ASSIGNED: 1/2 the class on 9/22/2008and 1/2 on 9/24/2008. WRITING ASSIGNMENT #1[5%] DUE on your day in class.

NOTE: Writing Assignment #1 is a CRITIQUE of any chapter that you have read from the readings to date that are on reserve. Some points to consider in your critique are the following: (#1) what was the main idea of the chapter? (#2) what facts were used to support the main idea? (#3) any faulty reasoning, faulty logic, or obvious "bias" in the chapter ? (#4) what additional information could be added to the author's argument? and, finally, (#5) is there a "counter-argument" to the main idea of the chapter? These are a lot of points to consider so please take your time!

WEEK 5. September 22 &24, 2008: Mon & Wed} DISCUSSION OF WRITING ASSIGNMENT #1 (5%)Approximately 1/2 class either Monday 9/22/2008 or Wednesday9/24/2008.

WEEK 6. September 29 &October 1, 2008: Mon & Wed} 19th / 20th Century Reaction(s) &REVIEW on October 1, 2008 (including FrançoisPéron, Franz Boas, Alfred Louis Kroeber, andothers!). 

WEEK 7. October 6 & 8,2008: Mon & Wed} EXAM I [25%] on Monday October 6, 2008and then into 20th and 21st Century Reactions and more ofComte-->Durkheim-->Malinowski+ } Exam I based on selectedreadings in Davies & Piero (2002), Langness (pp. xi-90), selectedassigned readings in Anthropology 496 Guidebook and SelectedAnthropology Essays by Urbanowicz, lectures/discussions, and thequotations referred to in this Guidebook to date. NOTE:Specific Readings from Reserve WILL NOT be on the Exam.

WEEK 8. October 13 & 15,2008: Mon & Wed} Comte-->Durkheim/VanGennep-->Mauss-->Lévi-Strauss and British SocialAnthropology, American Cultural Anthropology, as well as Frenchanthropologie; and please remember: Preliminary Term PaperTopic DUE (WA#2) on Monday October 22, 2008.

WEEK 9. October 20 & 22,2008: Mon & Wed} Neo-Evolution, Cultural Ecology, &Modernism; for NEXT WEEK: 1/2 the class to be assigned for MondayOctober 27 and 1/2 for Wednesday October 29, 2008, and DISCUSSION OFYOUR INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH TOPICS: Writing Assignment #2. [What dayyou are assigned to will be distributed on October 22,2008.]

WEEK 10. October 27 &29, 2008: Mon & Wed} DISCUSSION OF YOUR INDIVIDUAL TERMPAPER interests [approximately 1/2-the-class on eachday).

WEEK 11. November 3 & 5,2008: Mon & Wed} Symbolism, Modernism, Reflexivity, &Post-Modernism. Term Paper Presentation Order Distributed on MondayNovember 3, 2008 and review for EXAM II bext week on WednesdayNovember 12, 2008.

WEEK 12. November 10 &12, 2008: Mon & Wed } and EXAM II (25%) on Wednesday November 14,2008. This will be based on selected readings in Davies & Piero(2002), Langness (pp. 91-288), selected assigned readings in Fall2008 Anthropology 496 Guidebook and Selected Anthropology Essaysby Urbanowicz, lectures/discussions, and the quotations referredto in this Guidebook to date. Specific Readings from Reserve WILL NOTBE on the Exam. 

WEEK 13. November 17 &19, 2008: Mon & Wed} Term Paper Presentations begin on MondayNovember 17, 2008 based on the term paper order distributed on MondayNovember 3, 2008.

WEEK 14: November 24 ->28, 2008 } THANKSGIVING VACATION WEEK!

WEEK 15.December 1 & 3, 2008: Term Paper Presentations/DiscussionsContinue.

WEEK 16. December 8 &10, 2008: Mon & Wed} Term Paper Presentations/DiscussionsContinue. [Please REMEMBER: Class participation, including Termpaper presentation, represents 15% of your total grade.]

WEEK 17. December 14, 2008(Monday] FINALS WEEK} Term Paper Discussions CONCLUDE (if needed)and your TERM PAPER is DUE (25%) on that date.

SPECIAL: BriefDisclaimer Essay On This Web-Based Syllabus


How to "use" the Guidebook. NOTE THE FOLLOWING:

"Guidebooks are $15 tools for $3,000 experiences. Many otherwise smart people base the trip of a lifetime on a borrowed copy of a three-year-old guidebook. The money they saved in the bookstore was wasted the first day of their trip, searching for hotels and restaurants long since closed. When I visit someplace as a rank beginner--a place like Belize or Sri Lanka--I equip myself with a good guidebook and expect myself to travel smart. I travel like an old pro, not because I'm a super traveler, but because I have good information and use it. I'm a connoisseur of guidebooks. My trip is my child. I love her. And I give her the best tutors money can buy. Too many people are penny-wise and pound-foolish when it comes to information. ... All you need is a good guidebook covering your destination. Before buying a book, study it. How old is the information? The cheapest books are often the oldest--no bragain. Who wrote it? What's the author's experience? Does the book work for you--or the tourist industry? Does it specialize in hard opinions--or superlatives? For whom is it written? Is it readable? It should have personality without chattiness and information without fluff. Don't believe everything you read. The power of the printed word is scary. Most books are peppered with information that is flat-out wrong. Incredibly enough, even this book may have an error" [stress added]." Rick Steves' Europe Through the Back Door 1999 (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Publications), 1998, pages 8-9.


"I cannot see that lectures can do so much as reading thebooks from which the lectures are taken."
Samuel Johnson [1709-1784]; as quoted in James Boswell[1740-1795], 1791, Life of Johnson.


Sir Richard Burton (1821-1890) stated the following: "The Arabs have a proverb: The lecture is one - The dispute (upon the subject of the lecture) is one thousand [stress added]." Sir Richard Burton (1821-1890), John Hayman, 1990, Sir Richard Burton's Travels in Arabia and Africa: Four Lectures from a Huntington Library Manuscript (San Marino, CA: Huntington Library), page 36.


"To extract these small plums of information it was necessary to dig through a great pudding of cliché and jargon…." Robert Harris, 1998, Archangel (NY: Jove [2000] Berkley), page 62.

I ALSO follow the words of L.L. Langness:

"I have used quotations liberally. In some cases the quotation makes the point far more efficiently than I could make it; in others I believed it was better to let the author speak for himself [or herself!]; and in still others I simply felt the quotation was interesting or provocative enough to stimulate students to want to look further [stress added]." L.L. Langness (2005) The Study of Culture: Third Edition (Novato, CA: Chandler & Sharp), page xiii.


"The emphasis in this course will be not [be so much] on reading or [too much] research, but on thought. Much of what we know, or think we know, is based on something we've heard or read. I think that's the trouble with modern scholarship and collegiate study all the way up to the doctorate. I'm going to ask you to think about the material we will be dealing with rather than memorizing what someone has said about it. So I'd rather you didn't take [too many] notes in this class. Listen and think about what I say or what any one of your classmates says. And don't be afraid of disagreeing with me. I'll appreciate the compliment of your thinking about it and arriving at another conclusion [stress added]." (The character Rabbi David Small, in Harry Kemelman, 1996 [1997], The Day the Rabbi Left Town (NY: Fawcett Crest), page 78.


"The palest ink is better than the best memory."(Chinese proverb) and

Said of Leonardo Da Vinci (1352-1519): "...he also learned tocarry a notebook with him at all times and to use it, so thatwhatever went in through the eye came out through his hand[stress added]." Holland Cotter, 2002,Leonardo: The Eye,The Hand, The Mind." The New York Times, January 24, 2003,pages B35 + B37, page B37.

"You are what you know. ...Today we live according to the latest version of how the universe functions. This view affects our behaviour and thought, just as previous versions affected those who lived with them. ...At any time in the past, people have held a view of the way the universe works which was for them similarly definitive, whether it was based on myths or research. And at any time, that view they held was sooner or later altered by changes in the body of knowledge" [stress added]. James Burke, 1985, The Day The Universe Changed (Little Brown), page 9.

"My memory is woven out of small and great events inthe fabric of time [stress added]." Franco Ferruci,1996, The Life of God (as Told by Himself) (Chicago:University of Chicago Presss), page 214.

"The most important word in the English language is attitude. Love and hate, work and play, hope and fear, our attitudinal response to all these situations, impresses me as being the guide." Harlen Adams (1904-1997)

A NOT SO BIG SECRET: #1} The information (or "meaning") that you will get out of this course will be in direct proportion to the energy that you expend on course assignments and requirements: readings, writings, examinations, and thinking assignments. #2} I will try to provide you with new information and ideas every class period!

PLEASE NOTE: the following Decree #26 does not apply to this class nor to your eventual presentation: "By Order of The High Inquisitor of Hogwarts: "Teachers are hereby banned from giving students any information that is not strictly related to the subjects they are paid to teach. The above is in accordance with Educational Decree Number Twenty-Six. Signed: Dolores Jane Umbridge / High Inquisitor [stress added]." J. K. Rowling, 2003, Harry Potter And the Order of The Phoenix (NY: Scholastic Press), page 551.

"Amaze me with your stories. Thrill me with yourexperiences. Astound me with your brilliance. Convince me with yourpassion. Show excitement. Intrigue. Anything--just don't boreme with another computer graphics presentation [stressadded]." Clifford Stoll, 1999, High-Tech Heretic: WhyComputers Don't Belong in the Classroom and Other Reflections by aComputer Contrarian (NY: Doubleday), page 183.

"One of the Internet's inventors, Vint Cerf, gets laughs from audiences by quipping, 'Power corrupts and PowerPoint corrupts absolutely'.... Edward Tufte, a Yale University professor and author of graphic design book 'Envisioning Information,' is perhaps the most vocal PowerPoint hater. He believes Powerpoint's emphasis on format over content commercializes and trivializes subjects [stress added]." Rachel Konrad, 2003, An avant-garde look at everyday PowerPoint. The San Francisco Chronicle, December 29, 2003, page E3.

"The consequences of our actions are always so complicated, sodiverse, that predicting the future is a very difficult businessindeed." (The Character Albus Dumbledore, In Harry PotterAnd The Prisoner of Azkaban, 1999, by Joanne K. Rowling, page426.

AND FINALLY, for now, please consider the following "advice"given, at one point in time, to Joanne K. Rowling:

"Barry Cunningham, her first edtor at Bloomsbury Publishing in London remembers giving her 'terrible advice' when they met in the 1990s. Rowling was a divorced woman without much money. 'She was telling me about her circumstances. I was worried she was really relying on Harry [Potter!] to be the future for her and her daughter.' Cunningham says. 'I told her she wouldn't make any money at children's books, and she should get a day job [stress added].'" Jacqueline Blais, Like magic, she's wealthy. USA Today, July 7, 2005, page 4D.

"Destination, Determination, Deliberation." The character WilkieTwycross in J. K. Rowling, 2005, Harry Potter and the Half-BloodPrince (NY: Scholastic Books), page 384.

"Habits of thinking need not be forever. One of the most significant findings in psychology in the last twenty years is that individuals can choose they way they think." Martin E. P. Seligman, 2006, Learned Optimism: How to Change Your Mind and Your Life (NY: Vantage Books), page 8.

"Researchers have found that the human brain has a naturalaffinity for narrative construction. People tend to remember factsmore accurately if they encounter them in a story rather than in alist.... [stress added]." Benedict Carey, This Is yourlife (and How You Tell It). The New York Times, May 22, 2007,Science Times Section, pages D1+D6, page D1.

FINALLY, URBANOWICZ STATES: "I quote others only the better to express myself." (Michel Eyquem de Montaigne [1533-1592] French philosopher/essayist); or, in another translation: "I only quote others to make myself more explicit." (Essays, translated by J.M. Cohen, 1958, page 52).
For my BRIEF DISCLAIMER ESSAY, please click here

READING ASSIGNMENT(s) should be completed by the day assignedsince they will / can form the basis of discussion thatday / week. There will be some lectures (andvideos), but hopefully there will be more discussion thaneither lectures or videos! DURING WEEK 5, 1/2 the class willmeet on September 22, 2008 and 1/2 the class will meet onSeptember 24, 2008. This is done to create small discussiongroups. PLEASE REMEMBER that WRITING ASSIGNMENT #1 (acritique) is DUE on the day you are assigned to attend classthat week: we will also discuss readings to date(as well as your individual critique) on the day you areassigned. LOOKING at dates, in addition to EXAM I onMONDAY, October 6, 2008, (WEEK 7), your preliminary term papertopic (WRITING ASSIGNMENT #2) is DUE on Monday, October 20,2008 (WEEK 9). Based on your topic, specific days will beassigned for approximately 1/2 class-size discussions for Week 10when approximately 1/2 the class will meet on Monday,October 27, 2008 and approximately 1/2 the class will meeton Wednesday, October 29, 2008 and WRITING ASSIGNMENT#2 and your TERM PAPER TOPICS will be discussed. EXAMII (25%) is on WEDNESDAY, November 12, 2008 (WEEK 12) andthe Term Paper PRESENTATION ORDER will be distributed onMONDAY November 3, 2008. TERM PAPER PRESENTATIONSbegin on MONDAY, November 17, 2008 [WEEK 13], the week beforeThanksgiving Vacation. Remember, in-class participation,including term paper presentation, contributes 15% towardsyour final grade. NOTE: if any dates have to bechanged for any reason you will be notified well-in-advance:no sneaky surprises are planned!


Some words of Claude Lévi-Strauss, born 1908]: "Ithas often been said--I don't know if it is universally true but it isprobably true for many of us--that the reason we took up anthropologywas that we had difficulty in adapting ourselves to the social milieuinto which we were born." In G. Charbonnier, 1969,Conversations with Claude Lévi-Strauss (London: JonathanCape Ltd), page 17. [This is a 1969 translation of the 1961Entretiens avec Claude Lévi-Strauss.]

 "An analysis of almost any scientific problem leadsautomatically to a study of its history." Ernst Mayr (1904->2005)

Margaret Mead [1901-1978] wrote: "Anthropologistsare highly individual and specialized people. Each of them [orus!] is marked by the kind of work he or she prefers and hasdone, which in time becomes an aspect of that individual'spersonality." ALSO CONSIDER the following statement made bythe father of Ward Goodenough when the young Goodenough wasconsidering his career: "Anthropology is a subject such that you canbe interested in almost anything and its alright" (AnthropologyNewsletter, October 1992, page 4); and, finally,consider these words of Clifford Geertz, born in 1926:"...and that this was the kind of freedom we could have inanthropology--to do anything and call it anthropology (which youstill can do!)." Clifford Geertz, 1991, An Interview with CliffordGeertz. Current Anthropology, Vol. 32, No. 5, 1991, page603.

"One who makes a close study of almost any branch of science soon discovers the great illusion of the monolith. When he [or she] stood outside as an uninformed layman, he [or she] got a vague impression of unanimity among the professionals. He [or she] tended to think of science as supporting the Establishment with fixed and approved views. All this dissolves as he [or she] works his [or her] way into the living concerns of practicing scientists. He [and she] finds lively personalities who indulge in disagreement, disorder, and disrespect. He [and she] must sort out conflicting opinions and make up his [and her] own mind as to what is correct and who is sound. This applies not only to provinces as vast as biology and to large fields such as evolutionary theory, but even to small and familiar corners such as the species problem. The closer one looks, the more diversity one finds [stress added]." Norman Macbeth, 1971, Darwin Retried: An Appeal To Reason (NY: Dell Publishing Co.), page 18.

"Cultural diversity [and intellectual or theoreticaldiversity is part of that] is a reservoir of creativity....This creativity is not confined to the arts; it is also asource of potential solutions to social and environmental problems,solutions that would otherwise be ignored by politically dominantcultures precisely because dominance breeds complacency and stuntsthe capacity of self-criticism. In this sense, cultural diversityis an indispensable corrective or counter-balance[stress added]." David Harmon, 2002, In Light ofOur Differences: How Diversity In Nature And Culture Makes UsHuman (Smithsonian Institution Press), page 45.

"More book titles are being published these days, an estimated 114,487 in 2001, compared with 39,000 in 1975, and more people are buying them [stress added]." Dinitia Smith, 2002, In Book Publishing World, Some Reasons for Optimism. The New York Times, December 6, 2002, page C2.

"...the most recent figures show that in 2002, total outputof new titles and editions in the United States grew by nearly 6percent, to 150,000. General adult fiction exceeded 17,000 -- thesingle strongest category. Juveniles titles topped 10,000, thehighest total ever recorded. And there were more than 10,300 newpublishers, mostly small or self-publishers. No wonder we're allrunning out of shelf space [stress added]." CaroleGoldberg, 2003, Too many books? Yes, and publishers want it that way.The San Francisco Chronicle, December 22, 2003, page D10.

"One of the world's leading medical journals has put itself and its competitors under the microscope with research showing that published studies are sometimes misleading and frequently fail to mention weaknesses. Some problems can be traced to biases and conflicts of interest among peer reviewers, who are outside scientists tapped by journal editors to help decide whether a research paper should be published.... problems are most likely to occur in research funded by drug companies, which have a vested interest in findings that make their products look good. ... One JAMA [Journal of the American Medical Association] report found that medical journal studies on new treatments often use only the most favorable statistic in reporting results.... [stress added]." Lindsey Tanner, 2002, Medical Journal Examines Itself: Magazine admits biases, conflicts of interest influence content. The San Francisco Chronicle, June 6, 2002, page A2.

"Anthropology provides a scientific basis for dealing with thecrucial dilemma of the world today: how can peoples of differentappearance, mutually unintelligible languages, and dissimilar ways oflife get along peaceably together? Of course, no branch of knowledgeconstitutes a cure-all for all the ills of mankind. ... Students whohad not gone beyond the horizon of their own society could not beexpected to perceive custom which was the stuff of their ownthinking. The scientist of human affairs needs to know as much aboutthe eye that sees as the object seen. Anthropology holds up agreat mirror to man[kind] and lets him [andher!] look at himself in his infinite variety. This, andnot the satisfaction of idle curiosity nor romantic quest, is themeaning of the anthropologist's work.... [stress inoriginal]" Clyde Kluckhohn, 1949, Mirror For Man: The Relationof Anthropology To Modern Life, page 1 and page 10.

"If there is one thing that anthropologists of the 20th Century have demonstrated it is the position that there is no one single culture which can serve as the sole model of analysis of other cultures. Perhaps the most important point of modern 20th century Anthropology has been the detailed and documented account of the tremendous range of variation of 'cultures of this planet' and this is a distinct move away from various 19th century, and apparently some 20th century views, which offer a monolithic interpretation of CULTURE against which 'lesser' cultures can be appropriately ranked! [stress added]." Charles F. Urbanowicz, 1978, Cultural Implications of Extraterrestrial Contact and the Colonization of Space. The Industrialization of Space: Advances in the Astronautical Sciences, Edited by Richard A. Van Patten et al., (San Diego, CA: Published for the American Astronautical Society Publication by Univelt, Inc.), pages 785-797, page 793.

"Anthropology enables us to discover the different culturalworlds that human groups create and inhabit, and to understand theseworlds in terms other than our own. Anthropology helps usappreciate that each culture has its own distinctiveethos or world view, each with its own logic and coherence.Anthropology therefore serves as a bridge across cultures,making one intelligible to the other, preserving the integrity ofeach [stress added]." Riall Nolan, 2002,Development Anthropology: Encounters in the Real World(Westview Press), page 3.

"Colleges will not, of course, disappear--but over time they will be dramatically altered in nature as students and professors adopt cyberspace as their primary window into the laboratory of life. The distinctions between academic and applied research will become blurred as academic and commercial researchers begin to tap into the same sources of information and exchange in cyberspace [stress added]." David B. Whittle, 1997, Cyberspace: The Human Dimension (NY: W.H. Freeman), page 217.

"Off the coast of Venezuela, three 400-ft. ships are laying downmiles of high-speed fiber-optic cable capacious enough to carry600,000 calls simultaneously. In a high mountaintown outside Cuzco,Peru, a co-op of native farmers has found a way to get more than10 times the local price for its potato crop by selling it to a NewYork City organic-food store it found on the Internet[stress added]." Sandy M. Fernandez, Latin AmericaLogs On. Time, May 8, 2000, pages B2-B4, page B2.

"At least once a day in this village of 2,500 people, Ravi Sham Choudhry turns on the computer in his front room and logs in to ther Web site of the Chicago Board of Trade. He has the dirt of a farmer under his fingernails and pecks slowly at the keys. But he knows what he wants: the prices for soybean commodity futures. A drop in prices on the Chicago Board, shown in red, could augur a drop in prices here, meaning that he and fellow soybean farmers should sell their crop now. An increase argues that the farmers should wait for prices to rise. 'If it goes up there, it goes up here,' Mr. Choudhry said. The correlation is rough but real. Real, too, is the link betweem farmers in rural central India and around the globe, thanks to a company's innovation. The concept is the e-choupal, taken from the Hindi word for village square, or gathering place. ... E-choupal allows the farmers to check both futures prices across the globe and local prices before going to market. ... E-choupals may offer a model for all developing countries [stress added]." Amy Waldman, 2004, Indian Soybean Farmers Join the Global Village. The New York Times, January 1, 2004, page A1 + A8, page A8.

"SHABAK VALLEY, Afghanistan &emdash; In this isolatedTaliban stronghold in eastern Afghanistan, American paratroopers arefielding what they consider a crucial new weapon in counterinsurgencyoperations here: a soft-spoken civilian anthropologist namedTracy. Tracy, who asked that her surname not be used for securityreasons, is a member of the first Human Terrain Team, anexperimental Pentagon program that assigns anthropologists and othersocial scientists to American combat units in Afghanistan andIraq. Her team's ability to understand subtle points oftribal relations &emdash; in one case spotting a land dispute thatallowed the Taliban to bully parts of a major tribe &emdash; has wonthe praise of officers who say they are seeing concreteresults…. In September [2007], Defense SecretaryRobert M. Gates authorized a $40 million expansion of the program,which will assign teams of anthropologists and socialscientists to each of the 26 American combat brigades in Iraq andAfghanistan. Since early September, five new teams have been deployedin the Baghdad area, bringing the total to six… Ininterviews, American officers lavishly praised the anthropologyprogram, saying that the scientists' advice has proved to be"brilliant," helping them see the situation from an Afghanperspective and allowing them to cut back on combatoperations.….The process that led to the creation of the teamsbegan in late 2003, when American officers in Iraq complainedthat they had little to no information about the localpopulation.…Ms. McFate, the program's senior social scienceadviser and an author of the new counterinsurgency manual,dismissed criticism of scholars working with the military. "I'mfrequently accused of militarizing anthropology," she said. "Butwe're really anthropologizing the military [stressadded]." David Rohde, 2007, Army Enlists Anthropology in WarZones. The New York Times, 5 October 2007 []


"In the summer of 1994 [and how old were you then?] theInternet was still mainly an academic plaything. The company thatbecame Netscape Communications had not yet released its web browser.Many computers still ran MS-DOS. Intel's new Pentium chip was aluxury, and a 1-gigabyte hard drive was considered huge." StephenH. Wildstrom, Lessons from a Dizzying Decade in Tech. BusinessWeek, June 14, 2004, page 25.

Go to:[Hobbes' Internet Timeline v6.0] where you will see that:

In June 1993 there were a total of 130 World WideWeb Sites
In June 1994 there were a total of 2,738 World Wide WebSites
In January 1996 there were a total of 100,000 WorldWide Web Sites
In April 1997 there were a total of 1,002,612 WorldWide Web Sites
In February 2000 there were a total of 11,161,811 WorldWide Web Sites
In December 2002, there were a total of 35,543,105World Wide Web Sites.
In July 2003, there were a total of 42,298,371World Wide Web Sites.
In January 2004, there were a total of 46,067,743 WorldWide Web Sites.
In December 2004, there were a total of 56,923,737World Wide Web Sites
In August 2005, there were a total of 70,392,567World Wide Web Sites.
In November 2006, there were a total of 101,435,253 World Wide WebSites.

NOTE: According to Netcraft [],as of June 2008, there are 172,338,726 sites!

CYBERSPACE: A term used William Gibson inNeuromancer (1984) to describe interactions in a world ofcomputers and human beings. Cyberspace can be viewed asanother location to be explored and interpreted byanthropologists. Urbanowicz believes that the "World Wide Web" isvery similar to the period known as "The Enlightenment" in France(which, combined with the industrial revolution that began inapproximately the 1760's, created the world that we know today). Forsome of the reasons that Urbanowicz does what he does, see: Ifyou "surf" the web (and I do), please surf carefully and evaluatewisely.

How does one "evaluate" and "use" this wide range ofinformation? One does it just as Darwin did, carefully, patiently,and slowly, for as Darwin wrote:

"False facts are highly injurious to the progress of science, for they often endure long; but false views, if supported by some evidence, do little harm, for every one takes a salutary pleasure in proving their falseness: and when this is done, one path towards error is closed and the road to truth is often at the same time opened." Charles R. Darwin, 1871, The Descent of Man And Selection in Relation to Sex[1981 Princeton University Press edition, with Introduction by John T. Bonner and Robert M. May], Chapter 21, page 385.

"Though Darwin died more than a century before the advent ofthe World Wide Web, his unforgiving survival theory applied as muchto outdoors-oriented sites as to the species. The fittest are stillwith us...." Michael Shapiro, 2002, Returning to nature easierafter trekking through Net. San Francisco Chronicle, June 2,2002,Section C8, page 8.

"The driving force in the semiconductor industry has been the theorem known as Moore's Law. First posited by Intel Corp. co-founder Gordin Moore in the 1960s, Moore's Law states that the number of transistors that fit on a chip will double every 18 months. ... Moore's Law has held true so far, with Intel's latest Pentium cramming 8 million transistors on a tiny sliver of silicon. The industry is confident that it can achieve even more astounding figures, such as 100 million transistors on a chip [stress added]." San Francisco Chronicle, August 10, 1998, page E1.

"The great thing about crummy software is the amount ofemployment it generates. If Moore's law is upheld for another 20or 30 years, there will not only be a vast amount of computationgoing on planet Earth, but the maintenance of that computationwill consume the efforts of almost every living person. We're talkingabout a planet of help desks [stress added]."Jaron Lanier, 2000, One-Half of a Manifesto: Why stupid software willsave the future from neo-Darwinian machines. Wired, December2000, 8.12, pages 158-179, page 174.

"'It's the information age, and librarians are the information specialists,' said Kevin Starr, state librarian for California. ... I think information service is the profession for the millennium [said Cora Iezza]." Beyond the Dewey Decimal. Julie N. Lynem, July 14, 2002, The San Francisco Chronicle, page B1.

"When this circuit learns your job, what are you going to do?" InMarshall McLuhan & Quentin Fiore (1967), The Medium Is TheMassage, page 20.

"Clyde Presowitz says he had a revelation in 2003 when his oldest son, a software developer living on Lake Tahoe in California, asked him to co-invest in a snow-removal company. Why, wondered Prestowitz, would his high-tech offspring go into a business 'as mundane as snow removal?' Explained the son: "Dad, they can't move the snow to India [stress added].'" Paul Magnusson, 2005, Why Asia Will Eat Our Lunch [book review of]: Three Billion New Capitalists: The Great Shift of Wealth and Power to the East (2005) by Clyde Prestowitz, Business Week, June 20, 2005, page 22. 

"Career advice for the 21st century: Stay away from any jobthat can be done online.... profiting from the Darwinian laboreconomics of the Internet [stress added]." Maniand Me: Hearing 'Mister,' I work Cheap' From Across The Globe. LeeGomes, June 3, 2002, The Wall Street Journal, page B.

"'We used to educate farmers to be farmers, factory workers to be factory workers, teachers to be teachers, men to be men, women to be women.' The future demands 'renaissance people. You can't be productive in the information age if you don't know how to talk to a diverse population, use a computer, understand a world view instead of a parochial view, write, speak [stress added].'" In Byrd L. Jones and Robert W. Maloy, 1996, Schools For An Information Age: Reconstructing Foundations For learning And Teaching, page 15.
"Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishablefrom magic."
Clarke's Third Law, Profiles of the Future: An Inquiry into theLimits of the Possible by Arthur C. Clarke, 1984, page26.

"Google--or any search engine--isn't just another website;it's the lens through which we see that information, and itaffects what we see and don't see. At the risk of waxingOrwellian, how we search affects what we find and by extension,how we learn what we know [stress added]. LevGrossman, 2003, Search And Destroy. Time, December 22, 2003,pages 46-50, page 50.


WEEK 1. August 25 & 27, 2008: Mon & Wed} Introduction& Overview to the course. The Profession: 1967-2008+ Pleaseglance at the required texts and read any SINGLE chapter, NOT THEENTIRE BOOK, of any of the Reserve reading items assigned for Week #1/ Week #2 by Wednesday, September 3, 2008. PLEASE take notesin this GUIDEBOOK: IT WILL NOT be re-purchased by theBookstore. Urbanowicz on "Teaching" might be of interestand may be found by clicking here:ESSAY #1 at the end of this printed Guidebook

ALSO, think about the following when it comes to the "history"of anything!:

All things decline
Everything falters, dies and ends
Towers cave in, walls collapse
Roses wither, horses stumble
Cloth grows old, men expire
Iron rusts and timber rots away
Nothing made by hand will last
I understand the truth
That all must die, both clerk and lay
And the fame of men now dead
Will quickly be forgottten
Unless the clerk takes up his pen
And brings their deeds to life again."
In: Andrew Bridgeford, 2004, 1066: The Hidden History of the Bayeux Tapestry (NY: Harper), n.p., citing Wace, 2002, The Roman de Rou, ed. and tr. Glyn Nurgess (Jersey).

PLEASE NOTE} Do come to class EVERY-SINGLE-DAY with a"quotation" or a phrase that struck YOU in some way: either from thisGuidebook or Langness or Davies & Piero; andremember:

"Harry sorted through his presents and found one with Hermione's handwriting on it. She had given him too a book that resembled a diary, except that it said things like 'Do it today or later you'll pay!' every time he opened a page." J. K. Rowling, 2003, Harry Potter And the Order of The Phoenix (NY: Scholastic Press), page 501; as well as:

"Youth cannot know how age thinks and feels. But old men are guilty if they forget what it was to be young." (Albus Dumbledore, in} J. K. Rowling, 2003, Harry Potter And the Order of The Phoenix (NY: Scholastic Press), page 826; and:

"[Old] Age is foolish and forgetful when it underestimates youth." (Albus Dumbledore in} J. K. Rowling, 2005, Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (NY: Scholastic Books), page 564.

"To teach is to help someone learn something more quickly than he [or she!] would learn it by trial and error." (Anon.)

IT SHOULD BE OBVIOUS that the discipline of Anthropology is a"changing" one (as are all disciplines in the 21st century), andplease think about the following (dated July 11, 2003):

AnthroSource -- Enriching Scholarship and Building GlobalCommunities

"A portal for anthropological research, AnthroSource will provide electronic access to all AAA periodicals, past, present, and future in a single searchable, linked database. Go to the AAA Web site [ to access the AnthroSource Working Group's report on the progress in AAA's transition to electronic publishing.  Read about the services AnthroSource plans to offer AAA members; AAA leadership and staff's efforts to develop the portal; how this project will transform AAA's present publications program; and the principles guiding the development process.  AnthroSource is anticipated to be implemented in the beginning of 2004, and is designed to be financially sustainable in four years [stress added]." [July 11, 2003]

SO, FOR THE PRESENT COURSE OF ANTH 496 / 496H,PLEASE read any one of the following items from theselections on RESERVE by Wednesday September 3, 2008.(Remember: No class on Monday September 1, 2008.)

Boorstin: pp. 626-635.
Darnell Selection #5 (pp. 61-77) or pp. 289-321.
Kardiner and Preble: pp. 11-32.
Mead & Bunzel: pp. 1-12.
Montagu: pp. 91-97, 49-145, and 157-162.
Naroll & Naroll: Ch 2 (pp. 25-56).
Penniman: part of Ch. 4 (pp. 73-110).
Stocking (1991): pp. 8-45.

PLEASE Begin reading Merryl Wyn Davies and Piero, 2002,Introducing Anthropology, pp. 1-19.


"It is our choices that show what we truly are, far more than our abilities." The character Albus Dumbledore to Harry Potter, IN Harry Potter And the Chamber of Secrets, 1998, by Joanne K. Rowling, page 333.

"First impressions at all times very much depend on one'spreviously-acquired ideas." Charles R. Darwin [1809-1882],1839, The Voyage of the Beagle (Chapter 18: "Tahiti And NewZealand"), 1972 Bantam paperback edition (with "Introduction" byWalter Sullivan), page 357.

NOTE: "What C.S. Lewis [1898-1963] called the 'snobbery of chronology' encourages us to presume that just because we happen to have lived after our ancestors and can read books which give us some account of what happened to them, we must also know better than them. We certainly have more facts at our disposal. We have more wealth, both personal and national, better technology, and infinitely more skilful ways of preserving and extending our lives. But whether we today display more wisdom or common humanity is an open question, and as we look back to discover how people coped with the daily difficulties of existence a thousand [or less!] years ago, we might also consider whether, in all our sophistication, we could meet the challenges of their world with the same fortitude, good humour, and philosophy" [stress added]." Robert Lacey & Danny Danziger, 1999, The Year 1000: What Life Was Like At The Turn of the First Millennium - An Englishman's World, page 201.

"He had a term for people like this: temporal provincials--peoplewho were ignorant of the past, and proud of it. Temporal provincialswere convinced that the present was the only time that mattered, andthat anything that had occured earlier could be safely ignored. Themodern world was compelling and new, and the past had no bearing onit." Michael Crichton, 1999, Timeline (NY: Ballantine Books),page 84.

"By 'event' I mean the development, appearance, or publication of a scientific paper, or an influential scientific address, or a specific discovery, or a letter, or a photograph made during the use of laboratory equipment, or a page of a laboratory notebook, and so forth. Each of these has a physical residue that can be studied and that lends itself to the eventual formation of a consensus among competent observers who come to a historic case from different directions. It is in this case analogous to what an elementary particle physicist calls an event, for example, a trace of sparks in a spark chamber. The task of historians of science [or Anthropology!], then, is to use these events as the underlying factual base and to proceed inductively from that base [stress added]." Gerald Holton, 1986, The Advancement of Science, And Its Burdens (Cambridge University Press), page ix.

"In his perceptive little book Technopoly, Neil Postmanargues that all disciplines ought to be taught as if they werehistory. That way, students 'can begin to understand, asthey now do not, that knowledge is not a fixed thing but a stagein human development, with a past and a future.' I wish I'd said thatfirst. If all knowledge has a past--and computer technology issurely a special kind of knowledge--then all knowledge is contingent[stress added]." Paul de Palma, 1999, http://www.when_is_enough_enough?.com.The American Scholar, Winter, reprinted in David Quammen[Editor], 2000, The Best American Science And NatureWriting 2000, pages 34-47 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.), page36.

"In 1543, Nicolaus Copernicus [1473-1543] published his epoch-making work, On the Revolution of Celestial Orbs, the first modern, mathematical demonstration of the heliocentric theory. In the same year a remarkable oung Belgian physician, Andreas Vesalius [1514-1564] , published an anatomical text that was to have equaly profound repurcussions on Western man's understanding of himself. Called On the Fabric of the Human Body (De humani corporis fabrica), it contained a series of magnificent illustrations, unsurpassed to this day, of the skeletal, muscular, vascular and neural structure of the body as a whole. Never before had the human body been represented with such accuracy, exactly as it appears to the eye of the anatomist. For the first time, the body was seen--as it is still seen today--as a natural mechanism [stress added]." Jacob Needleman, 1975, A Sense of the Cosmos: The Encounter of Modern Science and Ancient Truth (NY: Doubleday & Co., Inc.), page 37.

"Darwin's work, in particular, radically unnerved thousands whoheld a biblical view of humankind's historical story; and to this daythe implications of his thinking for biology (and even psychology andsociology) have been profound. He himself became an agnostic andsaw no great overall moral or philosophical meaning in the longchronology of our being, which he regarded, rather, as a story ofaccidents and incidents, of chance and circumstance as they all cameto bear on 'natural selection.' Although Copernicus[1473-1543] and Galileo [1564-1642] andNewton [1642-1727] have been absorbed, so to speak,by traditional Christianity, by no means has Darwin's view of ourorigin and destiny been universally integrated into theteachings, the theology, of many religions that rely upon the Biblefor their inspiration, their sense of who we are, where we came from,how our purpose here ought to be described. It was one thing forscientists to probe the planets, declare that this place we inhabitis only one spot in a seemingly endless number of places in an everexpanding universe, or to examine closely our body's cells, or othseof other creatures; it was quite another matter to suggest that weourselves are merely an aspect of an ever changing nature, that our'origin' was not 'divine' but a consequence of a biological saga ofsorts [stress added]." Robert Coles, 1999, TheSecular Mind (Princeton University Press), pages 50-51.

"He [Charles Darwin] believed that the natural world was the result of constantly repeated small and accumulative actions, a lesson he had first learned when reading Lyell's Principles of Geology on board the Beagle and had put to work ever since. ... No one, not even Lyell himself, or any of Darwin's closest friends and supporters, accepted as ardently as Darwin that the book of nature was about the accumulative powers of the small [stress added]." Janet Browne, 2002, Charles Darwin: The Power of Place - Volume II of a Biography (NY: Alfred A. Knopf), page 490.

"...I do believe something very magical can happen when youread a good book" [stress added]." (Joanne K. Rowling,1999, Harry Potter Author Reveals The Secret.... In USAWeekend, November 12-14, 1999, page 4.)

"As the Spanish proverb says, 'He [or she], who would bring home the wealth of the Indies, must carry the wealth of the Indies with him.' So it is in travelling; a man must carry the wealth of the Indies with him, if he would bring home knowledge.' BOSWELL. 'The proverb, I suppose, Sir, means he must carry a large stock with him to trade with.' JOHNSON. 'Yes Sir.'" James Boswell [1740-1795], 1791, The Life of Samuel Johnson (NY: [1968] Signet Classic), page 467.

"The barbarous heathen are nothing more strange to us than weare to them.... Human reason is a tincture in like weight andmeasure infused into all our opinions and customs, what form soeverthey be, infinite in matter, infinite in diversity [stressadded]." Michel Eyquem de Montaigne [1533-1592],Essays, page 53 [1959 paperback publication of atranslation from 1603]. 

"Lord Voldemort's gift for spreading discord and enmity is very great. We can fight it only by showing an equally strong bond of fiendship and trust. Differences of habit and language are nothing at all if our aims are identical and our hearts open" [stress added]." Albus Dumbledore, In Harry Potter And The Goblet of Fire, 2000, by Joanne K. Rowling, page 723.

"....descriptions vary with the conceptual or theoreticalframework within which they are couched. To evaluate a descriptionproperly one must know something about the theoretical framework thatbrought it into being." D. Kaplan and R. Manners, CultureTheory, 1972: 22.

"Lisa, get away from that jazzman! Nothing personal. I just fear the unfamiliar [stress added]." Marge Simpson, February 11, 1990, Moaning Lisa. Matt Groening et al., 1997, The Simpsons: A Complete Guide To Our Favorite Family (NY: HarperCollins), page 22.

"Much of the eighteenth century is often referred to as theEnlightenment or the Age of Enlightenment. Frequent reiteration doesnot make these terms any easier to define. ... The Enlightenmentcould be described as a tendency, rather than a movement, atendency towards critical enquiry and the application of reason[stress added]." Jeremy Black, 1999, History ofEurope: Eighteenth Century Europe, Second Edition (NY: St.Martin's Press), page 246.

"Anthropology is the product of three great historical movements: the Age of Exploration, the Enlightenment, and Evolutionism." Philip K. Bock, 1990, Rethinking Psychological Anthropology: Continuity and Change in the Study of Human Action, page 5.

"...the Scientific Revolution took place in Europe, not in theMuslim lands, India or China. There were two chief reasons forthis, one internal to Europe and one not. During thetwelfth and thirteenth centuries, Europe spawned the autonomousuniversity.... which had a corporate legal existence that marked itoff as a community where scholars were usually free to dispute asthey saw fit. ... [#1] The survival of universities gaveEuropean scientists a supportive community not quite paralleledelsewhere in the world. ...[#2] Into this archipelago ofintellectual liberty after 1450 came information from all over theworld [stress added]." J.R. McNeill & WilliamH. McNeill, 2003, The Human Web: A Bird's-Eye View of WorldHistory (NY: W.W. Norton & Co.), page 187.

"Travel teaches seven important lessons [according to Arthur Frommer, age 76, author of travel books].... 1. Travelers learn that all people in the world are basically alike. ... 2. Travelers discover that eberyone regards himself or herself as wiser and better than other people in the world. ... 3. Travel makes us care about strangers. ... 4. Travel teaches that not everyone shares your beliefs. ... 5. Travelers learn that there is more than one solution to a problem. ... 6. Travel teaches you to be a minority. ... 7. Travel teaches humility." Larry Bleiberg, 2003, Among Travel's Seven Important Lessons is Humility. The Sacramento Bee, February 2, 2003, page M3.

"The fundamental fact that shapes the future of anthropology isthat it deals in knowledge of others. Such knowledge has alwaysimplied ethical and political responsibilities, andtoday the 'others' whom anthropologists have studied makethose responsibilities explicit and unavoidable. One mustconsider the consequences for those among whom one works of simplybeing there, of learning about them, and of what becomes of what islearned [stress added]." Dell Hymes, 1972, The use ofAnthropology: Critical, Political, Personal, IN Dell Hymes[Editor],1972, Reinventing Anthropology, pages 3-79,page 48.

"Why study the history of anthropological theory? Many students ask this question, and the answer is straightforward: anthropology is a product of its past, so to understand anthropology with sophistication, students [and faculty!] need to know how it developed....There is, of course, no one history of anthropological theory. History depends on the historian.... [stress added]." Paul A. Erickson and Liam D. Murphy [Editors], 2006, Readings For A History of Anthropological Theory (Ontario, Canada: Broadview Press), page xiii.

"Students of history [or the History of Anthropology Iadd] are rarely, if ever, asked to criticize what theyread in their U.S. [Anthropology] history textbooksor any [anthropological] historical research, nor dopeople question a textbook's [or ethnographic report's] pointof view. We as history [of Anthropology] educators wouldbe better served if they did. For by forcing people to dissectand question their U.S. [Anthropological]history textbooks and their understanding of[Anthropological] history, we get closer tolifting the veil off the knowledge we have that our[Anthropological] history is not only an important subjectfor a society but also an intriguiging and inspirational story aswell. And hopefully, in the long run, we can destroy the curseand let others in on the secret that [the] history [ofAnthropology] is not written in stone but is actually a subjectthat needs discussion, debate, and research to keep in alive andinteresting to all [stress added]." Kyle Ward, 2006,History in the Making: An Absorbing Look At How American HistoryHas Changed in the Telling over the Last 200 Years (NewYork/London: The New Press), page xxv.


"Roughly 45,000 new Ph.D.s [in all fields] will begraduating this year [2003], double the number from 35 yearsago. Almost all believe they will turn their long, underpaidpursuit of truth into professorships - the tenured kind in which theycan't be fired and can research what they spent five or more yearsstudying. But universities, despite dangling tenuredprofessorships like carrots to their graduate students, haven'tdouble their tenure-track hiring. ... The Modern LanguageAssociation [for example] counted only 431 tenure-trackEnglish jobs landed in 2001, compared with 977 English Ph.D.sgranted. One 1999 study found that ony 53% of students whoreceived their English doctorate between 1983 and 1985 were tenuredprofessors by 1995. A mere 8% were tenured professors at'Carnegie Research I institutuions' - univrsities with their ownmajor doctoral programs. All fine - if everyone knows theodds. But 51% of these English Ph.D.s took nine or more years tofinish their degrees, and 95% took more than five. Would they haveinvested that kind of time if they had understood they had only an 8%chance of landing jobs like their professors held? One survey foundonly 35% of students received realistic job-placement informationfrom their departments [stress added]." Laura Canderkam,2003, System wastes Ph.D. brainpower. USA Today, May 20, 2003,page 13A.

Urbanowicz adds that a 1991 report noted that forAnthropology, the median time from the B.A. to the Ph.D. was 12.4years; for comparison purposes, for Psychology itwas 10.1 years and for Economics 9.1 years from B.A. to Ph.D.(R. L. Peters, 1992, Getting What You Came For: The SmartStudent's Guide To Earning A Master's Or A Ph.D. (Farrar, Straussand Giroux), page 12.) [And see: Urbanowicz 1993,,or Essay #6, CHARLES R. DARWIN: HAPPY 116TH ANNIVERSARYbelow.]

For the 2006-2007 Academic Year, a total of 699 individuals received the Ph.D. in Anthropology: there were 409 females [58.5%] and 290 males [41.5%]; note, this includes degrees from Australia (22), Canada (96),Finland (5), Mexico (3), and the United Kingdom (49). Source: The 2007-2008 American Anthropological Association Guide, pages 654-656.

For the 2005-2006 Academic Year, a total of 603 individuals received the Ph.D. in Anthropology: there were 329 females [55%] and 274 males [45%]; note, this includes degrees from Australia (18), Canada (43), Croatia (2),Finland (5), Mexico (7), and the United Kingdom (32). Source: The 2006-2007 American Anthropological Association Guide, pages 635-636. [NB: Guide has 605 degrees.]

For the 2004-2005 Academic Year, a total of 677 individuals received the Ph.D. in Anthropology: there were 441 females [65%] and 236 males [35%]; note, this includes degrees from Australia (16), Canada (52), China (1), Croatia (2),Finland (5), Norway (2), and the United Kingdom (59). Source: The 2005-2006 American Anthropological Association Guide, pages 629-630.

For the 2003-2004 Academic Year, a total of 655 individuals received the Ph.D. in Anthropology: there were 373 females [57%] and 282 males [43%]; note, this includes degrees from Australia (30), Canada (39), China (2), Mexico (3), Norway (2), and the United Kingdom (59). Source: The 2004-2005 American Anthropological Association Guide, page 650.

For the 2002-2003 Academic Year, a total of 603 individuals received the Ph.D. in Anthropology: there were 401 females [66.51%] and 202 males [33.49%]; note, this includes degrees from Australia (13), Canada (41), Hong Kong (1), Mexico (3), Norway (6), and the United Kingdom (36). Source: The 2003-2004 American Anthropological Association Guide, page 606.

For the 2001-2002 Academic Year, a total of 588 individuals received the Ph.D. in Anthropology: there were 331 females [56.3%] and 257 males [43.7%]; note, this includes degrees from Australia (13), Canada (39), Hong Kong (2), Mexico (7), Norway (6), and the United Kingdom (35). Source: The 2002-2003 American Anthropological Association Guide, page 606.

For the 2000-2001 Academic Year, a total of 603 individuals received the Ph.D. in Anthropology: there were 360 females [59.7%] and 243 males [40.3%]; note, this includes degrees from Australia (7), Canada (31), Ireland (1), Mexico (3), Norway (4), South Africa (1), and the United Kingdom (82). Source: The 2000-2001 American Anthropological Association Guide, page 582.

For the 1999-2000 Academic Year, a total of 641 individuals received the Ph.D. in Anthropology: no gender-specific information was provided. Note: this included degrees from Australia (11), Canada (39), China (1), Mexico (4), New Zealand (1), and the United Kingdom (30). Source: The 1999-2000 American Anthropological Association Guide, page 699.

For the 1998-1999 Academic Year, a total of 616 individuals received the Ph.D. in Anthropology: there were 349 females [57%] and 267 males [43%]. Source: The 1999-2000 American Anthropological Association Guide, page 553.

NOTE: "Doctoral research in anthropology [over the years 1891 to 1930] was mainly a young man's pursuit: more than 85 percent [of the total of 124 doctorates over this time period] were men, and more than 81 percent were under 35 at graduation, with half under 30 [stress added]." Jay H. Bernstein, 2002, First Recipients of Anthropological Doctorates in the United States, 1891-1930. The American Anthropologist, Vol. 104, No. 2, June, pages 551-565, page 557.

INCIDENTALLY, in the year Urbanowicz received his Ph.D.(1972) the following numbers are of interest: 301individuals received the advanced degree: 215 males and86 females.

NOTE THE STATISTICS on "Anthropology Meetings" over the years: In New Orleans, November 2002, a total of 3,362 papers and 5,461 individuals registered for the meetings [including several CSU, Chico students!) (Anthropology News, February 2003, page 13). In 1967 at the national meetings there were 309 papers which increased to 2,274 papers in 1992 (with 5,161 registrations).

"Over the last two years, Genevieve Bell [Ph. D inAnthropology from Stanford Universityt] an anthropologistemployed by Intel Research, has visited 100 households in 19cities in seven countries in Asia and the pacific to study how peopleuse technology. Twenty gigabytes of digital photos later--along with206,000 air miles...she has come back with some provocativequestions about technology, culture and design [stressadded]." Michael Erard, 2004, For Technology, No Small WorldAfter All. The New York Times, May 6, 2004, page E7.

"The single most important discovery for women explorers may bethe freedom that lies at the heart of the very act of exploration."Reeve Lindberg, 2000, Introduction. Living With Cannibals AndOther Women's Adventures, by Michele Slung (Washington, D.C.,National Geographic Society), pages 1-7, page 2.

Biruté Galdikas} "Born [in 1946] to Lithuanian parents who emigrated to Canada in 1948, Biruté Galdikas traces her lifelong fascination with the natural sciences to the collection of wriggling tadpoles and salamanders she scooped up in a Toronto park not far from her house." Biruté Galdikas. Living With Cannibals And Other Women's Adventures, by Michele Slung (Washington, D.C., National Geographic Society), pages 126-137, page 128.

"The anthropologist is a human instrument studying otherhuman beings and their societies. Although he [and she!] hasdeveloped techniques that give him [and her] considerableobjectivity, it is an illusion for him to think he can remove his[or her] personality from his work and become a facelessrobot or a machinelike recorder of human events[stress added]." Hortense Powdermaker[1896-1970], 1966, Stranger And Friend: The Way Of AnAnthropologist, page 19.)

"But while I think that different social anthropologists who studied the same people would record much the same facts in their notebooks, I believe they would write different kinds of books. Within the limits imposed by their discipline and the culture under investigation anthropologists are guided in choice of theme, in selection and arrangement of facts to illustrate them, and in judgement of what is and what is not significant, by their different interests, reflecting differences of personality, of education, of social status, of political views, of religious convictions, and so forth. One can only interpret what one sees in terms of what one is, and anthropologists, while they have a body of knowledge in common, differ in other respects as widely as other people in their backgrounds of experience and in themselves. The personality of an anthropologist cannot be eliminated from his [or her!] work any more than the personality of an historian can be eliminated from his. Fundamentally, in his account of a primitive people the anthropologist is not only describing their social life as accurately as he can but is expressing himself also. In this sense his account must express moral judgement, especially where it touches matters on which he feels strongly; and what comes out of a study will to this extent at least depend on what the individual brings to it [stress added]." Sir Edward Evans-Pritchard [1902-1973], Fieldwork and the empirical tradition. Social Anthropology and Other Essays (1962), pages 64-85, pages 83-84.

"WHY STUDY THEORY? Theory is critical because, althoughanthropologists collect data through fieldwork, data in and ofthemselves are meaningless. Whether stated explicitly or assumed,theories are the tools anthropologists use to give meaning to theirdata. Anthropologists' understanding of the artifacts they collect orthe events they record in the field is derived from their theoreticalperspective." R.J. McGee & R.L. Warms, 2004, AnthropologicalTheory: An Introductory History, page 1.

"Why study the history of anthropological theory? Many students ask this question, and the answer is straightforward: anthropology is a product of its past, so to understand anthropology with sophistication, students [and all anthropologists!] need to know how it developed. ... There is, of course, no one history of anthropological theory. History depends on the historian, who is selective in presenting theories and who is influenced, consciously or unconsciously, by personal background, education, or 'agenda.' For this reason, no one textbook in the history of anthropological theory can ever be definitive, including the textbook written by the current editors, A History of Anthropological Theory (1998). ... There is also no one reader in the history of anthropological theory [stress added]." Paul A Erickson and Liam D. Murphy, 2002, Readings For A History of Anthropological Theory (Ontario, Canada: Broadview Press), page ix.

"It is useful to think of theory as containing four basicelements: (1) questions, (2) assumptions, (3) methods, and (4)evidence. The most important questions, to my mind, are 'What arewe trying to find out?', and 'Why is this knowledge useful?'Anthropological knowledge could be useful, for example, either intrying to understand one's own society, or in trying to understandthe nature of the human species [stress added]." AlanBarnard, 2000, History and Theory in Anthropology (CambridgeUniversity Press), page 5.

"What is the past? Some might argue that, in a strict sense, it doesn't exist. The past is only the memory or residue of things that now exist in the present moment, a mental construction that--cleaned up or embellished--often serves the need of the current moment instead of corresponding to any historic 'truth' [stress added]." Alexander Stille, 2002, The Future of the Past (NY: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux), page 311.

"After dedicating their careers to studying exotic cultures infaraway lands, a few anthropologists are coming home. They'retaking research techniques they once used in African shantytownsand Himalayan villages to Knights of Columbus halls, corporateoffice buildings and suburban shopping centers.... [TheAnthropologists] study American families the way they wouldPolynesian cargo cults or Mongolian nomads--by inserting themselvesinto the daily lives of their subjects" [stressadded]." Matt Crenson, 2000, Anthropologists Among Us. TheModesto Bee, July 17, 2000, pages D1 and D2.

"Feminist anthropology has been a forerunner in debates about power differentials between those observing and those being observed. This article explores how theoretical interventions made by third-wave feminists have led to revisions of the canon, particularly in the understandings of methodology (fieldwork), subject matter (culture), and ethnographic writing." Ravina Aggarwal, 2000, Traversing Lines of Control: Feminst Anthropology Today. The Annals of The American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 571 (September 2000), pages 14-29, page 14.

"All across America, the landscape suffers from amnesia, not abouteverything, but about many crucial events and issues of our past. ...If we cannot face our history honestly, we cannot learn from thepast [stress added]." James W. Loewen, 1999,What Our Historic Sites get Wrong: Lies Across America (NY:The New Press), pages 18 and 22).

"I love quotations. Maybe it's a symptom of a short-attention-span, instant-gratification age, but I'm a sucker for a well-stated tidbit of brevity and wit. For me, quotes do with precision what reading does in general: they confirm the astuteness of my perceptions, they open the way to ideas, and they console me with the knowledge that I'm not alone [stress added]." John Winkonur, 1990 [editor], W.O.W. Writers on Writing (Philadelphia: Running Press), page 1.

"A home without a library lacks diversity of voices, opinionsand world views. When you read a book, you enter another person'sperspective. And because a reader can put the book down and thinkabout what the author has said, a good reader enters a dialogue withthe author or the characters created by the author. One can rereadpassages and linger over thoughts or ideas or savor the deliciousnessof the language. Television, even at its best, lacks diversityand the ability of a viewer to carry on an inner dialogue with thespeakers or the authors of the program. Books encouragethinking. A reader must create images from the words the authorhas supplied, must imagine the events described, must track the plotor the logic of the writer and must visualize the main characters inthe mind's eye. The book is in your hands. You can return topassages if there is something you don't understand. You canargue with the author in your head; you can nod in agreement. Youlearn, unconsciously, the way words can fit together--sometimes sowell that they seem inevitable and irresistible [stressadded]." Charles Levendosky, Read a banned book, give one to yourchildren. The Sacramento Bee, October 2, 1999, page B7)

PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING from USAToday of May 10, 2002: Kids get 'abysmal' grade in history: High school seniors don't know basics. "On the test: 57% of seniors could not perform even at the basic level. 32% performed at the basic level. 10% performed grade-level work, and 1% were advanced or superior. ... The federally mandated test was administered to 29,000 fourth-, eighth- and 12th-graders at 1,100 public and private schools. Fourth-and eighth-grade students did better than seniors, but not by much. ... [Sample Question]: When the United States entered the Second World War, one of its allies was: A) Germany. B) Japan. C) The Soviet Union. D) Italy. 52% failed to pick the correct answer, C. ... [stress added]." Tamara Henry, USAToday, May 10, 2002, page 1. (And see the web site:} National Center for Education Statistics.)

"Beliefs are like cow paths. The more often you walk down a path,the more it looks the right way." Richard Brodie, 1996, Virus OfThe Mind: The New Science of the Meme [Seattle, WN: IntegralPress], page 207.

"Don't fall in love with the theory of the case."
The character "Butch" Karp. Robert Tanenbaum, 1996, FalseAccused (NY: Signet Books), page 316.
"...all the time, the sure sense that something was just so, when it wasn't. Something that felt so good that it had to be. You could build a great logical case out of pure bullshit, and it happened too frequently [stress added]." Thoughts of the character Lucas Davenport. John Sanford, 2002, Mortal Prey (NY: G.P. Putnam's Sons), page 305.

Consider the words of Hermione Granger: "It's all inHogwarts, A History. Though, of course, that book's notentirely reliable. A Revised History ofHogwarts would be a more accurate title. Or A Highly Biasedand Selective History of Hogwarts Which Glosses Over theNastier Aspects of the School." In Harry Potter And TheGoblet of Fire, 2000, by Joanne K. Rowling, page 238.

"The unit of survival [or adaptation] is organism plus environment. We are learning by bitter experience that the organism which destroys its environment destroys itself. If, now, we correct the Darwinian unit of survival to include the environment and the interaction between organism and environment, a very strange and surprising identity emerges: the unit of survival turns out to be identical with the unit of mind" [italics in original; stress added]." Gregory Bateson [1904-1980], 1972, Steps To An Ecology of Mind (NY: Ballantine Books), page 483.

"Critiques of anthropology from within the discipline and fromwithout have been a major feature of our intellectual life since thelate 1960s. The theoretical and empirical bases of cultural andsocial anthropology have been under attack since the Marxist and NewLeft critiques of the 1960s to those coming more recently frompoststructuralism, postmodernism and literate theory, andpostcolonial and cultural studies. As a result, several academicgenerations have been educated by reading the attacks on the fieldbut rarely dealing with the actual theoretical works andethnographies of earlier anthropologists. This article deals withseveral of the most common charges leveled at anthropology, notablythat it has regularly and necessarily exoticized 'Others,' has beenahistorical, and has treated each culture as if it were an isolate,unconnected to any other. It demonstrates how inaccurate and easilyfalsifiable such claims are and recommends a critical reevaluation ofthese unexamined and destructive cliches [stressadded]." Herbert Lewis, 1998, The Misrepresentation ofAnthropology and Its Consequences. American Anthropologist,Vol. 100, No. 3, pages 716-731, page 716.

"Finally, I wish to emphasize once more that what has been said here in a somewhat categorical form does not claim to mean more than the personal opinion of a man, which is founded on nothing but his own personal experience, which he has gathered as a student and as a teacher [stress added]." Albert Einstein [1879-1955]

Urbanowicz adds again: "I quote others only the better toexpress myself." (Michel Eyquem de Montaigne [1533-1592]French philosopher/essayist); or, in another translation: "Ionly quote others to make myself more explicit." (Essays,translated by J.M. Cohen, 1958, page 52).

"I suppose the real reason for taking an interest in history is, as some ship's navigator must have once said, you can only predict where you're going if you know where you've been. ... [The] journey from past to present, full of unexpected encounters and events along the way, has brought you to where you are and who you are at this moment, reading these words. This is why the past is no foreign, unknown land. The people in the past were trapped in their context, just as we are in ours. ... You may not agree with the way these essays [or course!] present events. That's fine. There is no single correct way to track from the past to the present. And if your disagrrement goes so far as to drive you to find alternate routes for what I write about that are even better, write your own history. The more of us doing so, the better [stress added]." James Burke, 2000, Circles: 50 Round Trips through history, Technology, Science, Culture (NY: SImon & Schuster), pages 13 -16.

Interesting (And Somewhat Appropriate General) Web SitesAre:[Anthropology in The News][The ANTHAP - Applied Anthropology ComputerNetwork][American Anthropological Association][A Massive Anthropology site!][Check out CSU Chico][Anthropology Theory from Indiana University][CHECK Out Anthropology Biographies from Minnesota StateUniversity, Mankato and their EMuseum][A Timeline for Anthropologists by Peter W. Wood][History of Anthropology][ChicoRio - Research Instruction On-Line]

ONCE AGAIN, FOR A "ROUGH" MASTER CHART OF SOME INDIVIDUALS(located towards the end of this Guidebook - or "roughly" inthe middle-of-the-printed-volume), please click here.In addition to the Department of Anthropology "Home Page" at CSU,Chico (,some Interesting (and specific CSU, Chico) web sites can be found byclicking here (locatedtowards the end of this Guidebook - or "roughly" in themiddle-of-the-printed-volume).

WHY MAN CREATES / The Edifice: A series of explorations, episodes, & comments on creativity

Mumble, mumble, roar!
The lever.
Harry, do you realize you just invented the wheel?
I know, I know.

Bronze, Iron.
All was in chaos 'til Euclid arose and made order.

What is the good life?
And how do you lead it?
Who shall rule the state?
The philosopher king.
The aristocrat.
The people.
You mean all the people? 

What is the nature of the good?
What is the nature of justice?
What is happiness? 

Hail Caesar!
Roman law is now in session.

Allah be praised, I've invented the zero.
Nothing, nothing.

What is the shape of the earth?
What happens when you get to the edge?
You fall off.
Does the earth move?

The earth moves.
The earth is round.
The blood circulates.
There are worlds smaller than ours.
There are worlds larger than ours. 

Hey, whatya doing?
I'ma paintin' the ceiling.
Whatya doing?
I'ma paintin' the floor.

Darwin says man is an animal.
Rot. Man is not an animal.

Hmmm. Shall we start from the beginning?

I'm a bug, I'm a germ.
Louie Pasteur!
I'm not a bug, I'm not a germ. 

Think it will work Alfred?
Let's give it a try.
Whatya think?
It worked.

All men are created equal....
Life, Liberty, and the pursuit....
Workers of the world....
Government of the people by the people....
The world must be made safe....
The war to end all wars....
A league of nations....
I see one third of a nation ill-housed....
One world....


WEEK 2. No Class Monday September 1, 2008so on Wednesday September 3, 2008} History of theory continued. Keyconcepts, as well as Pre/Post-Darwin individuals andinformation.

Required Reading in: Langness: pp. xi-14, Chapter 1 (pp.15-60) and glance at Langness Chapter 8 (pp. 277-288);please glance at the Kroeber & Kluckhohn 1952publication Culture; please glance at Slotkin,pp. v-243. Please see Urbanowicz on "Four Fields" whichmay be found by clicking here:ESSAY #2 at the end of the printed volume.

"I cannot see that lectures can do so much as reading thebooks from which the lectures are taken."
Samuel Johnson [1709-1784]; as quoted in James Boswell[1740-1795], 1791, Life of Johnson.

YOU should have read any one of the following items,listed in WEEK 1, from the selections on RESERVE by WednesdaySeptember 5, 2008:

Boorstin: pp. 626-635.
Darnell Selection #5 (pp. 61-77) or pp. 289-321.
Kardiner and Preble: pp. 11-32.
Mead & Bunzel: pp. 1-12.
Montagu: pp. 91-97, 49-145, and 157-162.
Naroll & Naroll: Ch 2 (pp. 25-56).
Penniman: part of Ch. 4 (pp. 73-110).
Stocking (1991): pp. 8-45.

PLEASE Continue reading Merryl Wyn Davies and Piero, 2002,Introducing Anthropology, pp. 1-19.

PLEASE NOTE} Do come to class EVERY-SINGLE-DAY with a "quotation" or a phrase that struck YOU in some way: either from this Guidebook or Langness or Davies & Piero.


"Culture, consisting as it does of mental constructs, is not directly observable. It cannot, therefore, constitute the empirical data of any discipline [stress added]." Walter W. Taylor, 1948 [1913-1997], A Study of Archaeology (Southern Illinois University press), page 108.

"Culture, or Civilization, taken in its wide ethnographic sense,is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals,law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man asa member of society." Edward Burnett Tylor [1832-1917], 1871,Primitive Culture.

CULTURE: " denotes an historically transmitted pattern of meanings embodied in symbols, a system of inherited conceptions expressed in symbols, a system of inherited conceptions expressed in symbolic forms by means of which men [and women!] communicate, perpetuate, and develop their knowledge and attitudes towards life [stress added]." Clifford Geertz [born 1926], 1973, The Interpretation of Cultures (NY: Basic Books), page 89.

"Anthropology is the product of three great historical movements:the Age of Exploration, the Enlightenment, andevolutionism [stress added]." Philip K. Bock,1980, Rethinking Psychological Anthropology: Continuity and Changein the Study of Human Action (NY: [1998] W.H. Freeman andCo.), page 5.

"The Enlightenment is commonly defined as a period that has emphasized the exercise of enlightened reason. It was not so much a doctrine of ideas as a method of pursuing ideas. Rigorous intellect without attachment to superstition or bias was its hallmark [stress added]." Jack Watson & Grant McKernie, 1993, A Cultural History of Theatre, page 244.

"The European Enlightenment of the eighteenth century occurredduring that epoch in the history of man when he realised that hecould both understand and control his environment. By hisenvironment is meant society, political, social and economicarrangements, as well as the natural world, his health, the climate,the fabric of the earth itself. ... The Enlightenment was the periodthat in science saw the rise to considerable influence and acceptanceof the experimental method of Isaac Newton [1642-1727] andthe extension of that method to the study of society itself[stress added]." Anand C. Chitnis, 1976, TheScottish Enlightenment: A Social History (London: Croom Helm),page 4.

"The Scottish Enlightenment was an intellectual movement that complemented the Whig regime in the city [of Edinburgh]. It celebrated progressive ideas and witnessed significant contributions in fields as diverse as geology, minerology, chemistry, medicine, political economy, history, philosophy, architecture, poetry, and portrature. If there was a unifying theme of philosophy, it was that the 'improvement' of the natural world--by means of understanding and controlling it--was fundamentally good and proper. Related to this was the idea that Newton-inspired natural laws could and should be applied to many phenomena, such as human nature and human history. Immanuel Kant's [1724-1804] characterization for the Englightenment on the Continent also described the Scottish version: 'Dare to know' [sapere aude] [stress added]." Jack Repcheck, 2003, The Man Who Found Time: James Hutton And the Discovery of the Earth's Antiquity (Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books), pages 127-128.

ON certain individuals: "...of intelligence[who] notice more things and view them more carefully, butthey comment on them; and to establish and substantiate theirinterpretation, they cannot refrain from altering the facts a little.They present things just as they are but twist and disguise themto conform to the point of view from which they have seen them; andto gain credence for their opinion and make it attractive, they donot mind adding something of their own, or extending and amplifying."Michel Eyquem de Montaigne [1533-1592] Frenchphilosopher/essayist), Essays, translated by J.M. Cohen, 1958,page 108.

REMEMBER: "Read not to contradict and confute; nor to believe and take for granted; nor to find talk and discourse; but to weigh and consider. Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested; that is, some books are to be read only in parts; others to be read but not curiously; and some to be read wholly, and with diligence and attention." Francis Bacon [1561-1626], English essayist and philosopher.

ON THE IMPORTANCE OF READING THE ORIGINALS, please note thefollowing: "The abridgement of Les Misérables[originally published in French in 1862 by Victor Hugo,1802-1885, is inevitably different from the complete novel. Whatis chiefly lost is the novel of ideas, the novel which treats anumber of the central problems and interests of nineteenth-centuryFrance [stress added!]." James K. Robinson,"Introduction" to Les Misérables, 1961 (NY:Fawcett Premier), page 9.

"The Persian Letters [published in 1721 by Montesquieu [1686-1755], is among the earliest major works by students of man and society to apply what has been called the double optic of cultural relativism. It was this that enabled Montesquieu to regard his own society as a subject for investigation at least as problematical as any other." Melvin Richter, 1977, The Political Theory of Montesquieu, page 31.

"Who invented the telephone? Microsoft Corp's Encarta multimediaencyclopedia on CD-ROM has an answer to that simple question.Rather, two answers. Consult the U.S., U.K., or Germaneditions of Encarta and you find the expected one: Alexander GrahamBell. But look at the Italian version and the story isstrikingly different. Credit goes to Antonio Meucci, animpoverished Italian-American candlemaker who, as theItalian-language Encarta tells it, beat Bell to the punch by fiveyears. Who's right? Depends on where you live. ...[stress added]." Kevin J. Delaney, 1999, Microsoft'sEncarta Has Different Facts For Different Folks. The Wall StreetJournal, June 25, 1999, page 1 & A11.

Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778): "Latinized form of Carl von Linné. Swedish naturalist and physician. His botanical work Systema Naturae 1735 contained his system for classfiying plants into groups depending on shared characteristics (such as the number of stamens in flowers), providing a much-needed framework for identification. He also devised the concise and precise system for naming plants and animals, using one Latin (or Latinized) word to represent the genus and a second to distinguish the species." Sarah Jenkins Jones (Editor), 1996, Random House Webster's Dictionary of Scientists, page 299.

"Borrowing from contemporary scientific models, thinkers inthe eighteenth and nineteenth centuries such as the Marquise deCondorcet [1745-1794] and August Comte [1798-1857]believed that human history was bound by laws. If thesecould be understood and the fruits of this research judiciouslyapplied, time would bring progress. Instead of the Christianemphasis on the salvation of the individual, thinkers prophesizedthat all humankind could partake of this new prosperity andknowledge. This shift in historical imagination can also betraced to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, when theagricultural and industrial revolutions made prosperity possible forthe multitude instead of the select few. Applied technologyrevolutionized old economic traditions wherein an elite minoritythrived on the labor of serfs and slaves. The nineteenth-centuryindustrial revolution proved the success of the happy union ofscience and applied technology that further fortified Europeanoptimism. Nature could be tamed, mastered, and minipulated to providea harmonious and knowable world, and technology could be used tocreate wealth and exploit resources at an unprecedented rate. Inthis new age of optimism, a secular version of historyhighlighted the steady march of select nations toward progress,reason, and scientific knowledge. It replaced the Christian view oldhistory, which traced humankind's sorrowful exile from the garden ofEden [stress added]." Choi Chatterjee et al., 2002,The 20th Century: A Retrospective (Cambridge, MA:Westview/Perseus Books), pages 3-4.

"The Marquis de Condorcet (1743-94), who contributed on mathematical subjects to the Encyclopédie, became perpetual secretary of the Académie des Sciences and supported Turgot's reforms and freedom of trade. He advanced probability theory (applying it outside the mechanical sciences) and wrote for a popular audience. In his General Picture of Science, which has for its Object the Application of Arithmetic to the Moral and Political Sciences (1783) Condorcet argued that a knowledge of probability, 'social arithmetic', allowed people to make rational decisions, instead of relying on instinct and passion. Condorcet was a great believer in the possibility of indefinite progress through human action, seeing the key in education. He believed that acquired characteristics could be inherited and thus that education could have a cumulative effect [stress added]." Jeremy Black, 1999, History of Europe: Eighteenth Century Europe, Second Edition (NY: St. Martin's Press), page 320.

Georges Cuvier (1769-1832): "Cuvier's greatest claim tofame is that he founded the science of fossils,paleontology--at least for the vertebrata, that of theinvertebreta having already been adumbrated by Lamarck. ... Byconcentrated study of the scattered bonex excavated from the gypsumquarries on the hills of Montmartre, he succeeded in reconstructingthe complete skeletons of Paleothorium and Anoplotherium; he wasguided in doing so by the principle of 'correlation of forms,'according to which all parts of an organic being a correlated andcombine to produce a common action. ... One of Cuvier's mostimportant discoveries was that every geological stratum containsfossils peculiar to it [stress added]." JeanRostand, 1963, The Development of Biology. The Nineteenth CenturyWorld: Readings From The History of Mankind (edited by Guy S.Métraux and Françoise Crouzet; New York: New AmericanLibrary), pages 177-192, page 185.

"Naturalists like Lamarck [1744-1829] and Erasmus Darwin [1731-1802] were intrigued by the eighteenth-century idea that unlimited progress and organic change were possible, but the fears generated by the excesses and terrors of the French Revolution did much to eclipse the hope of progress. Stability in society and nature seemed more desirable than limitless, unpredictable change. Indeed, evolutionary theories and their advocates were rejected and ridiculed by one of France's most eminent scientists, Georges Leopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert, Baron Cuvier (1769-1832). Georges Cuvier, preeminent comparative anatomist and founder of paleontology, was an implacable opponent of Lamarckian ideas in general and evolutionary ideas in particular [stress added]." Lois N. Magner, 2002, A Hisory of the Life Sciences (NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc.), pages 313-314.

"A colorful eccentric [William] Buckland[1784-1856], approached geology with a chaoticenthusiasm. Bones, skins, skulls, stones, all lay scatered abouthis rooms. They even spilled over onto his breakfast table, where itwas said that toast and trilobites fought for space. To add to theeffect, he combined this love of chaos with an adventurous--somewould say bizarre--culinary taste. Delicacies such as hedgehog,crocodile or bear were served to unway visitors, while those in theknow made their excuses. ... Buckland soon found evidence thatpersuaded him that Cuvier [1769-1832] was right, and thatEurope had recently been submerged beneath a tremendous flood.... On the strength of this evidence, Buckland believed he hadconfirmed the events of genesis. ...However, not everyone wasconvinced. Several geologists thought Buckland had twisted theevidence to fit the Bible..... Chief among this group was Lyell[1797-1875] [stress added]." Martin Gorst,2001, Measuring Eternity: The Search for the Beginning of Time(NY: Broadway Books), pages 141-143.

"During the winter of 1750-1751, Adam Smith [1723-1790] in Edinburgh and Baron Turgot [1727-1781] at the Sorbonne each gave lectures attempting a more general or scientific formulation of the idea of progress in cvilization. While Smith's did not as such survive, Turgot's clearly reflect the stimulus of Montesquieu [1686-1755], with one profound difference: Turgot's comparison is structured by time. An early passage provides a clear statement of what was later to be called the 'comparative method' of sociocultural evolutionism: 'thus the present state of the world...spreads out at one and the same time all the gradations from barabarism to refinement, thereby reveealing to us at a single glance...all the steps taken by the human mind, a reflection of all the stages through which it has passed' [stress added]." George W. Stocking, Jr., 1987, Victorian Anthropology (NY: The Free Press), page 14.

"During the nineteenth century most fields of social inquirywere clearly dominated by evolutionary or developmental orientations.The discovery of distant lands, exotic people, andextraordinary new animal species all had greatly widened theintellectual purview of European scholars and enormously expandedthe time scale within which man had formerly been considered. Thefixed and static catgegories of medieval thought were graduallydiscarded (not without a soul-searching wrench, of course), to bereplaced by notions of change and evolution, in the developingbiological sciences as well as the inchoate social disciplines. Inanthropology, pioneers like Edward B. Tylor[1832-1917] (Primitive Culture, 1871), Lewis HenryMorgan [1818-1881] (Ancient Society, 1877), andSir Henry Maine [1822-1888] (Ancient Law, 1861)were exponents of the evolutionary position. Even in sociology, whichhad not yet become sharply distinguished from anthroppology, suchoutstanding figures as Herbert Spencer [1820-1903](Principles of Sociology, 1876) and Emile Durkheim[1858-1917] (Division of Labor in Society, 1893)either argued for the evolutionary point of view with passion(Spencer) or accepted and operated within its basic assumption(Durkheim. ... It is true, of course, that Darwin's writing lentgreat impetus to the interest in cultural evolutionism, but thenineteenth-century evolutionists owe more to the French Enlightenmentwriters such as Condorcet [1743-1794], DavidHume [1711-1777], and Adam Smith[1723-1790] than they do to Charles Darwin[1809-1882]. Clearly, development and evolution were in theair [stress added]." David Kaplan and Robert A. Manners,1972, Culture Theory (New Jersecy: Prentice-Hall), page36.

"The refusal to acknowledge human nature is like the Victorians' embarrasment about sex, only worse: it distorts our science and scholarship, our public discourse, and our day-to-day lives. Logicians tell us that a single contradiction can corrupt a set of statements and allow falsehoods to proliferate through it. The dogma that human nature does not exist, in the face of evidence from science and common sense that it does, is just such a corrupting influence [stress added]." Steven Pinker, 2002, The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Behavior (NY: Viking/Penguin), page ix.

"Anthropology has been for some time now undergoing a critiqueled largely by ethnographers, who must face most squarely the moralambiguities of their surveillance and its public uses. Most ofthe historical examination of the field has been directed at thenineteenth century's climax of bad faith; the mutual aid offered eachother by academic anthropology and the imperial state has by now beenamply documented and lamented [stress added]."[The author's footnote #53 refers to her footnote #18 andnumerous references, including: Edward Said, 1979,Orientalism; Clifford & Marcus, 1986, WritingCulture; G.W. Stocking, 1983, Observers Observed; G.W.Stocking, 1987, Victorian Anthropology, as well as many morereferences.] Mary Baine Campbell, 1999, Wonder & Science:Imagining Worlds in Early Modern Europe (Cornell UniversityPress), page 66.

"This is a fantastic job. In my wildest dreams in graduate school, I couldn't have imagined a job this great." (John Sherry, anthropologist who studies computer use in extreme environments for Intel) AND "Over the year, [Bonnie] Nardi ["long-time design anthropologist who has worked at Hewlett-Packard and Apple and now does research at AT&T Labs West in Menlo Park, Calif."] has seen the idea of anthropology as a useful addition to industry becoming more commonplace. Today, both the University of California, Irvine, and Georgia Tech include ethnographic training as part of their computer science degree programs. 'They're attracting not just supergeeks, but people who want to work on the border of people and technology,' she says [stress added]." Elizabeth Weise, 1999, Companies Learn Value of Grass Roots: Anthropologists Help Adapt Products to World's Cultures. USA Today, May 26, 1999, page 4D. 

"Writing about a career teaching physical anthropology at auniversity is rather akin to writing about what it is like to undergoa colonoscopy or to visit Seattle. It is simply impossible to dojustice to the experience with oral or written descriptions. One musttruly experience it to appreciate everything that it is, in all ofits marvelous nuances [stress added]." Curtis W.Eienker,2002, Teaching Physical Anthropology in a University: TheTraditional Career. In A Guide to Careers in PhysicalAnthropology, Alan S. Ryan [Editor] (Westport, Conn:Bergin & Garvey), pages 21-41, page 21.

"Whatever name you ascribe to this style of working--flexibility, open-mindedness, divergent thinking--staying loose in the early stages of a project greatly improves the chances for a more creative result. But why? One reason is that a loose, uncensored approach increases the amount of material you have to work with. Volume alone produces options; options permit the exercise of opinion and taste [stress added]." Denise Shekerjian, 1990, Uncommon Genius: How Great Ideas Are Born (NY: Viking Penguin), page 40.

"Knowledge is power--all Scottish philosophers recognizedthis--and the route to knowledge is through experience [stressadded]." Arthur Herman, 2001, How the Scots Invented TheModern World: The True Story of How Western Europe's Poorest NationCreated Our World & Everything in it (NY: Crown Publishers),page 222.

Interesting (And Somewhat Appropriate) Web Sites Are:[Anthropology careers][Anthropology Resources on the Internet][Anthropology Resources beginning with CSU, Chico][Electronic HRAF! - begin from CSU, Chico][Chico Campus Culture Project][The Silicon Valley Cultures Project][Science Fits Nicely Between Art+Reality][Adam Ferguson} 1723-1815][E.A. Hoebel, 1960} William Robertson: An 18th CenturyAnthropologist-Historian]

VIDEO NOTES ON: KOESTLER ON CREATIVITY = "Notedauthor Arthur Koestler [1905-1983] discusses his theoriesconcerning the conscious and unconscious processes underlyingcreativity, emphasizing scientific discovery but considering artisticoriginality as well." The video is based on Koestler's 1964 book:The Act Of Creation: A Study of the Conscious and Unconscious inScience And Art. A chart in the book indicates "that we canarrange neighboring provinces of science and art in a series whichshow a continuous gradient from 'objective' to 'subjective,' from'verifiable truth' to 'aesthetic experience' ... The point...isto show that regardless of what scale of values you choose to apply,you will move across a continuum without sharp breaks: there are nofrontiers where the realm of science ends and that of art begins[stress added]." (1964: 28).






VIDEO: Koestler points out that the "combinatorialact" is the key: "Science as the marriage of ideas which werepreviously strangers to each other or even thoughtincompatible."

NOTE: "Arthur Koestler [1905-1983] was a journalistof genius and an outstanding chronicler of his times. He wrote half adozen novels, one a classic and several more of enduring value, twosuperb volumes of autobiography and dozens of eloquently phrased,stimulating and frequently memorable essays on a host of subjects.One cannot stand in awe of his corpus of work, or the intellectualenergy and sheer effort that went into it. Yet today he is not aswell known as he should be and the time has surely come for are-evaluation of this remarkable man and his extraordinary career."David Cesarani, 1998, Arthur Koestler: The Homeless Mind (NY:The Free Press), page 1.)

NOTE: Koestler's approach is similar to that of Jacob Bronowski [1908-1974] who wrote that "No scientific theory is a collection of facts. ... The act of fusion is the creative act. All science is the search for unity in hidden likenesses. The search may be on a grand scale, as in the modern theories which try to link the fields of gravitation and electromagnetism. ... The scientist looks for order in the appearance of nature by exploring such likenesses. For order does not display itself of itself; if it can be said to be there at all, it is not there for the mere looking. There is no way of pointing a finger or a camera at it; order must be discovered and, in a deep sense, it must be created. What we see, and as we see it, is mere disorder. ... Science finds order and meaningness in our experience, and sets about this in a quite different way. ... The discoveries of science, the works of art are explorations--more, explosions of a hidden likeness. The discovery or the artist presents in them two aspects of nature and fuses them into one. This is the act of creation, in which an original thought is born, and it is the same act in original science and original art.... [stress added] Jacob Bronowski, 1956, Science And Human Values, pp. 12-19.

"It is obvious, says Jacques Hadamard, thatinvention or discovery, be it in mathematics oranywhere else, takes place by combining ideas. ... The latinverb cogito for 'to think' etymologically means 'to shaketogether.' St. Augustine [354-430 A.D.] had already noticedthat and also observed that intelligo means 'to select among'" (1964:120). As Koestler points out: "Some writers identify the creative actin its entirety with the unearthing of hidden analogies. 'Thediscoveries of science, the works of art are explorations--more, areexplosions of a hidden likeness', Bronowski wrote....[analogies are] created by the imagination; and once ananalogy has been created, it is of course there for all to see--justas the poetic metaphor, once created, soon fades into a cliche. ...Thus the real achievement in discovery is that unlikely marriage ofcabbages and kings--of previously unrelated frames of reference oruniverses of discourse--whose union will solve the previouslyunsoluble problem. The search for the improbable partnerinvolves long and arduous thinking--but the ultimate matchmaker isthe unconscious [stress added]." Arthur Koestler,The Act Of Creation: A Study of the Conscious and Unconscious inScience And Art ,1964: 200-201.

"My view is that knowledge is a rearrangement of experience, in which we put together those experiences that seem to us to belong together, and put them apart from those that do not [stress added]." Jacob Bronowski [1908-1984], The Identity of Man, 1966: 26.

"When you ferret out something for yourself, piecing the cluestogether unaided, it remains for the rest of your life in some waytruer than facts you are merely taught, and freer from onslaughts ofdoubt." Colin Fletcher, 1968, The Man Who Walked Through Time,p. 109.

"In the end, the common themes linking these creative people separated and floated to the surface like cream. Some of what I discovered I expected: they were all driven, remarkably resilient, adapt at creating an environment that suited their needs, skilled at honoring their own peculiar talents instead of lusting after an illusion of self, capable of knowing when to follow their instincts, and above all, magnificent risk-takers, unafraid to run ahead of the great popular tide [stress added]." Denise Shekerjian, 1990, Uncommon Genius: How Great Ideas Are Born (NY: Viking Penguin), page xxii.

"Every innovation is a combination of ideas. The only bondsbetween its part in a cultural setting are mental connections;they are instituted with the first individual mind to envisage them,and they dissolve with the last individual mind to retain arecollction of them. The mental content is socially defined; itssubstance is, in major part, dictated by tradition. But the mannerof treating this content, of grasping it, altering it, and renderingit, is inevitably dictated by the potentialities and the liabilitiesof the machine which does the manipulating: namely the individualmind. ... Every individual is basically innovative for tworeasons. No two stimuli to which he [or she] reacts are everidentical. ... The second reason for diversified reactions is that noone ever or minutely duplicates his responses to what he regards asthe same stimulus [stress added]." H.G. Barnett[1906-1985], 1953, Innovation: The Basis of CulturalChange (NY: McGraw-Hill), pages 16-20.

Science: "A search for the principles of law and order in the universe, and as such an essentially religious endeavor." Arthur Koestler [1905-1983].

"One day in 1921, an English bacteriologist happened to have a cold, so he added a bit of his own nasal mucus to a petri dish just to see what might be cultured out of it. A few weeks later, he noticed that the bacteria growing in the dish--a harmless type of coccus--had failed to grow in the area near the mucus. Something in the mucus was dissolving and killing the bacteria. The bacteriologist called that something 'lysozyme,' and over the ensuing years of intensive investigation of the substance, he found it in tears; sweat; saliva; the mucus linings of the cheeks; fingernail parings; hair; sperm; mother's milk; the leukocytes and phagocytes of blood; the fibrin that forms scabs over wounds; the slime of earthworms; the leaves and stalks of numerous plants including buttercups, peonies, nettles, tulips, and turnips; and in very high concentration in egg whites. He had stumbled upon the first natural anti-infective, an enzyme later given the chemical name 'mucopeptide glucohydrolase.' This scientist would, eight years later, accidentally find something else in one of his petri dishes, a substance that would change the life of almost everyone on the planet. The bacteriolgist's name was Alexander Fleming [1881-1955], and he would name this new discovery 'penicillin' [and shares the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1945]. Of course, the discovery of penicillin and the many other antibiotics (more than a hundred are in use today) was not the end of the story. Microbes did not succumb so easlity to human ingenuity. ... Germs reproduce quickly, creating many generations within hours. With such rapid reproduction comes ample opportunity for genetic mutation. And one of the ways germs fight back is by producing genetic mutations that give them resistance to the antibiotics we use to try to eradicate them. Every time we take an antibiotic, we are killing the weakest germs and allowing the strongest--the resistant ones--to reproduce. Eventually, only resistant germs survive, and the antibiotic that was once effective against them becomes less effective or even useless. This phenomenon was noticed very early on in the development of antibiotics. In 1945, it took a total of about 40,000 units of penicillin to cure a case of pneumococcal pneumonia. Today [2003], because the germ is now resistant to low doses, as many as 24 million units of penicillin a day are given to effect a cure in severe cases. Some diseases for which penicillin was once effective are now completely resistant to it, even in large doses [stress added]." Nicholas Bakalar, 2003, Where the Germs Are: A Scientific Safari (New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.), pages 5-6.

"Scientific inquiry is problem solving, and our knowledgegrows as we propose theories to explain what we do not understand,and then criticize them in an attempt to eliminate their errors.Our understanding of ourselves and of the world we live in, likelife itself, is constantly changing [stressadded]." Mark Notturno, 2003, On Popper[1902-1994] (Thomson/Wadsworth), page 70.

In the first decades of the 20th century, nature held sway over nurture in most fields. In the wake of World War I [1914-1918], however, three men recaptured the social sciences for nurture: John B. Watson [1878-1958], who set out to show how the conditioned reflex, discovered by Ivan Pavlov [1849-1936], could explain human learning; Sigmund Freud [1856-1939], who sought to explain the influence of parents and early experiences on young minds, and Franz Boas [1858-1942], who argued that the origin of ethnic differences lay with history, experiences and circumstance, not physiology and psychology [stress added]." Matt Ridley, 2003, What Makes You Who You Are. Time, June 2, 2003, pages 54-63, pages 58-59.

"The three dominant themes on behavior for a good part of the[20th] century were Freudianism, which said aberrantbehavior was produced by the childhood environment; Boasism,which said behavior was produced by the cultural environment; andbehaviorism, which said behavior resulted from environmentalconditioning and learning. All were united in enthroning theenvironment as the determinant of human behavior and in relegatingbiological inheritance to insignificance. This three-prongedenvironmentalism was the accepted wisdom that was taught in alluniversities and that informed serious writing on humanbehavior--social problems, psychological problems, mental illness--ornormal child development. Professor [Henry] Higgins may haverun amok, but he had also taken over--and remained in control untilonly recently [stress added]." William Wright, 1998,Born That Way: Genes, Behavior, Personality (NY: Knopf), page170.

"There was a time--from about 1915 to 1935--when the dominant methological stance in American anthropology was 'historical.' Its leading figure, Franz Boas [1858-1942], was responsible for the training of such major anthropologists as Alfred Kroeber [1876-1960], Robert Lowie [1883-1957], Edward Sapir [1884-1939], Paul Radin [1883-1959], Ruth Benedict [1887-1948], Alexander Goldenweiser [1880-1940], and others. Boas and his students reacted strongly against the speculative formulations of the nineteenth-century evolutionists, and in so doing gave to American anthropology and anti-evolutionary bias that tended to dominate the discipline until the end of World War II [stress added]." David Kaplan and Robert A. Manners, 1972, Culture Theory (New Jersecy: Prentice-Hall), pages 70-71.

INCIDENTALLY, REMEMBER the information from week #1above?:

NOTE: "Doctoral research in anthropology [over the years 1891 to 1930] was mainly a young man's pursuit: more than 85 percent [of the total of 124 doctorates over this time period] were men, and more than 81 percent were under 35 at graduation, with half under 30 [stress added]." Jay H. Bernstein, 2002, First Recipients of Anthropological Doctorates in the United States, 1891-1930. The American Anthropologist, Vol. 104, No. 2, June, pages 551-565, page 557.

"During the interwar years [between World War I, 1914-1918 andWorld War II, 1939-1945] under Boas [1858-1942] andBenedict [1887-1948], Columbia [University in New YorkCity] was unique among American universities in its openesss towomen, and the number of women who obtained degrees in anthropologynearly equaled the number of men. [The author's footnote#6 continues as follows:] "During the 1930s six major schoolsproduced 111 Ph.D's in the four subfields of anthropology:Harvard, 25 doctorates; Columbia, 22; Chicago,19; Berkeley, 19; Yale, 15; and Pennsylvania,11. In addition, one or two Ph.D.'s each were also awarded atWisconsin, Michigan, Duke, and Northwestern during this decade. Inthe years 1930-40 all of the degrees awarded at Harvard and Yale andall but one degree at Chicago were granted to men. At Columbia, 50percent of doctorates (11 of 22) were granted to women. TheUniversity of California at Berkeley (under Boas's former studentsAlfred Kroeber [1876-1960] and Robert Lowie[1883-1957] was also active in the training of womenanthropologists at the time: 40 percent of its doctorates (8 of 19)were awarded to women. The majority of Harvard's degrees were in thefields of archaeology and physical anthropology. Adjusting thefigures to record only those Ph.D.'s in ethnology or culturalanthropology gives the following results: Berkeley, 17; Columbia, 14;Chicago, 13; Harvard, 11; Yale, 9; Pennsylvania, 8. By the end of the1930s there were more than 20 separate departments of sociology andanthropology; the number of professional and amateur ethnologistsin the United States numbered about 300 in 1940 (Frantz 1985[Relevance: American Ethnology and the Wider Society, 1900-1940.In Social Contexts of American Ethnology, 1840-1984.June Helm, ed. Pp. 83-100. Washington DC: American EthnologicvalSociety]. Between 1921 and 1940, a total of 19 women and 20 menreceived Ph.D.'s i n anthropology at Columbia University. Notuntil the 1980s would women again begin to enter the discipline insuch proportionate numbers [stress added]." SallyCole, 2003, Ruth Landes: A Life in Anthropology (Lincoln:University of Nebraska Press), pages 54 and page 259.

"Malinowski's [1884-1942] position in British anthropology is analogous to that of Boas [1858-1942] in American Anthropology.... Like Boas, Malinowski was a Central European natural scientists brought by peculiar circumstances to anthropology and to the English-speaking world. Like Boas, he objected to armchair evolutionism and invented a fieldwork tradition based on the use of native language in 'participant observation'. Furthermore, both Boas and Malinowski were pompous but liberal intellectuals who built up very strong followings through their postgraduate teaching [stress added]." Alan Barnard, 2000, History and Theory in Anthropology (Cambridge University Press), pages 65-66.

"Our winning strategy for finding your perfect job comes fromSamantha H. in Jamaica, N.Y. 'First thing, let's not call it a jobbut your life's career. Job sounds so humdrum, put upon andboring. My mother gave me the best advice: 'Look for the thing thathas been with you all of your life. It has brought you through goodand bad times. Once you find it, then that is what you should bedoing [stress added].'" Bob Rosner, 2001, WorkingWounded. The San Francisco Chronicle, December 2, 2001, pageJ2.

Career Planning & Placement Office

Office of Experiential Education

"CSU, Chico's Experiential Education program links the University to business, industry, and government by giving students an opportunity to combine classroom study with career related work experience. The program helps students define their educational goals and prepare for their careers by exploring the realities of the working world."

CALIFORNIA / CHICO WORDS: A "Story" about Chico in the year2027 may be viewed by clicking here:ESSAY #3 at the end of this printed Guidebook; you mayalso wish to read ESSAY #4 concerning "Cancer" in the Stateof California.] To place the information on California (andChico) in context, please consider the following:

The approximate January 2008 population of California was38,049,462 [see}California Department of Finance.]

"The United Nations' latest forecast of the world's populationin 2050 [42 years from fall 2008!]....are down from 9.4billion to 8.9 billion [stress added]." Elizabeth Weise,World population to level off. USA Today, December 9,2003.

NOTE: There are more than 6 billion people on the planet and population is increasing by approximately 78,000,000 people per year; given that 1 year = 365.25 days = 8,766 hours = 525,960 minutes, therefore 78,000,000/525,960 = means that the population of the planet is increasing by approximately 148 people a minute. For this 75 minute class, please note that this means that the world will have had a NET INCREASE (births-minus-deaths) of ~11,100 individuals (roughly speaking).

PLEASE NOTE: According to the U.S. Bureau of the Census,the resident population of the United States (as thisGuidebook was being prepared), projected to July 18,2008 at 10:17am [Pacific Standard Time] was304,632,720 [].This means there is one birth every 7 seconds, one death every13 seconds, one international migrant (net) every 30seconds, for a net gain of one person every 10 seconds. WHAT ISTHE NUMBER WHEN YOU ARE READING THIS PAGE: What has been the netincrease since that date?

CHICO: "The city's general plan targets an urban-area population of approximately 134,000 by the year 2012 [stress added]." Dan Nguyen-Tan, 2002, Growth: Land is our most valuable and limited resource. The Chico Enterprise-Record, February 26, 2002, Section AA, page 3AA. [NOTE: Urbanowicz would also add that time can also be considered to be the most valuable and limited resource.]"

Alvin D. Sokolow, How Much State Farmland Is Disappearing? AlvinD. Sokolow, The Sacramento Been, June 24, 2001, pages L1 and L6:Some 49,700 acres of California farmland is disappearing eachyear! Incidentally, the CSU, Chico campus (excluding theUniversity farm, is approximately 119 acres (so approximately 417Chico State campuses disappear every year in California!).

QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER: What will the population of the USA or California or Chico be by 2046? Or 2026? or next year?! What is the "carrying capacity" of any given environment? What changes have to be made in any given environment? What will be the impact of an increasingly older American population on this country? On you?
INCIDENTALLY, a fascinating (and useful site) is [GeoHive: Global Statistics]. Have a look!

"You're telling some not only inconvenient truths but hard truths, and it can be scary as hell. You're not going to get people to go with you if you paralyze them with fear [stress added]." Al Gore, Time. May 28, 2007, page 37.

Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834): "English economist[and cleric!]. His Essay on the Principle ofPopulation 1798 (revised 1803) argued for population control,since populations increase in geometric ratio and foodsupply only in arithmetic ratio, and influenced CharlesDarwin's thinking on natural selection as the drivingforce of evolution. Malthus saw war, famine, anddisease as necessary checks on population growth"[stress added]." Sarah Jenkins Jones (Editor), 1996,Random House Webster's Dictionary of Scientists, page 317. 

WEEK 3. September 8 & 10, 2008: Mon& Wed} } Some 19th Century research in Europe and America(Cross-Cultural Research, Including HRAF): Pre-Boas, Darwin,Spencer, Morgan, Tyler, Frazer, Powell, Pitt-Rivers, Prichard, etal. and Darwin (1809-1882) in context.

Required Reading in: glance at Chapter 2 in Langness(pp. 61-90), glance at Slotkin, pp. 244-460,and glance at D. Hakken (1999). PLEASE readabout Darwin's "116th Anniversary" by clicking here:ESSAY #5 at the end of this printed Guidebook.Incidentally, considering that your WritingAssignment is due in two weeks, you might wish to glance atUrbanowicz ESSAY #6 & ESSAY #7 at the end of this printedGuidebook. AND, just for the fun of it, want to trythe following "Darwin Self-Tests" that I've created over the pastyears?:

2005 (Darwin Self-Test Five} February 2005).

2004 (Darwin Self-Test Four} September 2004).

2003 (Darwin Self-Test Three} October 2003).

2001 (Darwin Self-Test Two} November 2001].

2000 (Darwin 2000-2001 [Self]Test One} January 2000)

A 2004 item entitled "The Darwin Project: 1996 to 2004!"may be found at

PLEASE NOTE} Do come to class EVERY-SINGLE-DAY with a "quotation" or a phrase that struck YOU in some way: either from this Guidebook or Langness or Davies & Piero.

PLEASE read any one of the following items from theselections on RESERVE:

Bidney: Ch 7 (pp. 183-214).
Boorstin: pp. 636-652.
Hays pp. vii-xv and Ch 1-5 (pp. 1-49).
Harris (1968): Ch 5 (pp. 108-141).
Herbert: pp. 1-28.
Hinsley: pp. 7-63 or pp. 129-189.
Kardiner & Preble: pp. 33-94.
Malefijt Ch 7 (116-137) or Ch. 8 (138-159) or Ch. 11(215-255).
Mead & Bunzel: pp. 58-81; or pp. 129-138; or pp.203-245; or pp. 305-318
Moore: pp. 15-68.
Naroll & Naroll: Ch 3 (pp. 57-121).
Penniman: part of Ch. 4 (pp.110-146).
Ryan: "Introduction" (pp. vii-xiii) plus any chapter from AGuide To Careers in Physical Anthropology
Silverman: Ch. 1 (pp. 1-33).
Stocking (1991): pp. 144-185.
Stocking: pp. 1-14 and Ch. 3 (pp. 84-123).
Stocking: Ch. 5 (pp. 179-232).

PLEASE Continue reading Merryl Wyn Davies and Piero, 2002,Introducing Anthropology, pp. 1-19 and begin reading pp.20-33.


"Before there was science, there was the Bible. Forthousands of years, it supplied reassuring answers to those profoundquestions that humans have always asked, Who are we? Where are we inrelation to everything else in the universe? And how and when did weget here, this place we call Earth? ... it was largely thework of just four men who shattered the biblically rooted picture ofEarth and separated science from theology. The first was NicolausCopernicus [1473-1543]. ... Because of a crypticintroduction and the technical nature of the work [DeRevolutionibus Orbium Coelestium published in 1543],Copernicus's book did not have a profound impact immediately. It tookGalileo [1564-1642], the first celebrity scientist, topublicize the true meaning of what Copernicus had written[published in 1632: Dialogue Concerning the Two ChiefWorld Systems]. As troubling to the devout of Galileo'sendorsement of Copernicus's sun-centered universe was, it was not asbad as what would come next. ... all English-speaking Christians knewthat God had created the earth on October 23, 4004 B.C. JamesHutton [1726-1797], a Scottich natural philosopher,boldly confronted this centuries-old wisdom. Writing in 1788,he formally presented proof that the earth was significantly olderthan 6,000 years. In fact, its age was incalculable.... CharlesDarwin [1809-1882], writing seventy years after Hutton[1726-1797], took the concept of the divine away from manaltogether [stress added]." Jack Repcheck, 2003,The Man Who Found Time: James Hutton And the Discovery of theEarth's Antiquity (Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books), pages 2-5.

"Three key features mark James Hutton's [1726-1797] later scientific work: his application of Newtonian natural laws to the study of the earth, his innovative use of chemistry, and his recognition of the dynamics of erosion [stress added]." Jack Repcheck, 2003, The Man Who Found Time: James Hutton And the Discovery of the Earth's Antiquity (Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books), page 65.

"The great value of Darwinism, it seems to me, was that itjolted modern men into questioning various sentimental beliefs aboutnature and man's place in it. In this, Darwin's influence closelyparallels that of Galileo [1564-1642]. Just as the firstmodern astronomers and physicists destroyed a naive geocentrism,so Darwin and his successors overwhelmingly displaced what may becalled homocentrism, the belief that nature exists for thesake of man [stress added]." Jacob Needleman,1975, A Sense of the Cosmos: The Encounter of Modern Science andAncient Truth (NY: Doubleday & Co., Inc.), page 72.

"The destruction of the literal interpretation of the Bible was accomplished by twin European intellectual movements, in science and history. The scientific movement was started by Sir Charles Lyell [1797-1895] and other geologists who were puzzled to explain the existence of the strata of the earth if it had been created in seven days: the tragic suicide in 1856 of the great amateur geologist and Free Church journalist Hugh Miller [1802-1856] has been supposed to be connected with his inability to reconcile his scientific knowledge with his belief in Genesis. Although it was Charles Darwin's [1809-1882] theory of biological evolution which most famously eroded a fundamentalist reading of the Bible and caught the popular imagination in the following decades, the subjection of the Bible to higher criticism on historical grounds which began in Germany in the middle of the century was no less damaging to the old simplicities. The first scholars influenced by the German school began to hold positions of power in Scottish theological colleges from the 1860s. .. William Robertson Smith [1846-1894], was expelled from his chair in the Free Church College at Aberdeen [Scotland] for suggesting that the Pentateuch might have been written by different hands: he withdrew to Cambridge Universty and pursued his interests in Oriental languages and relative cultures, to become, in due course, one of the founding fathers of modern anthropology [stress added]." T.C. Smout, 1986, A Century of the Scottish People: 1830-1950 (New Haven: Yale University Press), pages 193-194.

"In the winter of 1807, thirteen like-minded souls inlondon got together at the Freemasons Tavern at Long Acre, in CoventGarden, to form a dining club to be called the GeologicalSociety. The idea was to meet once a month to swap geologicalnotions over a glass or two of Madiera and a convivial dinner. Theprice of the meal was set at a deliberately hefty fifteen shillingsto discourage those who qualification were merely cerebral. ... Inbarely a decade membership grew to four hundred--still allgentlement, of course--and the Geological was threatening to eclipsethe Royal as the premier scientific society in the country. ... By1830, there were 745 of them, and the world would never see the likeagain. It is hard to imagine now, but geology excited the nineteenthcentury--positively gripped it in a way that no science ever hadbefore or would again. ...when, in 1841, the great CharlesLyell [1797-1895] traveled to America to give a series oflectures in Boston, sellout audiences of three thosand at a timepacked into the Lowell Institute to hear him tranquilizingdescriptions of marine zeolites and seismic perturbations in Campania[stress added]."Bill Bryson, 2003, A Short Historyof Nearly Everything (NY: Broadway Books), page 67

"Natural history and geology in particular were also part of the intellectual interests of the Scottish Enlightenment that were facilitatied by earlier improvements, and made evident in the universities by the provision of chairs and courses. Scotland's awareness of natural history and geology was another example of her contact with Continental thought and interests. Geology had been in vogue not least for the utilitarian needs of the mining industry but also because of an intellectual interest in science that had been evident from the seventeenth century. Four approaches were evident before the Scottish Enlightenment and which contributes to an apprciation of eighteenth century Scottish work in natural history and geology. First, the systematic analysis of strate and minerals in localaties all over Europe was undertaken. Secondly, precedents were set for discarding the biblical authority for the Flood as a force determining the earth's surface, notably by Italian geologists. Thirdly, travelling to further the cause of geology and mineralogical cartography became more popular and common. Finally, there was the writing of George-Louis Leclerc de Buffon [1707-1788] whose multi-volume Natural History began to appear by the middle eighteenth century and was both a stimulus and an indication of contemporary interest. ... Buffon's Epochs of Nature (1778) proposed successive and ceaseless revolutions in the history of the earth, a theory later to be taken up by the Scotish literatus, James Hutton [1726-1797] [stress added]. Anand C. Chitnis, 1976, The Scottish Enlightenment: A Social History (London: Croom Helm), pages 167-168.

"How sad that so many people seem to think that science andreligion are mutually exclusive [stress added]."Jane Goodall [with Phillip Berman], 1999, Reason For Hope:A Spiritual Journey (NY: Warner Books), page 174.

"Must one choose between evolution and belief in God? The answer to this question depends, of course, on the details of evolution and on one's conception of God. An ironic feature of the creation/evolution controversy is that creationists and strong atheists agree in answering this question in the affirmative, while most theologians answer it in the negative. Pope John Paul II recently reiterated the established position of the Catholic Church that there is no conflict between evolution and Christian faith [stress added]." Robert T. Pennock [Editor] 2001, Intelligent Design Creationism and Its Critics: Philosophical, Theological, and Scientific Perspectives (MIT Press), page 431.

"The word "anthropology" first appeared in the English languagein 1593 (the first of the "ologies," incidentally, to do so). Theword "ethnology" made its first appearance in an 1830 letterby André Marie Ampère (1775-1836) and appeared in printfor the first time in 1832. The short-livedSociétés observateurs de l'homme was founded inParis in 1799 by Louis Francois Jauffret (1770-1850) and this waseventually followed by the 1839 formation ofSociétéethnologique de Paris, by William F.Edwards (1777-1842). This latter organization lasted until 1848 butno one seems to have a good impression of the term "ethnology" asused by Edwards...." Charles F. Urbanowicz, 1992, Four-FieldCommentary. Newsletter of the American AnthropologicalAssociation, 1992, Volume 33, Number 9, page 3. [And see:]

"The field of Anthropology, however, was formally inauguarated by the French physician Paul Broca (1824-1880), with the establishment of the Societé d'Anthropologie de Paris in 1859--ironically the same year that Charles Darwin produced the full development of his idea that the myriad forms of the biological world had all arisen and been shaped by the continuing action of the everydaY forces still in operation: evolution by means of natural selection (Darwin, 1859 [Origin]). Broca's Societé served as the model for the creation of comparable organizations subsequently in both England (1863)...and Germany (1869 and 1870).... [stress added]." C. Loring Brace, 2000, Evolution in an Anthropological View (Walnut Creek: Altamira Press), page 15.

"Paul Broca [1824-1880] was a surgeon, a neurologistand an anthropologist, a major figure in the development of bothmedicine and anthropology in the mid-nineteenth century. ... Heloved, as one biographer said, mainly serenity and tolerance. In 1848he founded a society of 'free-thinkers.' Almost alone among Frenchsavants of the time, he was sympathetic to Charles Darwin'sidea of evolution by natural selection [stressadded]." Carl Sagan, 1979, Broca's Brain: Reflections on theRomance of Science, page 7.

"Formal anthropology in the first half of the nineteenth century was defined by the research project of Prichardian 'ethnology' (the tracing of prehistoric origins of peoples), and in its next major phase would be preoccupied with theories of the evolutionary development of civilization. Not until the twentieth century would it discover its vocation of closely scrutinizing particular societies from the point of view of the idea of culture in the 'wide ethnographic sense'; nor would it institute until then the professional fieldwork procedures supposed to warrant the scientific authority of the reconstitute discipline [stress added]." Christopher Herbert, 1991, Culture And Anomie: Ethnographic Imagination In The Nineteenth Century, page 150.

"No one has championed the aesthetic, formal aspect of sciencebetter than the founder of modern biology, Georges-Louis Leclerc,Comte de Buffon (1707-1788). Buffon's histoirenaturelle was to biology what Diderot's [1713-1784]Encyclopédie was to the general knowledge of the time.Indeed, Buffon wrote several articles for theEncyclopédie and, as patron and protector, was acharacter witness when Diderot was threatened with imprisonment forimpiety. ... the subject of his inaugural speech at the Royal Academywas not science, but style: Bien écrire, c'est toutà la fois bien pensé, bien sentir et bien rendre. C'estavoir en même temps de'esprit, de lâme et du gout.[To write well is at once to think, feel and express oneselfwell; simultaneously to possess wit, soul and taste.] Withdisdain for fanciful systems based on 'natural law,' he notedthat: I lest plus aisé d'imager un système que dedonner une thêorie. [It is easier to dream up a systemthan to work out a theory.]

Buffon had three younger associated at the Jardin de Plantes: Geoffrey Sainte-Hilaire, Georges Cuvier [1769-1832], and the chevalier Lamarck [1744-1829]. These were the men who hammered out the French version of evolutionary theory; their politics were as pointedly secular and Whiggish as those of the Darwins on the other side of the channel.. When Lamarck assured his readers in 1809 that Dans tout a que la nature opére, elle ne fait rien brusquement [Everywhere nature is at work, she does nothing abruptly] his compass was not limited to zoology. After Marat and the terror, cataclysms had little appeal. In like vein, my own interest in the two cultures favors the gradual over the sudden, sure change over blanket upheaval. That position, in accord with Enlightenment teaching, can best be described as Whig, a term that has the convenience, as Lord Russell put it, of expressing in one syllable what Conservative Liberal expresses in seven [stress added]." Gerald Weissmann, 1998, Darwin's Audubon: Science and the Liberal Imagination (NY: Plenum Trade), pages 3-4.

"Charles Darwin (1809-1882) is credited as the 'father ofevolutionary thought.' However, he developed his theory ofevolution based on the ideas of earlier scholars. In fact, Darwin'smodel was not the first evolutionary theory. It was, however, the onethat has withstood the test of time. ... The contributions ofCuvier [1769-1832], Lyell [1797-1875], and Lamarck[1744-1829] set the stage for the ideas developed by CharlesDarwin. Combining information from different fields, such asbiology, geology, and economics, Darwin revolutionized ourunderstanding of the living world by his theory of evolution bynatural selection [stress added]." Alan S. Ryan,2002, The meaning of Physical Anthropology. In A Guide toCareers in Physical Anthropology, Alan S. Ryan [Editor](Westport, Conn: Bergin & Garvey), pages 1-20, page 1.

"The [1937] Hungarian Nobel Prize winner [in Physiology/Medicine], [Albert] Szent-Györgyi [von Nagyrapolt] [1893-1986], once said that a scientist should see what everybody else has seen and then think what nobody has thought. Nobody did this better than Charles Darwin, who first realized that the evolution of life took place by Natural Selection. Darwin taught us all to see more clearly what everyone had seen, and Darwin also taught us to think, along with him, what no one else had thought. No branch of science is more dominated by a single theory, by a single great idea, than is the whole of biology by the idea of evolution by Natural Selection [stress added]." J. Livingston and L. Sinclair, 1967, Darwin and the Galapagos, no page number.

"He [Charles Darwin] was an Englishman who went on afive-year voyage when he was young and then retired to a housein the country, not far from London. He wrote an account ofhis voyage, and then he wrote a book setting down his theory ofevolution, based on a process he called natural selection, atheory that provided the foundation for modern biology. He wasoften ill and never left England again [stressadded]." John P. Wiley, Jr., 1998, Expressions: The Visible Link.Smithsonian, June, pages 22-24, page 22.

WORDS ON CHARLES R. DARWIN: "As a writer, too, he discovered unplumbed depths. His voice was in turn dazzling, persuasive, friendly, humble, and dark. Hardly daring to hope he might initiate a transformation in scientific thought, he nevertheless rose magnificently to the occasion. Being stuck in Down house was the best thing that could have happened to him. Pleasingly localised as his book was in manner, it reached out across national and chronological boundaries. His imagination soared beyond the confines of his house and garden, beyond his debilitating illnesses and the fragile health of his children. At his most determined, he questioned everything his contemporaries believed about living nature, calling forth a picture of origins completely shorn of the garden of Eden. He abandoned the image of a heavenly clockmaker patiently constructing living being to occupy the earth below. He dismissed what John Herschel [1792-1871] devoutly called the 'mystery of mysteries.' Darwin's book implicitly laid claim to Adam and Eve, as time and again he showed how nature was cruel and full of blunders. The natural world has no moral validity or purpose, he argued. Animals and plants are not the product of special design or special creation. 'I am fully convinced that species are not immutable,' he stated in the opening pages. No one could afterwards regard organic beings and their natural setting with anything like the same eyes as before. Nor could anyone fail to notice the way that Darwin's biology mirrored the British way of life in all its competetive, entrepreneurial, facroty spirit, or that his appeal to natural law unmistakebly contributed to the general push towards secularisation and supported the claims of science to understand the world in its own terms. As well as rewriting the story of life, he was telling the tale of the rise of science in Victorian Britain [stress added]." Janet Browne, 2002, Charles Darwin: The Power Of Place (Volume II of a Biography) (NY: Alfred A. Knopf), page 55.

"When Darwin [1809-1882], one of the most honest ofscientific thinkers, was speculating about the origin of species,he used to keep special notebooks in which he would immediatelywrite down any objection to his theories which occured to him. Hefound that, if he did not do this, his mind had a habit offorgetting all the objections. For the objections introduceddisharmony into his mind; and his mind pushed them out again asquickly as possible [stress added]." B. A. Howard. InEdgard Dale [Compiler], 1984, The Educator's Quotebook (PhiDelta Kappa: Bloomington, Indiana), page 85.

Incidentally, please consider the following information concerning every edition of On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life published in Darwin's lifetime. He re-wrote every-single-edition and all are different! The reason it is important to point out the various editions of Origin is demonstrated by the following chart, based on information in the excellent 1959 publication of Morse Peckham [Editor] entitledThe Origin Of Species By Charles Darwin: A Variorum Text). The concept of change is definitely vital to an understanding of Darwin, whether you are reading Darwin himself or reading about him and I include the following tabular information on Darwin's Origin in virtually everything I write that deals with this gifted individual:


9 eliminated
483 rewritten
30 added
7 %
33 eliminated
617 rewritten
266 added
14 %
36 eliminated
1073 rewritten
435 added
21 %
178 eliminated
1770 rewritten
227 added
29 %
63 eliminated
1699 rewritten
571 added
21-29 %

CONSIDER the words of the Pulitzer Prize Winner (1940) andNobel Prize Winner (1962) John Steinbeck (1902-1968) on Charles R.Darwin: "In a way, ours is the older method, somewhat like that ofDarwin on the Beagle. He was called a 'naturalist'. Hewanted to see everything, rocks and flora and fauna; marine andterrestrial. We came to envy this Darwin on his sailing ship. He hadso much room and so much time. ... This is the proper pace for anaturalist. Faced with all things he [or she] cannot hurry.We must have time to think and to look and to consider[stress added]." John Steinbeck, 1951, The Log FromThe Sea of Cortez [1967 printing: Pan Books: London],page 123.

"But what then is evolution? Although it may sound unconventional to say so, Charles Darwin's theory of evolution is above all else a theory of history. While initially offered as an encompassing theory about the origin of new species by means of NATURAL SELECTION, Darwin's insights into the causes of biological evolution and persistence soon proved to be so powerful that many have sought to apply Darwinian theory to human affairs--to use Darwin's ways of thinking about history and evolution to explain not only our own oigins as a remarkably clever kind of animal (see BIOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS), but also our human ways and the history of human institutions and social practices (major elements of what many anthropologists and others call CULTURE) [stress added]." John Terrell and John Hart, 2002, Darwin and Archaeology: A Handbook of Key Concepts (Westport, Connecticut: Bergin & Garvey), page 2.

" the nineteenth century, the biological philosophers, likethe engineers and tradesmen, were soaked with the nonsense ofquantitative science. Then in 1859, with the publication ofDarwin's On the Origin of Species, they were given that theoryof biological evolution that precisely matched the philosophy of theindustrial revolution. It fell into place atop the Cartesiansplit between mind and matter, neatly fitting into a philosophy ofsecular reason which had been developing since the Reformation.Inquiry into mental processes was then rigidly excluded--tabooed--inbiological circles [stress added]." Gregory Bateson,1987, Angels Fear: Towards an Epistemology of the Sacred(Gregory Bateson and Mary Catherine Bateson) [1988 BantamPaperback edition], page 61.

"In the complex history of modern biology, only Darwin's theory of evolution has so shocked the mind as to raise serious questions about man's place in the universe. Darwin forced men to consider that they are animals, and that the designs of creation are played out on a much wider stage than was imagined. From the point of view of the theory of evolution, mankind is only one species among thousands which have their place within the field of organic life on earth. The fact that people took the theory of evolution as an enemy of religion only shows how rigidly they understood the idea of God [stress added]." Jacob Needleman, 1975, A Sense of the Cosmos: The Encounter of Modern Science and Ancient Truth (NY: Doubleday & Co., Inc.), page 64.

"Although Darwin's Origin of Species, published in November1859, had deliberately avoided speculation about humankind, thequestion of anthropogenesis was inevitably implicated in the emergingevolutionary debate, and during the next decade a number ofinfluential texts were published on the issue of human originsand antiquity, most notably Thomas Henry Huxley's[1825-1895] Man's Place in Nature (1863),Lyell's [1797-1875] The Antiquity of Man(1863), and John Lubbock's [1834-1913] Pre-historicTimes (1865), which covered the matter from the viewpoints ofcomparative anatomy (and paleontology), geology, and archaeologyrespectively.... [stress added]." Frank Spencer,1988, Prologue to a Scientific Forgery. In} Bones, Bodies,Behavior [Edited by George W. Stocking, Jr.] (Universityof Wisconsin Press), pages 84-116, page 88.

"Though Darwin 1809-1882] died more than a century before the advent of the World Wide Web, his unforgiving survival theory applied as much to outdoors-oriented sites as to the species. The fittest are still with us...." Michael Shapiro, 2002, Returning to nature easier after trekking through Net. San Francisco Chronicle, June 2, 2002, Section C8, page 8.

"Cyber-life obeys Darwinian theory: Computer simulation letsdigital organisms evolve" By Robert Roy Britt = "RESEARCHERSPRODDED and annoyed lifelike digital entities over more than 15,000generations to learn that evolution among simple creatures is in factbased on the Darwinian notion of survival of the fittest, and thatthe progress is plodding. 'The little things, they definitelycount,' says Richard Lenski, a Michigan State Universityevolutionary biologist who worked with a team of scientists fromdiverse backgrounds in creating and fostering artificial life insidea computer [stress added]" From:[and the story continues] May 7, 2003

"Two ideas dominated the life of Herbert Spencer [1820-1903]: that of evolution, for which he invented them term 'survival of the fittest,' and that of personal freedom. ... More important for the anthropologist, Spencer retained the model of the biological organism as the basis for understanding the social realm. ... Spencer also used the term superorganic, which has its own place in anthropological theory as developed in the writings of such authors as Edward Sapir [1884-1939] and Alfred Louis Kroeber [1876-1960] [stress added]." Paul Bohannan & Mark Glazer, Editors (1988) High Points in Anthropology (NY: A.A. Knopf) pages 3-5.

" the culmination of this most creative and crucial phase ofhis work, Spencer [1820-1903] took his evolutionism to itsultimate point in a celebrated essay of 1857--'Progress: its Law andCause'. In this he advanced the thesis that the idea of evolution wasof universal applicability; that it was the key to the understandingof phenomena of all kinds, whether inorganic, organic or'superorganic', that is to say, social. The most general laws of allthe separate science, Spencer argued, could, in principle, besubsumed, and thus unified, under the one supreme law of 'evolutionand dissolution' [stress added]." John H. Goldthorpe,1969, Herbert Spencer, pages 76-84, The Founding Fathers of SocialScience (edited by Timothy Raison) [England: PenguinBooks], page 78.

"No theme in biology and perhaps in all the sciences so seized the Victorian imagination as did the evolutionary hypothesis. Evolution, the development of one form from an antecedent form or series of forms, acquired obvious relevance for an understanding of the past and present condition of animal and plant species [stress added]."Victorian Science: A Self-Portrait From The Presidential Addresses to the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 1970, edited by George Basalla, William Coleman, and Robert H. Kargon, page 300.

"The Characteristics of any past age are revealed not simply bypolitical and social developments, but by the manner in whichcontemporaries tried to explain their situation in time and place bythe language and concepts in which such explanations were formulatedand discussed. In the case of mid- and late Victorian Britain theambiguous and slippery notion of 'evolution' generated perhapsthe most striking cluster of concepts around which the governingideas of the time were put together and assessed. … The keymid- and late nineteenth century figures in this new comparativeendeavour--the lawyer Sir Henry Maine [1822-1888], theanthropologist General Pitt-Rivers [1827-1900], J.F. McLennan[1827-1881] and E.B. Tylor [1832-1917], thephilosopher and sage Herbert Spencer [1820-1903]….Cutting across much of this, but also drawing considerableinspiration from Lyell's geological researches, was the work ofCharles Darwin….[stress added]." (K. TheodoreHoppen,1998, The Mid-Victorian Generation 1846-1886, NY:Clarendon Press) pages 472-473.

"The nineteenth century was probably the most revolutionary in all history, not because of its numerous political upheavals, but because of the rise of industrialism. ...There was an accompanying revolution in the physical, natural and political sciences. The new order called for new inquiries into man's relation to his natural and social environment. Two explosive theories, Marxism and Darwinism, revolutionized the thinking of mankind, as the machine had revolutionized his mode of life. (Freudianism was to play its part, too, but that came later.) [stress added]." Elmer Rice (1892-1967), 1963, Minority Report: An Autobiography (NY: Simon & Schuster), pages 142-143.

"The birth of anthropology, its origin, its foundation, is inevolution. Anthropology, it can justly be said, is a child ofevolution. It was evolution, in three senses of the term, thatinspired the birth of anthropology in the nineteenth century: thetechnological revolution in Europe; the Enlightenment;and the idea of Progress [stress added]."Philip Carl Salzman, 2001, Understanding Culture: An Introductionto Anthropological Theory (Prospect Heights, Illinois: WavelandPress, Inc.), page 87.

"Whatever the controversies that surround him, Charles Darwin was certainly the most important natural scientist of the past century; he may become the most important social scientist of the next. His great insight--that humans are animals and that their behavior, like that of all animals, is shaped by evolution--is now making its way into social theory. In economics, linguistics, anthropology and psychology, scholars are attempting to see how our evolved nature, interacting with particular environments, generates the ways we trade and speak, live with others and with ourselves [stress added]." Anon., The Wall Street Journal, May 27, 1999, page A24.

"Wherever the European has trod, death seems to pursue theaboriginal. We may look to the wide extent of the Americas,Polynesia, the Cape of Good Hope, and Australia, and we find the sameresult. Nor is it the white man alone that acts as the destroyer;the Polynesian of Malay extraction has in parts of the EastIndian archipelago, thus driven before him the dark-coloured native.The varieties of man seem to act on each other in the same way asdifferent species of animals--the stronger always extirpating theweaker [stress added]." Charles R. Darwin[1809-1882], 1839, The Voyage of the Beagle (Chapter19: "Australia"), 1972 Bantam paperback edition (with "Introduction"by Walter Sullivan), page 376.

"...Darwin remained mystified by what might cause evolution. He considered and rejected dozens of ideas. Natural selection, the engine of evolution, did not become clear to him for another year and a half. The spark that let Darwin fit the pieces together was struck by Thomas Malthus's grim essay about what we now call population pressure. Malthus [1766-1834] was writing about human populations, but Darwin relaized that every species produces far more offspring than can survive. He was the first to see that nature does not thin the ranks of a species at random. ... Natural selection is the sieve, and population pressure is the force pushing each generation through it [stress added]." Robert E. Adler, 2002, Science Firsts: From The Creation of Science to the Science of Creation (New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.), page 89.

ON Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913): "Who was thisstrong-willed philosophical naturalist? Although Wallace'sbest-known claim to fame is as co-discoverer, along with CharlesDarwn, of the theory of evolution by natural selection, Wallace'sinterests ranged so broadly that it is difficult to apply a singlelabel, even that of a naturalist, to him. Describing him as asa natural scientist would do for the early part of his life,but so would geographer and travel writer; one wouldhave to add social critic, spiritualist, and intellectual for thesecond half. His status within the scientific community isuqually hard to pin down. Historians have called him anoutsider, a loner, or the 'other' man who discoveredevolution, but these terms reflect the slant of historians morethan they describe Wallace. Part of the reason he is difficultto categorize is that his concerns were so encompassing and wideranging. Wallace wrote for the lay person as well as the specialist,and he wrote about biology, evolution, education, religion, morality,spiritualism, vaccination, eugenics, social values, and politicalsystems [stress added]." Janes R. Camerini, 2002,The Alfred Russel Wallace Reader: A Selection of Writings from theField (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press), page2.

"Wallace parted company from Darwin by claiming that the human mind could not be explained by evolution and must have been designed by a superior intelligence. He certainly did believe that the mind of man could escape 'the blind control of a deterministic world.' Wallace became a spiritualist and spent the later years of his career searching for a way to communicate with the souls of the dead [stress added]." Steven Pinker, 2002, The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Behavior (NY: Viking/Penguin), page 28.

"All the theory of natural selection says is the following.If within a species there is variation among individuals intheir hereditary traits, and some traits are more conducive tosurvival and reproduction than others, than those traits will(obviously) become more widespread within the population. The result(obviously) is that the species' aggregate pool of hereditarytraits changes. And there you have it [stressadded]." Robert Wright, 1994, The Moral Animal (NY:Pantheon Books), page 23.

"In 1865, John Lubbock [1834-1913]-- Darwin's next-door neighbor in Kent, England--published his influential Pre-historic Times, as Illustrated By Ancient Remains, And The Manners And Customs Of Modern Savages. Widely read throughout Europe and America, it became Archaeology's primary textbook [stress added]." David Hurst Thomas, 2000, Skull Wars: Kennewick Man, Archaeology, And The Battle For Native American Identity (NY: Basic Books), page 50.

"Long after I became involved in fossil hunting, but while myfather and I were still cleaning antlers, I came across a manuscriptof a lecture he had given, in California, I think. One sentencearrested my attention: 'The past is the key to our future.' Ifelt as if I were reading something I had written; it expressed myown conviction completely [stress added]." RichardLeakey & Roger Lewin, 1992, Origins Reconsidered: In Search OfWhat Makes Us Human, page xv.

CLARENCE DARROW [1857-1938]: "If today you can take a thing like evolution and make it a crime to teach it in the public school, tomorrow you can make it a crime to teach it in the private schools, and the next year you can make it a crime to teach it to the hustings or in the church. At the next session you may ban books and the newspapers. Soon you may set Catholic against Protestant and Protestant against Protestant, and try to foist your own religion upon the minds of men. If you can do one you can do the other. Ignorance and fanaticism is ever busy and needs feeding. Always it is feeding and gloating for more. Today it is the public school teachers, tomorrow the preachers and the lecturers, the magazines, the books, the newspapers. After while, your honor, it is the setting of man against man and creed against creed until with flying banners and beating drums we are marching backward to the glorious ages of the sixteenth century when bigots lighted fagots to burn the men who dared to bring any intelligence and enlightenment and culture to the human mind [stress added]. The World's Most Famous Court Trial: Tennessee Evolution Case (1925) (1990 Reprint Edition published by Bryan College, Dayton, Tennessee), page 87.

"An agnostic is a doubter. The word is generally applied tothose who doubt the verity of accepted religious creeds or faiths.Everyone is an agnostic as to the beliefs or creeds they do notaccept. Catholics are agnostic to the Protestant creeds, and theProtestants are agnostic to the Catholic creed. Anyne who thinksis an agnostic about something, otherwise he [or she!] mustbelieve that he is possessed of all knowledge. And the proper placefor such a person is in the madhouse or the home for thefeeble-minded. In a popular way, in the Western world, anagnostic is one who doubts or disbelieves the main tenets of theChristian faith [stress added]." Clarence Darrow[1857-1938], 1994, Why I Am an Agnostic and OtherEssays (NY: Prometheus Books), page 11.

"False facts are highly injurious to the progress of science, for they often endure long; but false views, if supported by some evidence, do little harm, for every one takes a salutary pleasure in proving their falseness: and when this is done, one path towards error is closed and the road to truth is often at the same time opened." Charles R. Darwin [1809-1882], The Descent of Man And Selection in Relation to Sex, 1871 [1981 Princeton University Press edition, with Introduction by John T. Bonner and Robert M. May], Chapter 21, page 385.

"The Galapagos Island finches once studied by CharlesDarwin respond quickly to changes in food supply by evolving newbeaks and body sizes, according to researchers who studied thebirds for almost 30 years. Starting in 1973, husband-and-wiferesearchers Peter and Rosemary grant of Princeton University havefollowed the evolutionary changes in two types of birds, theground finch and the cactus finch, on Daphne Major, one of theGalapagos islands. In a study appearing today in the Journal Science,the Grants report that climate and weather have a dramatic effecton the evolutionary path the finches follow. Ground finches mosteat small seeds, and their beaks have adapted to that purpose.When the weather turned dry in 1977, most of the plants that producesmall seeds on Daphne Major were killed, leaving little food forfinches with modest beaks. Most died off, but some ground fincheswith bigger, stronger beaks survived [stressadded]." Anon., 2002, Finches Shown To Be Able to Change.The Chico Enterprise-Record, April 26, 2002, page 11A.

"Louis Agasiz [1807-1873], leading naturalist of the United States, founder of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University, world authority on ichthyology, and ardent opponent of Darwin's [1809-1882] theories regarding evolution, visited the Galápagos for nine days in June of 1872, almost a half century after Darwin. For those who naively believe that a visit to the Galápagos Archipelago will automatically convert them to a belief in evolution, Douglas [David Douglas, 1799-1835} noted botanist who was in the Galápagos in 1825] and Agassiz proved otherwise. In fairness, however, Agassiz visited the Galápagos only one year before his death at the age of sixty-six. Unlike Darwin, who was young and vigorous, and whose mind was still highly maleable when he explored the islands, Agassiz was frail, and his beliefs were more than a little firmly entrenched. He had very little to say in print concerning his impressions of the islands, though he did suggest in one weakly argued letter to a friend that his views concerning the truth of creationism were not shaken by seeing the Galápagos flora and fauna [stress added]." John Kricher, 2002, Galápagos (Smithsonian Institution Press), pages 12-13.

"Myths are part of our culture, and Darwin certainly has becomepart of a commonly promulgated myth. Some college textbooks,naive nature films, and popular writings about biology tend topresent a picture of Darin on the Galápagos not unlike thestroy of Isaac Newton [1642-1727] and the famous apple tree.... in Darwin's case, the myth would have us believe,[Darwin] spent a few days on a remote volcanic archipelagoabouninding in odd birds and reptiles, experienced a sudden anddramatic intellectual metamorphosis, and realized that thesecreatures must have evolved and not been separately created. ...Darwin did not become an evolutionist while on theGalápagos, nor even during the Beagle voyage. It wasnot until he was safely back in England and began the seriouswork of compiling and interpreting his numerous specimens that hebecame an evolutionist. ... It was not until he had returned tohis native England and consulted with a prominent ornithologist namedJohn Gould [1804-1881] that he fully embraced the truth ofevolution [stress added]." John Kricher, 2002,Galápagos (Smithsonian Institution Press), pages41-42.

"Important as the struggle for existence has been and even still is, yet as far as the highest part of man's nature is concerned there are other agencies more important. For the moral qualities are advanced, either directly or indirectly, much more through the effects of habit, the reasoning powers, instruction, religion, &c., than through natural selection; though to this latter agency may be safely attributed the social instincts, which afforded the basis for the development of the moral sense, may be safely attributed. The main conclusion arrived at in this work, namely that man is descended from some lowly-organised form, will, I regret to think, be highly distasteful to many. But.... [stress added]."Charles R. Darwin (1809-1882), The Descent of Man And Selection in Relation to Sex, 1871 [1981 Princeton University Press edition, with Introduction by John T. Bonner and Robert M. May], Part II, Chapter XXI, pages 403-404.

On August 15, 1865, Charles Darwin writes the following tothe American Botanist Asa Gray (1810-1888): "My women [Emma,Henrietta, and Elizabeth] read much aloud to me, & I havelately heard three Books, worth your attention--Lubbock[1834-1913] Prehistoric Man [1865], Tylor[1832-1917] Early History of Civilization [1865,Researches in the Early History of Mankind], whichis admirable....[stress added]." FrederickBurkhardt et al. [Editors], The Correspondence ofCharles Darwin Volume 13 1865 Supplement to the Correspondence1822-1864 (Cambridge University Press), page 223.

"Biology also became historical after the publication in 1859 of Charles Darwin's [1809-1882] theory of evolution by natural selection. He argued that all species were descended from earlier ones, and that all creatures were locked in a struggle for existence which selected for the traits most advantageous for surival at a given time and place. Darwin's ideas were the most revolutionary and powerful scientific propositions of modern times, and posed a direct challenge to religious accounts of the origins of life and humankind. For this reason his views attracted vigorous opposition, especially from those who took the Bible as the literal word of God. ... gradually Darwin's views became--with modifications--universally accepted among the world's scientifically educated [stress added]." J.R. McNeill & William H. McNeill, 2003, The Human Web: A Bird's-Eye View of World History (NY: W.W. Norton & Co.), page 176.

"Tylor [1832-1917] was the first serious student ofculture to embrace the entire field of man [and women!] andhis environment. For him, the scope of anthropology shouldinclude man's body, his physical and cultural environment, and hissoul [stress added]." A. Kardiner & E. Preble(1961), They Studied Man (NY: Mentor Books), pages 54-55.

"Several aspects of Tylor's work should be noted: his definition of culture, his ideas of cognitive evolution, and his attempts to use statistical analysis in comparative studies [stress added]." Paul Bohannan & Mark Glazer, Editors (1988) High Points in Anthropology (NY: A.A. Knopf), page 63.

"In 1861 Tylor [1832-1917] publishedAnahuac, an account of the Mexican expedition with Christy.His Researches in the Early History of Mankind was publishedin 1865, and it immediately established him as a major figure inanthropology. His professional maturity came at a time whenseveral lines of inquiry and speculation were converging toward apoint which would radically alter man's conception of himself and hisplace in nature. In geology, Charles Lyell [1797-1875]... In archaeology the confirmation in 1858 of Boucher dePerthes' [1788-1866] discoveries of fashioned implementsof great antiquity.... In biology Darwin's work establishedthe evolutionary view of nature as a key to the general problem oforigin and development [stress added]." A. Kardiner& E. Preble (1961), They Studied Man (NY: Mentor Books),pages 52-53.

"In the nineteenth century, science followed the flag. As the European nations conquered the world, it was realized that the new colonies offered a unique scientific opportunity. They would be transformed into vast laboratories of human types, and of differeent races. Indigenous peoples could be measured, photographed, even collected. Out from the homeland would go colonists, farmers, administrators, and behind them came anthropologists, the people hunters. They brought with them their callipers and cameras to measure and record. And while the colonists sent back the material bounty of their new kingdoms, the scientists returned to their museums bearing cases packed with trophy animals and sometimes trophy people. Between them, the markets and museums of Europe reaped a wealthy harvest from the colonial world [stress added]." Christopher Hale, 2003, Himmler's Crusade: The NAZI Expedition To Find The Origins Of the Aryan Race (NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.), page 90.
The next paragraph from the same publication:

"No one nation had a monopoly of such scientific brutality. American anthropologists like Samuel Morton [1799-1851] acquired skulls of Native Americans in their thousands, and usually by the most unscrupulous means. It is frequently pointed out that British anthropologists preyed on Australian aborigines both living and dead; but this was more akin to grave robbing and was never sanctioned by any scientific or government body. Francis Galton [1822-1911], the British inventor of eugenics, on the other hand, was without a doubt a pioneer of anthropometry. He had a passion for numbers and statistical comparisons. In the 1850s, Galton joined a scientific expedition to south-west Africa where he met an extraoirdinary woman, a striking African he called the 'Hottentot Venus'. Galton wooed her with mathematics. He made her stand against a tree and, as he put it, lacking the standard equipment, used a sextant to makre precise measurements of her proportions. 'I took a series of observations upon her figure in every direction, up and down, crossways, diagonally and so forth,' he wrote. 'I worked out the results by trigonometry and logarithms.' But Galton was exceptionlal and, apart from the 'Hottentot Venus', there is no evidence at all that he exploited anyone or stole their bodies [stress added]." Christopher Hale, 2003, Himmler's Crusade: The NAZI Expedition To Find The Origins Of the Aryan Race (NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.), pages 90-91.


"The OCM [Outline of Cultural Materials] wasoriginally developed as a tool for the Cross-Cultural Survey, anorganization established in 1937 by the Institute for HumanRelations at Yale University....under the direction of GeorgeP. Murdock [1897-1985]. After the entry of the United Statesinto World War II, the Cross-Cultural Survey concentrated its effortslargely on areas of probably combat operations, especially in thePacific. ... The usefulness of the material in the Cross-CulturalSurvey Files on the then Japanese-held islands of the Pacific led theUnited States Navy Department, in 1943, to contract with YaleUniversity for the continuation of the work on an expanded scale[stress added]." George P. Murdock et al.,2000, Outline of Cultural Materials (5th Edition) (New Haven:Yale University), page xvi-xvii.

"The other major source of intelligence information at Yale, the Institute of Human Relations, was rather more controversial, at least on the campus, some faculty declaring that its rapid move to war-related work smacked of opportunism. The charge is reasonable, though the institute also abundantly demonstrated the value of anthropology, and to a lesser extent sociology, to intelligence work. ... Less than a week after Pearl Harbor [the Institute's Director, Mark A.] May announced that the institute would accept contract work from aby government agency, and he launched an immediate crash program to study the 'cultural and racial characteristics' of the Japanese. George P. Murdock [1897-1985], one of the leading cultural anthropologists at Yale, shifted the emphasis of his Cross-Cultural Survey to the collecting and classification of materials on the people of the Pacific, and he began a fresh study of Micronesia, and especially the Japanese Mandated Islands. The institute drew up a list of anthropogists throughout the nation who had firsthand knowledge of the islands and sent it to the Army and Navy departments [stress added]." Robin W. Winks, 1987, Cloak & Gown: Scholars In The Secret War, 1939-1961 (NY: Wm. Morrow & Co., Inc.), page 43.

"Meanwhile, a quite different but equally multilinear andecological approach was being developed by George Peter Murdock[1897-1985], first at Yale and later at Pittsburgh.Murdock founded the Cross-Cultural Survey, later the Human RelationsArea Files [HRAF], through which he tried to assemblecultural facts from all the cultures of the world. His purposewas to enable scholars to correlate the distribution of culturetraits and work out historical trajectories both in general and forparticular culture areas or similar culture types. His best know workwas the somewhat mis-titles monograph Social Structure (1949),which employed a sample of 250 representative societies for such apurpose [stress added]." Alan Barnard, 2000,History and Theory in Anthropology (Cambridge UniversityPress), page 41.

"The Cross-Cultural Survey shows both the best and the worse that might be drawn from the [Yale university] institute to the OSS {Office of Strategic Services]. After the war [World War II] the Cross-Cultural Survey, whose records exited only at Yale, was again expanded and the material duplicated as the Human Relations Area Files, or HRAF, so that full files could be consulted at twenty American universities, the Smithsonian Institution, and university in France and Japan....HRAF was drawn upon by the CIA [Central Intelligence Agency] at least through 1967, and it was widely believed that a full file had been deposited at the agency' new headquarters in Langley, Virginia...." Robin Winks, 1996, Cloak and Gown: Scholars in the Secret War (1987 first edition; Yale University Press), page 45.

ALSO CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING: "Faithful to its title, the1968 Man the Hunter volume (Lee and DeVore 1968) ratherdogmatically portrayed hunting as the exclusive role of males.In this vision of cultural evolution, men were characterizedas 'cooperative hunters of big game, ranging freely and widely acrossthe landscape' (Washburn and Lancaster 1968 [in Man TheHunter, pages 293-303]). The exclusively male hunter modelwas constructed, in part, by a questionable manipulation of theoriginal codings for subsistence variables in Murdock's'Ethnographic Atlas' (1967) [George P. Murdock:1897-1985] and by ignoring contradictory evidence presented inthe original symposium proceedings by several ethnographers. Inessence, by narrowing and redefining the scope of 'hunting,' thesymposium participants obscured women's very real participation in abehaviorally and culturally complex enterprise. Dahlberg's editedvolume Women the Gatherer (1981) served as something of arejoinder, but it did this by highlighting the role of women asgatherers of plant foods, which often contributed more than half ofsome foraging people's subsistence. ... Unfortunately, such extremeviews, rendered as mutually exclusive 'man the hunter' versus 'womenthe gatherer' models, have come to sum up the way many archaeologistsinterpret the economic roles of men and women [stressadded]." Hetty Jo Brumbach and Robert Jarvenpa, 1997, Women theHunter: Ethnoarchaeological Lessons from Chipewyan Life-CycleDynamics, IN Women in Prehistory: North America andMesoamerica, edited by Cheryl Claassen and Rosemary A. Joyce(University of Pennsylvania Press), pages 17-32, page 17.

WORDS FROM David McCollugh: "I guess I want very much for others to experience the enlargement of one's own life that comes with knowing about the lives and experiences and accomplishments and failings and voices of others who went before us. To understand that one need not be provincial in time any more than one would be provincial in space [stress added]." Diane Osen, 2002, The Book That Changed My Life: Interviews With National Book Award Winners And Finalists (NY: Modern Library), page 106.

"Think of us archaeologists as detectives at the scene of acrime. We inspect what's left and try to put it all back togetheragain. Many times we can't be certain, so we opt for possibleexplanations of theories." R.J. Pinheiro, 1999, 01-01-00: TheNovel of the Millennium (NY: TOR Books), pages 135-136.

"Time, which destroys us, reduces what is not genius to rubbish [stress added]." Harold Bloom, 2002, Genius: A Mosaic of One Hundred Exemplary Creative Minds (NY: Warner Books), page 814.

"A new dating technique suggests that a human-like fossilskeleton found in South Africa was buried about 4 million years ago,which makes it one of the oldest known hominid discoveries.That's 1 million years earlier than previously thought[stress added]." Anon., 2003, Date of ancientskeleton pushed back to about 4 million years. TheEnterprise-Record, April 25, 2003, page 9C. 

"Decades of discovery....Fossils of what many believe could be the first true ancestors of humans--creatures named Ardipithecus ramidus that lived 4.4 million years ago. They were found to be at least a million years older than the famed 'Lucy' whose bones had been uncovered in the region earlier by Donald Johanson of the Institute for Human Origins now at Arizona State University. The earliest evidence that human ancestors made tools to butcher their meat was discovered on an antelope bone found by the late UC Berkeley archaeologist J. Desmond Clark and his colleagues....The teams also found 19 different hominid fossils as well as countless early stone-age tools. They also collected 625 other fossils of long-extinct animals, from animals as large as hippopotamus and elephant to as small as the shrew. All were evidence for evolution's ceaseless alteration of life forms as changing environments eliminate the unfit and encourage the better-adapted [stress added]." David Perlman, 2006, Parched Ethiopian region is ground zero for fossils. The San Francisco Chronicle, February 21, 2006, pages 1 and A8, page A8.

Interesting (And Somewhat Appropriate) Web Sites Are:[Sir Charles Lyell} 1795-1875][William Robertson Smith} 1846-1893][Edward Burnett Tylor][Anthropology Theory from Indiana University][Biographies of Archaeologists][Samuel G. Morton: 1799-1851][Augustus Lane Fox Pitt-River][On Darwin][Louis Agasiz} 1807-1873][David Douglas} 1799-1835][David Douglas][Alfred Russell Wallace 1855 paper][Alfred Russell Wallace 1858 paper][Thomas Henry Huxley: 1824-1895][Thomas Henry Huxley: 1824-1895][C. Darwin} Origin of Species][The Scopes "Monkey Trial," or "A 1925 Media Circus"][George Peter Murdock} 1897-1985][George Peter Murdock} 1897-1985]

WEEK 4. September 15 & 17, 2008: Mon& Wed} Darwin, Spencer, Morgan, Tylor, Frazer et al.continued, into the 20th Century. Preliminary discussionof your term paper topic interests. [TOBE ASSIGNED: 1/2 the class on 9/22/2008 and1/2 on 9/24/2008. WRITING ASSIGNMENT #1 [5%] DUE onyour day in class.

PLEASE NOTE} Do come to class EVERY-SINGLE-DAY with a "quotation" or a phrase that struck YOU in some way: either from this Guidebook or Langness or Davies & Piero.

NOTE: Writing Assignment #1is a CRITIQUE of any chapter that you have read from the readings todate that are on reserve. Some points to consider in your critiqueare the following: (#1) what was the main idea of thechapter? (#2) what facts were used to support the mainidea? (#3) any faulty reasoning, faulty logic, or obvious"bias" in the chapter ? (#4) what additionalinformation could be added to the author's argument? and,finally, (#5) is there a "counter-argument" to the main idea ofthe chapter? These are a lot of points to consider so please takeyour time!

"To know how to write well is to know how to think well."Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)

ALSO NOTE: the following "marginal notations"might be provided on your critique (so pleaseconsider them as you write your paper): #1. Spelling;#2: Punctuation; #3: Grammar; #4: Verb tense;#5: New idea needs new paragraph (or consider shorterparagraphs); #6: Lack of supporting evidence; #7:Unwarranted assumption; #8: Faulty logic; #9: Run-onsentence; and #0: Other.

Required Reading in: Langness: Chapter 2 (pp. 61-90) andplease read Urbanowicz on "Mother Nature, FatherCulture" which may be viewed by clicking here:ESSAY #8 at the end of this printed Guidebook.

HAVE a look at a "different" article from thefollowing items on RESERVE [note that this isthe same listing of articles assigned for Week 3]:

Bidney: Ch 7 (pp. 183-214).
Boorstin: pp. 636-652.
Hays pp. vii-xv and Ch 1-5 (pp. 1-49).
Harris (1968): Ch 5 (pp. 108-141).
Herbert: pp. 1-28.
Hinsley: pp. 7-63 or pp. 129-189.
Kardiner & Preble: pp. 33-94.
Luke: "Introduction" (pp. xiii-xxvi) plus any chapterfrom Museum Politics: Power Plays At The Exhibition
Malefijt Ch 7 (116-137) or Ch. 8 (138-159) or Ch. 11 (215-255).
Mead & Bunzel: pp. 58-81; or pp. 129-138; or pp.203-245; or pp. 305-318.
Moore: pp. 15-68.
Naroll & Naroll: Ch 3 (pp. 57-121).
Penniman: part of Ch. 4 (pp.110-146).
Pennock: "Preface" (pp. ix-xiv) plus pages 431-469.
Silverman: Ch. 1 (pp. 1-33).
Stocking (1991): pp. 144-185.
Stocking: pp. 1-14 and Ch. 3 (pp. 84-123).
Stocking: Ch. 5 (pp. 179-232).

PLEASE Continue reading Merryl Wyn Davies and Piero, 2002,Introducing Anthropology, pp. 1-19, pp. 20-33, and beginreading pp. 34-59.


"Three scientists, two of them Roman Catholic biologists, have asked Pope Benedict XVI to clarify the church's position on evolution in light of recent statements by Cardinal Christoph Schönborn, an influential theologian, that the modern theory of evolution may be incompatible with Catholic faith [stress added]." Cornelia Dean, 2005, Scientists Ask pope For Clarification On Evolution Stance. The New York Times, July 13, 2005, page A18.

"The first fossils recognized as Neandertals were found inAugust 1856. Two quarrymen were shoveling debris from a limestonecave near Dusseldorf, Germany.... The quarrymen were digging in acave in the Neander Valley. (In the nineteenth century, the Germanword for valley was thal, but the spelling was changed total at the beginning of the twentieth century, since Germandoes not have a th sound.) The valley was named after aseventeenth-century composer and poet named Joachim Neumann (Newmanin English), who signed his compositions with the Greek version ofhis name, Neander. Thus the irony of Neandertal man's literaltranslation: 'man of the valley of the new man.' The timing ofthe discovery could not have been better. Three years later CharlesDarwin [1809-1882], in his book On the Origin of Speciesby Means of Natural Selection, broached the unthinkable[stress added]." Steve Olson, 2002, Mapping HumanHistory: Discovering the Past Through Our Genes (Boston: HoughtonMifflin Company), pages 76-77.

"A version of Darwinism more closely allied to the ideas of Herbert Spencer [1820-1903] than those of Charles Darwin [1809-1882] reached China by the end of the nineteenth century. By the 1880s, Christian missionaries were providing translations of the works of Charles Lyell [1797-1875], Charles Darwin, and other scientists, but so-called Darwinian concepts were more forcefully introduced to China by British diplomats and businessmen. As champions of colonialism, such individuals generally assumed that the British had discovered and demonstrated the truth of the natural and moral laws that governed individuals, nations, and races, and invariably led to the triumph of the strong over the week. After 1895, the year of China's defeat in the Sino-Japanese War, Spencer's slogan 'the survival of the fittest' entered Chinese and Japanese writings as 'the superior win, the inferior lose.' Concerned with evolutionary theory in terms of the survival of China, rather than the origin of species, Chinese intellectuals saw the issue as a complex problem involving the evolution of institutions, ideas, and attitudes. Indeed, they concluded that the secret source of Western power and the rise of Japan was their mutual belief in modern science and the theory of evolutionary progress. Many adaptations of Darwinism evolved in China, including varieties that might be called Taoist Darwinism, Confucian Darwinism, Legalist Darwinism, and Buddhist Darwinism. Eventually, China absorbed, transformed, and was transformed by the intermixture of ideas, including those of Charles Darwin, Thomas Henry Huxley [1825-1895], Karl Marx [1818-1883], and Mao Zedong [1893-1976] [stress added]." Lois N. Magner, 2002, A History of the Life Sciences: Third Edition, Revised And Expanded (NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc.), page 348.

"The term 'eugenics,' which derives from the Greek stem meaning'good in birth,' was coined by Francis Galton[1822-1911], a cousin of Charles Darwin's [1809-18820.After reading the Origin of Species [1859] Galtonconcluded that it might be possible to improve mankind by selectivebreeding. ... Although Galton's name is linked inextricably toeugenics, he was a man of diverse interests and manyachievements. To those who study the history of Africa, he is anineteenth-century explorer and geographer. He was also awell-known travel writer. To meteorologists he isremembered as the discoverer of the anticyclone. Those who plumb thehistory of statistics will find Galton's name asociated withregression, correlation, and the founding of biometrics.Psychologists, especially those interested in mental imagery,claim him as one of their own, Forensic experts recognizeGalton as playing a central role in putting fingerprints as evodenceon a firm scientific footing. And last, but certainly not least,Galton's name will always be linked with the founding of humangenetics, the analysis of pedigrees, and twin studies. ... Thediversity of Galton's interests was not atypical for a Victorianscientists. His grandfather, Erasmus Darwin[1731-1802], was a highly successful physician, a seriousstudent of botany and zoology, an inventor, and a talented poet[stress added]." Nicholas Wright Gillham, 2001, ALife of Sir Francis Galton: From African Exploration to the Birth ofEugenics (Oxford University Press), pages 1-3.

"To a remarkable degree, [Reichfürer Heinrich] Himmler's [1900-1945] ideas had been formed not by politicians but by anthropologists and biologists. Men like [Hans F.K.] Günther had shown, using apparently objective measurements, that certain individuals and only one race was destined for mastery, but that if the blood of the Master Race was mixed with lesser races, it would be weakened and eventually destroyed. Hitler's [1889-1945], Rudolf Hess [1894-1987] called Nazism 'applied racial science'. After 1933, scientists at the prestigious Kaiser Wilhelm Institute found that their ideas were highly valued by Germany's new leaders. Many prestigious scientists became part of the Nazi crusade, even if they despised Hitler in private and were not party members. Among them were well-known biologists and anthropologists like Eugen Fischer, whose work on genetics was highly regarded by Himmler. These scientists fostered, knowingly, the vision of a future where scientific methods of selection would ensure that higher races prospered and lesser ones were weeded out. By pursuing their science, anthropologists nourished the fantasies of others who sought not knowledge but power. Hitler sometimes described himself as a 'physician' whose task was to remove the sickness of modern Germany. In return for scientifically endorsing his metaphor, doctors and anthropologists were offered dazzling opportunities by men who in 1933 seized so much power that they could contemplate what might have been an impossible dream: a purely Nordic future cleansed of impurity. Itwas a dream of power so radical that it could envision transforming the biological nature of the German people themselves [stress added]." Christopher Hale, 2003, Himmler's Crusade: The NAZI Expedition To Find The Origins Of the Aryan Race (NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.), page 109.

"More than two thousand Albertans [of Canada] weresterilized between 1928 and 1972 under the Albertan SterllizationAct.. All were victims of the success of the North American eugenicsmovementsearly in the twentieth century [stressadded]." John Beckwith, 2002, Making Genes, Making Waves(Harvard University Press), page 99.

"Museums often are ignored .... The material on display in museums no longer is simply a cache of curiosities for the intellectual edification of autonomous rational subjects [stress added]." Timothy W. Luke (2002), Museum Politics: Power Plays At The Exhibition (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press0, pages ix + 228.

"The word museum was originally a Greek term meaning'Place of the Muses.' At the beginning of the Iliad and theOdyssey, Homer invokes the Muse of epic poetry to lend some of herinspiration to his literary portrayals. Obviously, I'm not comparingmyself to Homer, but I will take any help I can get in order to tellmy story. So in additon to Calliope (the chief muse), I'd like toinvoke Clio (Muse of history) and Thalia (Muse of comedy) to helptell this story. Invoking Muses is very fitting, because naturalhistory museums are not just places of information, but also placesof inspiration. ... In the late nineteenth and early twentiethcenturies American and European museums primarily concernedthemselves with educating the public about the theory of evolution,explaining the principles and displaying the evidence [stressadded]." Stephen T. Asma, 2001, Stuffed Animals and PickledHeads: The Culture and Evolution of Natural History Museums(Oxford), page xii and page 154.

"Museums deliberately forge memories in physical form to prevent the natural erosion of memory, both personal and collective: this is the task of preservation, of creating new form for knowledge whose purely mental existence is well known to be ephemeral....[stress added]." Susan A. Crane, 2000, Introduction: Of Museums And Memory. Museums and Memory, edited by Susan A. Crane (Stanford University Press), pages 1-13, page 9.

"Before [Sir Richard] Owen [1804-1892], museumswere designed primarily for the use and edification of the elite, andeven then it was difficult to gain access. In the early days ofthe British Museum, prospective visitors had to make a writtenapplication and undergo a brief interview to determine if they werefit to be admitted at all. They then had to return s second time topick up a ticket--that is assuming they had passed the interview--andfinally come back a third time to view the museum's treasures. Eventhen they were whisked through in groups and not allowed tolinger. Owen's plan was to welcome everyone, even to the point ofencouragingworkingmen to vist in the evening, and to devote most ofthe museum's space to public displays. He even proposed, veryradically, to put informative labels on each display so that peoplecould appreciate what they were viewing. In this, somewhatunexpectedly, he was opposed by T.H. Huxley [1825-1895], whobelieved that museums should be primarily research institutes. Bymaking the natural history Museum an institution for everyone, Owentransformed our expectations of what museums are for[stress added]." Bill Bryson, 2003, A Short Historyof Nearly Everything (NY: Broadway Books), page 91.

"It is not enough to say that the Louvre [Paris, France] is the richest of museums, a vast treasury of all arts and all civilizations, magnificently housed. It has a deeper meaning. The Louvre is a living idea. In the succession of monarchs who built, tore down and rebuilt, in the tremendous expenditures of money, in the acquisition of gifts of private citizens, we see the forces which shaped its growth. ... The Louvre was not the first public museum, for it was preceeded by the Ashmolean at Oxford, the Vatican Museum, the British Museum, and, in America, by the Charleston Museum, which was organized in 1773, twenty years before the opening of the Louvre as a public institution. ... The earliest known structure on the present site was a fortress, begun about 1190 by Philip Augustus, one of the great parisian kings. It is likely, however, that during Clovis' siege of paris at the end of the fifth century, a Frankish tower or fortified camp existed here. If that is so, the name 'Louvre' may derive from the Saxon word lower: a fortified chateau; but it may also have come from louveterie (Low Latin lupara): the headquarters of the wolf-hunt, or, as some believe, from the name of a leper colony [stress added]."Milton S. Fox, 1951, The Louvre, pages 9-16, pages 9-10. Rene Huyghe, 1951, Art Treasures of the Louvre (NY: Harry N. Abrams).

"Joseph François Lafitau (1670-1746) spent sixyears among the Iroquois in a Canadian mission at Sault SaintLouis (outside of Montreal) in the early eighteenth century and whoknows how many more years reading 'the old relations' for data aboutthe earlier, contact-period lifeways of the Iroquois and otherAmerican peoples. His big illustrated book is considered by manyto constitute the first work of ethnology proper (especially inits articulation of a classificatory system to describe Iroquoiskinship). Though little read in the century and more interveningbetween its appearance and Lewis Henry Morgan's League of theIroquois (1851), it has earned the respect of manyanthropologists and is still in use as a reliable source for thefolkways it set out, in part, to represent and interpret"[stress added]." Mary Baine Campbell, 1999, Wonder& Science: Imagining Worlds in Early Modern Europe (CornellUniversity Press), page 289.

"The recognition of Boucher de Perthes' [1783-1868] thesis marked a new era because it implies that culture dates back to the Pleistocene: the flints were not only made by man, they were obviously more than random freaks and worked in conformity with a social tradition." Robert H. Lowie [1883-1957], 1937, The History of Ethnological Theory (page 7).

"Archaeology is a comparative science: to know one site isto know nothing; to know a thousand is to see some factors unifyingall [stress added]." Paul MacKendrick, 1983, TheMute Stones Speak: The Story of Archaeology in Italy, secondedition (NY: W.W. Norton & Co.), page 4.

"...I will argue that the most important single factor that has shaped the long-term development of American archaeology has been the traditional Euro-American stereotype which portrayed America's native people as being inherently unprogressive. I will attempt to demonstrate [Trigger continues] how the influence of this stereotype has caused American archaeology to develop in a fundamentally different manner from European archaeology, which from its beginning was preoccupied with affirming that continuous cultural progress characterized that continent in prehistoric as well as historic times [stress added]." Bruce G. Trigger, 2003, Artifacts & Ideas: Essays in Archaeology (Transaction Publishers), page 45.

"Thomas Jefferson [1743-1826] is very often citedas the 'father' of American archaeology, and he certainly attemptedone of the first archaeological explanations of the question["Who Got here First?"] when he wrote in his famous'Notes on Virginia' (1787) about an Indian mound that he hadexcavated many years before. However, his strongest evidence tosupport his belief in an Asian origin (via the Bering Strait)of the Native Americans was from his study of Indian languages. Hecited the diversity of these languages as proof that they had beenhere a long time." Stephen William, 1992, "Who Got To America First?"reprinted in Anthropology Explored: The Best Of SmithsonianAnthro Notes, 1998, edited by Ruth O. Selig and Marilyn R.London, pages 141-149, page 144.

"The importance of Jefferson's experience and his report of it [in 'Notes on Virginia' (1787)] cannot be overstressed, for he correctly used stratigraphy to make inferences about the past--a century before the principle became a basic part of the methodology of all archaeology, regardless of where it is undertaken. The principle is the method for providing a calendar for establishing the age of remains. As the criterion of scientific excavation, it is the principle in which every student of the science is to be trained. As C.W. Ceram, the noted author in archaeology commented, Jefferson 'not only indicated the basic features of the stratigraphic method buit also virtually named it, although a hundred years were to pass before the term became established in archaeological jargon....' [stress added]." Silvio A. Bedini, 2002, Jefferson And Science (Monticello: Thomas Jefferson Foundation), pages 53-55.

"The English mistook the Indians' war chants for songs ofwelcome, while the Indians mistook the red wine the settlersoffed them for blood. When Powhatan, the powerful Chesapeake chief,offered food to the Jamestown settlers, it was to signal thevisitors' dependent status, allies who required his protection. Tohis delighted guests, however, the gesture had anothermeaning: proof of willing subordination. The Indians, theEnglish agreed with relief, would become the docile subjects of KingJames. So went some of the culture clashes in the New World asEuropeans and Native Americans encountered each other for the firsttime [stress added]." Emily Eakin, Think Tank: HistoryYou Can See, Hear, Smell, Touch and Taste. The New York Times,December 20, 2003, page A21.

"Among those who came to Grave Creek [West Virginia] to examine the tablet was Henry Rowe Schoolcraft (1793-1864), one of the great early figures in American anthropology. Trained as a geologist, Schoolcraft had become interested in Indians while exploring the country west of the Alleghenies; he had become an expert on Indian languages and folklore, and had even married a half-Indian girl. When he headed for Grave Creek in 1842, he was considered one of the nation's leading authorities on the native peoples of America [stress added]." Robert Silverberg, 1970, The Mound Builders [1975, NY: Ballantine Books], page 51.

"The eagerness and energy of the [19th century] amateursgradually won a place for their subject as an independent science. Amuseum of ethnology was established in Hamburg in 1850; thePeabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard was founded in1866; the Royal Anthropological Institute in 1873; the Bureauof American Ethnology in 1879. Tylor was made Reader inAnthropology at Oxford in 1884. The first American professor wasappointed in 1886. But in the nineteenth century therewere not a hundred anthropologists in the whole world. The totalnumber of anthropological Ph.D.'s granted in the United States priorto 1920 was only 53. Before 1930 only four American universities gavethe doctorate in anthropology [stress added]." ClydeKluckhohn, 1949, Mirror For Man: The Relation of Anthropology ToModern Life, page 6.

"Ethnology in Britain was primarily associated with the name of the Bristol physican James Cowles Prichard [1746-1848], and one may trace its growth in the development of Prichard's thought from the time of his medical degree in Edinburgh in 1808 to the completion of the third edition of his Researches in 1848 [stress added]." George W. Stocking, Jr., 1987, Victorian Anthropology (NY: The Free Press), page 48.

On Sir Richard Burton (1921-1890): "His anthropologicalwritings, especially when concerned with sexual practices, hadsometimes been suppressed, even when he had decently cloaked themin Latin. His translations of erotica were in part acts ofbravado--both a rejection of conventional morality and a way ofexposing the true taste and moral value of the reading public[stress added]." John Hayman, 1990, Sir RichardBurton's Travels in Arabia and Africa: Four Lectures from aHuntington Library Manuscript (San marino, CA: HuntingtonLibrary), page 2.

"His [Sir Richard Burton, 1921-1890] remark about a 'new religion' referred to his proposal to form a new organisation, similar in style to the R.G.S. [Royal Geograpical Society] but which would publish papers of a more ethnological and anthropological nature. Thus came about The Anthropological Society, which Richard set up with Dr James Hunt [stress added]."Mary S. Lovell, 1998, A Rage To Live: A Biography of Richard & Isabel Burton (NY: W.W. Norton), page 413.

"The new society [The Anthropological Society] washighly successful from the view of membership. In 1867 ithad the impressive total of 706 members, in contrast with theEthnological Society whose greatest members ship was 107 in1846... [stress added]." Conrad C. Reining, 1962,A Lost Period of Applied Anthropology. The AmericanAnthropologist, Vol. 64: 593-600, page 593.

"General Augustus Lane Fox Pitt-Rivers (1827-1900) enjoyed a successful military career. A soldier of restless interests and an omnivorous collector, Lane Fox studied the development of weaponry. He soon became passionately interested in the evolution of artifacts, deciding that all material culture could be studied by arranging changing objects in an evolutionary order. Lane Fox was one of the founding father of ethnography. He worked closely with pioneer anthropologist Edward Tylor [1832-1917] and demonstrated the great value of ethnography to archaeology [stress added]." Brian M. Fagan [Editor], 1996, Eyewitness to Discovery: First-Person Accounts of More Than Fifty of the World's Greatest Archaeological Discoveries (Oxford University Press), page 392.

"The technological progress in the design of firearmsfascinated Pitt Rivers [1827-1900] and he began tocollect guns which he placed in sequence to illustrate theirdevelopment. Over the following years he amassed an extensivecollection of ethnographic material. He must have read Darwin'sOrigin of Species soon after its publication in 1859 for thetheory of evolution clearly inspired him to formulate his own theoryof the 'Evolution of Culture' which he was to expound in a lecture ofthat title in 1875. This theory, and his large collection ofethnographic objects which illustrated it, brought him to the noticeof the scientific establishment and soon he was regarded as anequal of such men as Thomas Huxley, the champion of Darwinianevolution, Herbert Spencer, the sociologist and Sir John Lubbock, thenaturalist and antiquarian. Charles Darwin himself supported PittRivers for Fellowship of the Royal Society in 1876 [stressadded]. Marc Bowden, 1984, General Pitt Rivers: The Father ofScientific Archaeology (Salisbury: Salisbury and South WiltshireMuseum), page 2.

"In the history of anthropology, the name Pitt Rivers [1827-1900] is indissolubly linked to a museum, and to the 'evolutionary' principle of its organization--which like the name, was specified in the terms of the bequest. Augustus Henry Lane Fox adopted the name Pitt Rivers in 1880 to fulfil the requirements of the will that made him master of a 25,000 acre estate. Four years later it was stipulated by Deed of Gift that the museum at Oxford University to which he gave that new name (along with his ethnographic and archaeological collection) would retain his system of arrangement during his lifetime and beyond--except for such changes in detail that might be 'necessitated by the advance of knowledge' and di 'not affect the general principle originated by the donor.... Stimulated, apparently by the Great Exhibition of the Works of Art of All Nations [1851], Pitt Rivers began to collect objects of a broadly ethnographic kind around 1851. At the time he was a young military officer, assigned to testing the new rifles then being introduced to replace the older, smoothbore muskets. Struck by the 'continuity observable' in small arms development, he began a collection of weapons to show their 'slow progression' of development over time.... [stress added]." William Ryan Chapman, 1985, Arranging Ethnology: A.H.L.F. Pitt Rivers and the typological Tradition. IN George W. Stocking, Jr. [Editor], 1985, Objects And others: Essays on Museums and Material Culture (University of Wisconsin Press), pages 15-48, pages 15-16.

SOME 1891 WORDS FROM PITT-RIVERS on People who are} "...areignorant .... The knowledge they lack is the knowledge of history.This lays them open to the designs of demagogues and agitatorswho strive to make them break the past, and seek ... drastic changesthat have not the sanction of experience.... The law that Naturemakes no jumps can be such a way as at least to make mencautious how they listen to scatter-brained revolutionary suggestions[stress added]." Pitt-Rivers, 1891, Typoligicalmuseums. Journal of the Society of Arts, pages 115-116.[Urbanowicz points out that this quotations, with the"..." as indicated, was taken as it appears in Marc Bowden, 1984,General Pitt Rivers: The Father of Scientific Archaeology(Salisbury: Salisbury and South Wiltshire Museum), page 8.

"Imperialist or world-oriented archaeology is associated with a small number of states that enjoy or have exerted political dominance over large areas of the world. ... The first imperialist archaeology developed in the United Kingdom. Scientific archaeology was introduced there from Scandinavia in the 1850s, at a time when the British middle class was fascinated by technological progress [stress added]." Bruce G. Trigger, 2003, Artifacts & Ideas: Essays in Archaeology (Transaction Publishers), page 78.

"Lewis Henry Morgan [1818-1881] was one of the mostinfluential thinkers of the nineteenth century--not just for thefuture of anthropology, but for the future of capitalism andworld politics. ... Morgan's best-known work is AncientySociety. Since it was first publihed in 1877, it has never beenout of print. ... Three aspects of Morgan's work still live:(1) his discovery of the classificatory system of kinship; (2)his analytical distinction between family and household...and(3) his contributions to broader anthropological theory"[stress added]." Paul Bohannan & Mark Glazer,Editors (1988) High Points in Anthropology, pages 29-31.

"This was the first systematic attempt to collect ethnographic data on a global scale. Morgan eventually published his results on kinship relations in Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family, published in 1870. A few years later, in Ancient Society: Or Researches In The Lines Of Human Progress From Savagery Through Barbarism To Civilization (1877), he refined his kinship data into a whole new theory of social evolution. In Ancient Society, Morgan traced the history of the human family….[stress added]." David Hurst Thomas, 2000, Skull Wars: Kennewick Man, Archaeology, And The Battle For Native American Identity (NY: Basic Books), page 47

"In North America, anthropology among the social sciences has aunique character, owing in large part to the natural-science (ratherthan social science) background of...." Franz Boas[1858-1942], Frederic Ward Putnam [1839-1915],and John Wesley Powell [1834-1902]. Franz Boaswas "educated in physics, was not the first to teach anthropology inthe United States, but it was her and his students, with theirinsistence on scientific rigor, who made such courses a common partof college and university curricula." Frederic Ward Putnam was"a zoologist specializing in the study of birds and fishes andpermanent secretary of the American Association for the Advancementof Science, [and he] made a decision in 1875 to devotehimself to the promotion of anthropology. Through his efforts manyof the great anthropology museums were established." JohnWesley Powell "was a geologist and founder of the United StatesGeological Survey, but he also carried out ethnographic andlinguistic research (his classification of Indian languages north ofMexico is still consulted by scholars today). In 1879, he foundedthe Bureau of American Ethnology (ultimately absorbed by theSmithsonian Institution), thereby establishing anthropology withinthe United States Government [stress added]." (WilliamA. Haviland, 1999, Cultural Anthropology, 9th edition, page25.)

"Putnam [1839-1915] was responsible for the development of museums and anthropology programs not only at Harvard but at the Peabody Museum in Salem [Massachusetts], the American Museum of natural history and Columbia University ion New York, the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, and the Lowie Museum and the University of California at Berkeley. ... In early 1890, Putnam wrote to the director of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, proposing that he should help in developing a major anthropological display the the exhibition. Putnam was appointed chief of Department M, Department of Archaeology and Ethnology, for the exposition and spent a major portion of his time between 1891 and 1893 developing and staffing the anthropological displays. Among the individuals he hired to help him were Boas.... [stress added]." Davvid L. Browman, 2002, The Peabody Museum, Frederick W. Putnam, and the rRise of U.S. Anthropology, 1866-1903. The American Anthropologist, Vol. 104, No. 2, June, pages 508-519, pages 513-514.

"Powell's life is also the story of the rising influence of thenatural sciences, of rationalism contesting the faith oftraditional religion, and of a new nationalism and secularism takingits place. As he was coming of age, science was rising toinfluence the study of nature and culture and even the making oflaws. In his day science meant, above all, geology, evolution, andDarwinism [stress added]." Donald Worster, 2001,A River Running West: The Life of John Wesley Powell (OxfordUniversity Press), page xii.

"The movement toward the frontier was not as helter-skelter as some would believe. By the late nineteenth century, the federal government took a very direct role, creating the U.S. Geological Survey in 1879, which was to explore and map all of Western America, just as the U.S. Bureau of Ethnology was to collect anthropological data on its Indian inhabitants. Both were headed for a long time by a most remarkable man, John Wesley Powell (1834-1902). One of the most widely known and respected scientists of his time, Powell was popular and famous as an intrepid explorer. But he was not only an explorer but also a philosopher, if an antiphilosophical one. ... As a result of his explorations and mappings, Powell advanced great plans for the West that called for larger expenditures of federal money and a greater degree of federal control. ... Powell's advice was ignored, and Congress rejected his General Plan for the arid lands of the West [stress added]." Victor Ferkiss, 1993, Nature, Technology, And Society: Cultural Roots Of The Current Environmental Crisis (NY: NYU Press), page 88.

"In 1894, Franklin Hamilton Cushing [1857-1900],head of the Smithsonian's Bureau of Ethnology, came to Philadelphia.He had come to visit the exhibits of the newly opened anthropologicalmuseum at the University of Pennsylvania. A reporter from thePhiladelphia Press nipped at his heels as he toured thegalleries. Cushing was a minor celebrity in the world ofanthropology and ethnology. The Philadelphia Pressreporter wrote of him: 'No one has done so much to read the every-daylives of the pre-historic people of America from the remains foundand his skill in this direction is almost uncanny [stressadded]." Steven Conn, 1998, Museums And American IntellectualLife, 1876-1926, page 3.

"Between 1891 and 1893 Frank Cushing [1857-1900] composed an account of the origins and early months of the Hemenway Southwestern Archaeological Expedition that has survived for over a century, but only as unpublished fragments that were dispersed in several archives across the United States. ... Frank Cushing was heir to a long-standing Euro-American tradition of male exploration and discovery that was characterized by a distinctive set of discursive practices. It was a discourse that combined categories and activities of politics, commerce, and science into a common genre: part scientific observing and collecting, part travelogue, part adventure story, and part investment prospectus [stress added]." Curtis M. Hinsley and David R. Wilcox, 2002, The Lost itinerary of Frank Hamilton Cushing (Tuscon: The University of Arizona Press), pages 3 and 18.

ON The Golden Bough [1890->1915] by JamesG. Frazer (1854-1941): "It may be said without reasonable fear ofcontradiction that no other work in the field of anthropology hascontributed so much to the mental and artistic climate of ourtimes. Indeed, what Freud [1856-1939] did for theindividual, Frazer did for civilization as a whole. For Freuddeepened men's insight into the behavior of individuals by uncoveringthe ruder world of the subconscious, from which much of it springs,so Frazer enlarged man's understanding of the behavior ofsocieties by laying bare the primitive concepts and modes of thoughtwhich underlie and inform so many of their institutions and whichpersist, as a subliminal element of their culture, in traditionalfolk customs [stress aded]." Theodor H. Gaster[Editor], 1959, The New Golden Bough: A New Abridgement ofthe Classic Work by Sir James George Frazer (NY: New AmericanLibrary), pages xix-xx.

"In 1658, James Ussher [1580-1656] , Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of Ireland, estimated that the Earth was created in the early evening of October 22, 4004 B.C. He based his calculations rather loosely on the family trees found in the Old Testament, and anchored them in historical events that seemed to have corresponding accounts in both the Bible and ancient written histories dating from Greek and Roman times." Christopher Wills and Jeffrey Bada, 2000, The Spark of Life: Darwin and the Primeval Soup (Cambridge, Mass: Perseus Publishing), pages 66-67.

"Having assumed that the world began in the autumn, Ussher[1580-1656] took it for granted that the first complete dayof the world would be the first day of the week--a Sunday. Havingmade all these assumptions, and knowing the year to be 4004 B.C.,calculating the date was straightforward: 'I have observed that theSunday, which in the year [4004 B.C.] aforesaid, came nearestthe Autumnal Aequinox, by Astronomical Tables, happened upon the 23rdday of the Julian October.' ... as he made explicit in hisintroduction, time began at 6 P.M. on the evening of Saturday,October 22, 4004 B.C. [stress added]." Martin Gorst,2001, Measuring Eternity: The Search For the Beginning Of Time(NY: Broadway Books), pages 38-39.

"John Lloyd Stephens (1805-1850) was a new York lawyer with a taste for politics who started traveling for his health. ... While in London in 1836, Stephens met Frederick Catherwood (1804-1852), a British architect and artist who had just returned from a lengthy sketching trip in the Near East. ... The two men became friends and prominent member's of New York's literary circle, where they heard rumours of unexplored temples in the Central American rain forest. In October 1839, they set out on a journey in search of rumoured jungle civilizations [stress added]." Brian M. Fagan [Editor], 1996, Eyewitness to Discovery: First-Person Accounts of More Than Fifty of the World's Greatest Archaeological Discoveries (Oxford University Press), page 334.

"In 1948, when this magazine [Archaeology]first appeared [and Charles F. Urbanowicz was six yearsold!], archaeologists believed humanity was little more than aquarter of a million years old. The earliest farmers came fromEgypt's Fayum, perhaps 6,000 years ago. The Maya were peaceful,calendar-obsessed astronomers. Stonehenge was effectively undated.The first Native Americans were big-game hunters who roamed theplains. Archaeologists, meanwhile numbered in the hundreds, many ofthem amateurs or self-trained excavators, and most worked within thenarrow confines of Europe, Southwestern Asia, and North America.Five decades later, we gaze out over an archaeologicallandscape transformed. The human past extends back more than 2.5million years, farming is at least 10,000 years old, and the Maya areknown to have been an aggressive, blood-thirsty people. The hundredsof archaeologists have become thousands, most professionally trained,conducting fieldwork in widely scattered parts of the world. Andarchaeology is concerned with every facet of the past, from our EastAfrican origins to the technological achievements of the IndustrialRevolution. Developments in three major areas have redefinedresearch during these years: computers and an awesome array ofnew scientific methods have allowed us to make discoveriesunimaginable at mid-century; the explosive growth in the number ofprofessionals and the rise of nationalism have made archaeology aglobal discipline; and theoretical advances have transformedthe way we approach the business of discovery. Willard Libby'sremarkable chronological method, developed in the late 1940s, won hima Nobel Prize [in Chemistry in 1960 ] and changed the courseof archaeology. C-14 dating allowed the first relatively precisechronology for the past 40,000 years... People sometime ask me,'Will archaeology survive in the twenty-first century?' If thedramatic discoveries and scientific achievements of the past 50 yearsare any guide, the answer must be a resounding yes[stress added]." Brian Fagan, 1998, 50 Years ofDiscovery: How Archaeology Has Reconfigured The Human past.Archaeology, September/October, Vol. 51, No. 5, pages33-34.

"Some of what we claim to know about the past is true; the rest is false. The purpose of this book is to describe ways of telling the difference. [page 17] ... The question of science-versus-humanities, or natural sciences versus social science is a lively internal issue among archaeologists. ... Archaeology is like a social science in that the objects of interest are people, human culture, and artifacts created under the influence of ideas and social norms. Evidence in archaeology is often symbolic, meaningful, and intentional, and the archaeologist must be sensitive to this unnatural content. But archaeology is also like a natural science in that its focus is on the material remains of people in the past and on their relations with the natural environment. ... Located at this interface, archaeology is especially prone to disagreements over method. ... [Louis] Binford's model of good archaeological method is at the heart of what is sometimes called new Archaeology.... Objectivity is the methodological goal. [Ian] Hodder, in explicit opposition to this, claims that natural science is an inappropriate model for archaeology in that it is incorrigibly insensitive to ideas [stress added]." Peter Kosso, 2001, Knowing The Past: Philosophical Issues of History and Archaeology (NY: Humanity Books/Promethus Books), pages 59-61.

"Professor V. Gordon Childe [1892-1957], who died inthe Blue Mountains of his native Australia in 1957 soon afterretiring from the Directorship of the London University Institute ofArchaeology, was one of the great prehistorians of the world.More perhaps than any other man he showed how by using thedata won by archaeologists and natural scientists it waspossible to gain a new view of what constituted humanhistory. Inevitably some of the books in which he summarized, withbrilliant mastery of detail, the current situation in differentfields of prehistoric archaeology have begun to lost something oftheir value for modern students [stress added]." GrahameClarke, 1965, Foreward. What Happened in History by V. GordonChilde, 1942 [1965 Penguin Books Edition], page 7.

"Feminists and gender archaeologists have already made significant contributions to our understanding of long-term changes and variations in gender roles, hierarchies, and ideologies in many parts of the world. I will touch on a few examples: the role of hunting in human evolution, the origins of women's oppression, ancient goddess worship, and nonbinary gender systems [stress added]." Kelley Hays-Gilpin, 2000, Feminist Scholarship in Archaeology. The Annals of The American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 571 (September 2000), pages 89-106, page 97.

"In the history of the study of human evolution there is a seriesof associations that have become fixed: Pithecanthropuserectus from Java and his discoverer Eugene Dubois[1858-1940]; Raymond Dart [1893-1988] andAustralopithecus africanus from southern Africa; LouisLeakey [1903-1972] with East African Homo habilis.If there is one name associated with the discovery of Peking Man,Sinanthropus pekinensis, it is Davidson Black[1884-1933] [stress added]." Penny vanOosterzee, 2000, Dragon Bones: The Story of Peking Man(Cambridge: Perseus Press), page 42.

"A man [or a woman] who has once looked with the archaeological eye will never see quite normally. He will be wounded by what other men call trifles. It is possible to refine the sense of time until an old shoe in the bunch of grass or a pile of nineteenth-century beer bottles in an abandoned mining town tolls in one's head like a hall clock. This is the price one pays for learning to read time from the surfaces other than an illuminated dial. It is the melancholy secret of the artifact, the humanly touched thing [stress added]." Loren Eiseley, 1971, The Night Country (NY: Charles Scribner's Sons), page 81.

"The discovery of Baby Taung, the first knownaustralopithecine, in 1924 is now the stuff of legends.How Raymond Dart [1893-1989], a 31-year olf anatomistin South Africa, was given two boxes of fossils recovered from alimestone quarry at Taung, and how, after he found a curious fossilin the second box and spent 73 days chipping away rock matrix,a skull belonging to a juvenile was revealed to Dart two days beforeChristmas. he named the humanoid Australopithecus africanus,the 'southern ape from Africa. [stress added]."Jon Kalb,2001, Adventures in the Bone Trade: The Race to Discover HumanAncestors in Ethiopia's Afar Depression (CopernicusBooks/Springer-Verlag), page 51.

"Humanity's plot thickens. The 'Toumai' skull isn't much to look at: a nearly complete cranium, some jawbones and a few teeth. But scientists are calling him [or her!] the most important discovery since the first fossilized remains of human ancestors were found 75 years ago. Why? Because Toumai pushes back by a million years the date when humanity's family tree is believed to have sprouted. ... Who knows which theories will hold? The only thing Toumai's discovery proves beyond a doubt is that he's a tiny part of a still-mysterious story [stress added]." USAToday "Editorial" on July 12, 2002, Page 8A; and see: 

"Paleoanthropologists have no idea how many Neanderthals existed(crude estimates are in the many thousands), but archaeologistshave found more fossils from Neanderthals than from any extinctspecies. The first Neanderthal fossil was uncovered in Belgiumin 1830, though nobody accurately identified t for more than acentury. In 1848, the Forbes Quarry in Gibraltar yielded one of themost complete Neanderthal skulls ever found, but it, too, wentunidentified, for 15 years. The name Neanderthal arose afterquarryman in Germany's neander valley found a cranium and severallong bones in 1856; they gave the specimens to a localnaturalist, Johnann Karl Fuhlrott, who soon recognized them as thelegacy of a previously unknown type of human. Over the year, France,the Iberian Peninsula, southern Italy and the Levant have yieldedabundances of Neanderthal remains, and those finds are beingsupplemented by newly opened excavations in Ukraine and Georgia.'It seems that everywhere we look, we're finding Neanderthalremains,' say Loyola's Smith. 'It's an exciting time to bestudying Neanderthals' [stress added]." Joe Alper,2002, Rethinking Neanderthals. Smithsonian, June 2003, pages82-87, page 85.

"A people who may have been ancestors of the first Americans lived in Arctic Siberia, enduring one of the most unforgiving environments on Earth at the height of the Ice Age, according to researchers who discovered the oldest evidence yet of humans living near the frigid gateway to the New World. Russian scientists uncovered a 30,000-year-old site where ancient hunters lived on the Yana River in Siberia, some 300 miles north of the Arctic Circle and not far from the Bering land bridge that then connected Asia with North America. ... The researchers found stone tools, ivory weapons and the butchered bones of mammoths, bison, bear, lion and hare, all animals that would have been available to hunters during that Ice Age period. Using a dating technique that measures the ratios of carbon, the researchers determined the artifacts were deposited at the site about 30,000 years before the present. That would be about twice as old as Monte Verde in Chile, the most ancient human life known in the American continents [stress added]." Paul Recer, 2004, Ice Age hunters' camp found in Siberia: Possible link to ancestors of 1st Americans. The San Francisco Chronicle, January 2, 2004, page A5.

"Archaeologists expressed caution Wednesday [July 6,2005] about the reported discovery of 40,000-year-oldhuman footprints in Central Mexico. If the age of thefootprints is verified by scientists outside the discovery team, thefind would be a scientific blockbuster, rewriting thestory of human migration into the New World [stressadded]." Dan Vergano, 2005, Mexico footprints could be a giantarchaeological step. USA Today , July 7, 2005, page 9D.

"Human evolution is the most passionate aspect of the evolution-creation debate [stress added]." Larry A. Whitham, 2002, Where Darwin Meets the Bible: Creationists And Evolutionists In America (Oxford University Press), page 242.

Interesting (And Somewhat Appropriate) Web Sites Are:[Creationism & Darwnism, Politics & Economics} TaoistDarwinism][The Huxley File][Richard Owen} 1804-1892] [TheNatural History Museum] London][Sir Francis Galton} 1822-1911][Francis Galton Links][Ian Hodder's Çatalhöyük site][Archaeology: An Introduction by Kevin Greene][20,000 year old cave paintings][Society for California Archaeology][Chico Campus Culture Project]

WEEK 5. September 22 & 24, 2008: Mon& Wed} DISCUSSION OF WRITING ASSIGNMENT #1 (5%)Approximately 1/2 class either Monday, 9/22/2008 or Wednesday9/24/2008

PLEASE NOTE} Let us also discuss some of your "quotations" or a phrases that struck YOU in some way to date: either from this Guidebook or Langness or Davies & Piero.

NOTE: No new required Reading in Langness; nonew required Reading in Urbanowicz; no new required readingsin Davies & Piero.


FROM: USA Today, January 4, 1999: "The ideawas simple. Sit around and pick the 1,000 most important people ofthe millenium. ... [#1] Johannes Gutenberg(1394?-1468) Inventor of printing.... [#5] WilliamShakespeare (1564-1616) 'Mirror of the millennium's soul'....[#6] Isaac Newton (1642-1727) Laws of motion helpedpropel the Age of Reason.... [#7] Charles Darwin(1809-1882) Theory of Evolution [stressadded]." From the book by Barbara and Brent Bowers & AgnesHooper Gottlieb and Henry Gottlieb, 1998, 1,000 People: RankingThe Men And Women Who Shaped The Millennium.

"In the complex history of modern biology, only Darwin's theory of evolution has so shocked the mind as to raise serious questions about man's place in the universe. Darwin forced men to consider that they are animals, and that the designs of creation are played out on a much wider stage than was imagined. From the point of view of the theory of evolution, mankind is only one species among thousands which have their place within the field of organic life on earth. The fact that people took the theory of evolution as an enemy of religion only shows how rigidly they understood the idea of God [stress added]." Jacob Needleman, 1975, A Sense of the Cosmos: The Encounter of Modern Science and Ancient Truth (NY: Doubleday & Co., Inc.), page 64.

"Biologists do not accept the truth of evolution on the basisof Darwin's authority but on the basis of the evidence.Evolutionary theory has been out of Darwin's hands from the momentThe Origin of Species appeared in 1859. Once Darwinpublished his evolutionary hypotheses and the evidence upon whichthey were based, these entered the public domain of knowledge,and others took the ball and ran with it. Scientific knowledge is not'owned' by any individual so no individual, even the discoverer, can'take back' a theory [stress added]. Robert T.Pennock, 1999, Tower of Babel: The Evidence Against the NewCreationism (MIT Press), page 71.

"The boldest theories of the period [in the late 19th century] came from England's evolutionary biologist Charles Darwin and historical geologist Charles Lyell, and [John Wesley] Powell did not hesitate to make those theories his own. He took from them the view that the natural world is the product of observable forces operating in the here and now, and that those forces have been operating all the way back, as far as the mind can travel. Nineteenth century scientists called this perspective 'uniformitarianism,' for it looked on nature as the outcome of slow, steady, unvarying processes. Given enough time, a small stream could move a mountain or carve a canyon; a mere five or six inches of erosion per thousand years could eventually produce a Grand Canyon. Similarly, minute variations among organisms could accumulate until they produced the full diversity of species on the earth [stress added]." Donald Worster, 2001, A River Running West: The Life of John Wesley Powell (Oxford University Press), page 313.

"Charles Darwin 1809-1882. His theory of evolution was metinitially by detractors but proved to be a major springboard formodern science. Darwin knew he would be labeled a heretic for hisassertions about the origin of man. The significance of his findingsfar outweighs the criticism he endured [stressadded]." The Chico Enterprise-Record, December 26, 1997,page 7C.

"The great value of Darwinism, it seems to me, was that it jolted modern men into questioning various sentimental beliefs about nature and man's place in it. In this, Darwin's influence closely parallels that of Galileo [1564-1642]. Just as the first modern astronomers and physicists destroyed a naive geocentrism, so Darwin and his successors overwhelmingly displaced what may be called homocentrism, the belief that nature exists for the sake of man [stress added]." Jacob Needleman, 1975, A Sense of the Cosmos: The Encounter of Modern Science and Ancient Truth (NY: Doubleday & Co., Inc.), page 72.

"In the late nineteenth century the popular understanding ofevolution became permeated by social Darwinism, a philosopher mostclosely identified with Herbert Spencer [1820-1903], whowas energetically adapting Darwin's theories to fit his own politicalviews. Spencer thought females never had been inherently equal tomales and could never be; subordination of women was not only naturalbut, in his view, desirable. [FN #31 for the author reads,in part: "For a review of the relevant literature, see especiallyRichard Hofstadter, Social Darwinism in American Thought(Boston: Beacon Press, 1955). Social Darwinism continues to be animportant force in popular thinking...."]. Social Darwinismhas, almost indelibly, tainted most people's understanding ofevolutionary theory--certainly as it applies to human beings. Yetsocial Darwinism differs from Darwinism-without-adjectives in one allimportant way, and ignoring this distinction has been one ofthe most unfortunate and long-lived mistakes of sciencejournalism. Darwinism proper is devoted to analyzing all thediverse forms of life according to the theory of natural selection.Darwinists describe competition between unequal individuals,but they place no value judgement on either the competition orits outcomes. Natural-selection theory provides a powerful way tounderstand the subordination of one individual, or a group ofindividual, by another, but it in no way attempts to condone (orcondemn) subordination. By contrast, social Darwinists attempt tojustify social inequality. Social Darwinism explicitly assumesthat competetion leads to 'improvement' of a species; the mechanismof improvement is the unequal survival of individuals and theiroffspring. Applying this theory to to the human condition, socialDarwinists hold that those individuals who win the competetion, whosurvive and thrive, must necessarily be the 'best.' Socialinequalities between the sexes, or between classes or races,represent the operation of natural selection and therefore should notbe tampered with, since such tampering would impede the progress ofthe species. It is this latter brand of Darwinism that becamepopularly associated with evolutionary biology. The association isincorrect, but it helps to explain why feminists have steadfastlyresisted biological perspectives [stress added]."Sarah Blaffer Hrdy, 1981, 1999, The Woman That Never Evolved: WithA New Preface and Bibliographical Updates (Harvard UniversityPress), pages 12-13.

"Science evolves over historical time. Concepts come into being and may pass away; some 'survive' and others do not; and there can be competition between ideas. Some win; others lose; still others gte transformed (evolve) into new forms. Is this evolution of science illuminated by natural selection theory? [stress added]." Holmes Rolston, III, 1999, Genes, Genesis and God: Values and Their Origins in Natural and Human History (Cambridge University Press), page 168.
"Reading is seeing by proxy."
Herbert Spencer [1820-1903]

WEEK 6. September 29, 2008 & October 1,2008: Mon & Wed} 19th / 20th Century Reaction(s) & REVIEW onWednesday, October 1, 2008 (including FrançoisPéron, Franz Boas, Alfred Louis Kroeber, and others!).Incidentally, please consider the historical significance of an eventwhich occured fifty-one years ago this weekend on October 4,1957:

"History changed on October 4, 1957, when the Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik I. The world's first artificial satellite was about the size of a basketball, weighed only 183 pounds, and took about 98 minutes to orbit the Earth on its elliptical path. That launch ushered in new political, military, technological, and scientific developments. While the Sputnik launch was a single event, it marked the start of the space age and the U.S.-U.S.S.R space race." [From:


"A global thinker, influential environmentalist, and the world's best-known paleoanthropologist, Richard Leakey has been making international headlines for more than 30 years. As former director of the National Museum of Kenya and the Kenya Wildlife Service, Leakey has used his leadership skills and influence to raise money for wildlife preservation. Now a visiting professor of anthropology at Stony Brook University, Leakey, one of the foremost authorities on wildlife and nature conservation, continues to educate others about the dangers of environmental degradation. Dr. Leakey will be speaking as part of the annual President's Lecture Series, and is also a part of the On the Creek Lecture Series at Chico State. His visit is co-sponsored by the Museum of Anthropology and the Department of Anthropology at Chico State."

Required Reading in: Langness: Repeat Chapter 2 (pp. 61-90)and please read Urbanowicz on "Comments on Tasmanianpublications...." which may be viewed by clicking here:ESSAY #9 at the end of this printed Guidebook.

NOTE: A "sample" self-paced exam should be available at: September 29, 2008, to assist you as a Review for EXAM I onMonday, October 6, 2008. (Incidentally, I am well awarethat "older" versions of my ANTH 496 Exams exist "out there" -I return them so you might learn from any mistakes; by all means, ifyou have access to "old" exams, do look at them; butr.e.m.e.m.b.e.r to read and study for EXAM I (andeventually EXAM II) as if you might be faced with BRAND NEWEXAMINATION QUESTIONS - which could well be the case!)!


"Getting a good night's sleep before a big exam might be betterthan pulling an all-nighter. A study found that sleep apparentlyrestores memories that were lost during a hectic day. It's not just amatter of sleep recharging the body physically. Research say sleepcan rescue memories in a biological process of storing andconsolidating them deep in the brain's complex circuitry. The findingis one of several conclusions made in a pair of studies in today'sissue of the journal Nature that look at how sleep affectsmemory [stress added]." Rick Callahan,2003, Sleephelps people learn, study finds. The San Francisco Chronicle,October 8, 2003, page A8.


Written about the Law Professor Thomas Callahan in JohnGrisham's 1992 The Pelican Brief: "The exam was a nightmare,but he was really a sweetheart, a soft grader, and it was a raredumbass who flunked the course" (page 15). 

PLEASE read any one of the following items from theselections on RESERVE:

Any appropriate selection in U. Gacs et al.
Bidney: Ch 8 (pp. 215-249).
Darnell: #20 (pp. 260-273).
Geertz (1988): Ch. 1 (pp. 1-24).
Harris: Ch 9 + 10 (pp. 250-300) or Harris Ch. 18 (pp.464-513).
Hays: Ch 23-29 (pp. 227-305).
Honigman: Ch 15 (pp. 637-716).
Kardiner & Preble: pp. 95-116 or pp. 117-139 andpp. 163-177.
Kuper: Ch 7 (pp. 204-226).
Mead & Bunzel: pp.477-484 and pp. 617-628 or pp.458-507.
Moore: pp. 113-139.
Montagu: #18 (pp. 315-319) or Montagu #20 (pp. 344-391).
Silverman: Ch. 2 (pp. 35-65) or Ch. 4 (pp. 101-139).
Voget: Ch 13 (pp. 480-538).

YOU should have finished reading Merryl Wyn Davies and Piero,2002, Introducing Anthropology, pp. 1-59.


"The appointment of Daniel Garrison Brinton[1837-1899] as Professor of Archaeology and Linguistics atthe University of Pennsylvania in 1886 was technically thefirst professorship of Anthropology in America, although hereceived no salary and attracted no students .... Indeed,Brinton's appointment resulted not from the need for anthropologicalteaching, but from Provost William Pepper's concern to establish 'agreat ethnological museum'.... [stress added]." RegnaDarnell, 1998, And Along Came Boas: Continuity AndRevolution In Americanist Anthropology (Philadelphia: JohnBenjamins Publishing Co.), page 105.

"In the United States anthropology began in the 19th century when a number of dedicated amateurs went into the field to gain a better understanding of what many European Americans still regarded a 'primitive people.' Exemplifying their emphasis on firsthand observation is Frank Hamilton Cushing [1857-1900], who lived among the Zuni Indians for 4 years.... Among these founders of North American anthropology were a number of women whose work was highly influential among those who spoke out in the 19th century in favor of women's rights. One of these pioneering anthropologists was Matilda Cox Stevenson [1849-1915], who also did fieldwork among the Zuni. in 1885, she founded the Women's Anthropological Society, the first professional association for women scientists. Three years later, the Bureau of American Ethnology hired her, making her one of the first women in the United States to receive a full-time position in science [stress added]." William A. Haviland, 1999, Cultural Anthropology, 9th edition, page 7.

"In at least one respect, the American West--the vast expanse ofland running from the 98th meridian bisecting the Dakotas, Nebraska,Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas to the Pacific Ocean--was all a bigmistake. ... One of the few people urging restraint as settlersrushed across the continent was a man by the name of John WesleyPowell [1834-1902]. A Civil War [1861-1865]veteran who lost his right arm in the battle of Shiloh, Powell wenton in 1860 to successfully navigate the Colorado River. But hisgreatest contribution to American society stemmed not from hisexplorations but from his deep understanding of the hard reality thatunfolded across the 98th meridian. The West might seem wet andinviting at the moment, Powell argues in the 1870s, but aridity--afundamental inability to support agriculture without an artificialinfusion of water--defined its true character [stressadded]." Ted Steinberg, 2002, Down To Earth: Nature's Role inAmerican History (NY: Oxford University Press), page 116.

"In the early twentieth century, anthropology in the United States, France, and Britain moved in new directions as it sought to distance itself from nineteenth-century cultural evolutionism and hereditarianism, now construed as racism.' The School of American cultural historicism emerged under the influence of Franz Boas [1858-1942], while the schools of French structural anthropology emerged under the earlier influence of Émile Durkheim [1858-1917]. In each case, as before, the history of anthropologcal theory was affected by powerful and persuasive personalities [stress added]." Paul A. Erickson and Liam D. Murphy [Editors], 2006, Readings For A History of Anthropological Theory (Ontario, Canada: Broadview Press), page 89.

"The Boas legacy is complex and must be viewed quitebroadly. ... In the final analysis, he was concerned with thehuman condition. He championed the causes of individuals in trouble,often placing his own reputation in jeopardy. 'In all his work,whatever the approach, he continuously stressed the innate worth ofthe human being, the dignity of all human culture [stressadded]." Marshall Hyatt, Franz Boas--Social Activist: TheDynamics of Ethnicity, 1990: 156 & 157.

"Franz Boas [1858-1942] hated authority. Authority, whether it was that of tradition or that of a university administrator, was to be resisted and defied. His students were exhorted to practise indepedence of thought and action, and woe to those who did not. He fought authority all of his life, even his own authority; for when any of his ideas were threatened with systematization he went off on another tack, leaving his followers without a flag. He is the greatest hero in American anthropology, but there is no Boas 'school' [stress added]." A. Kardiner & E. Preble (1961), They Studied Man (NY: Mentor Books), page121.

"Alice C. Fletcher [1838-1923] began her long anddistinguished career in anthropology during the late 1870s at the ageof forty, studying archaeology at Harvard's Peabody Museum under thedirect supervision of the eminent Professor Frederick WardPutnam [1839-1915]. She got off to a remarkable startat Harvard's Peabody, digging in the shell mounds of Maine and nearlysingle-handedly saving Ohio's famous Serpent Mound fromdestruction [stress added]." David Hurst Thomas,2000, Skull Wars: Kennewick Man, Archaeology, And The Battle ForNative American Identity (NY: Basic Books), page 65.

Lewis Henry Morgan (1818-1881) was once termed the "dean of American anthropology" and as L.A. White (1900-1975) has written: "Morgan fell into disrepute in the United States when Franz Boas and his students rose to ascendency in anthropological science. As an American he was looked down upon, ignored by the European-born members of the Boas school. The reaction against cultural evolutionism, which became vigorous in the United States under Boas, and in Europe under the leadership of Fritz Graebner [1877-1934] and later of Schmidt [1868-1954] and Koppers [1886-1961], took Morgan as its prime target. He was in turn ignored, belittled, and ridiculed. The fact that Ancient Society [1877] had become a Marxist classic unquestionably contributed to the hostility to and rejection of Morgan's work, but it is difficult to gauge the magnitude of this factor [stress added]." Leslie A. White, 1968, Lewis H. Morgan. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 1968, Vol. 10, pages 496-498, pages 497-498.

Edward S. Curtis [1868-1952]: "Curtis ended upworking for 30 years on his self-assigned assignment[which was to culminate in his multivolume work entitled TheNorth American Indian] in which he regarded himself as bothan artist and a scientist. He visited 80 tribes, exposed atotal of approximately 40,000 negatives, conducted countlessinterviews on manners and customs, wrote down the tribal historiesthat had been handed down orally, and concerned himself with stories,legends, and myths. He conducted linguistic studies, and with thehelp of an assistant used an early Edison wax cylinder recordinginstrument to record music, songs and chants, which were latertranscribed into musical notation. The entire material was thenprepared for publication. As an example, the basis concepts of75 languages and dialects were preserved in thismanner, and more than 10,000 songs recorded. But thatwasn't all: Curtis was also the first person to make motionpictures of the Indians, filming among otherthings....[stress added!]." Hans Christian Adam, 1997,Introduction. In The North American Indian: The CompletePortfolios by Edward S. Curtis (Köln: Taschen), pages6-30, pages 17-18.

"Although there were many American anthropologists before Franz Boas, it was he who founded the first University Department in America (at Clark University [located in Worcester, Massachusetts-founded in 1887] in 1888), and he was himself a sort of funnel through which all [!] American anthropology passed between its nineteenth-century juniority and its twentieth-century maturity [stress added]." Paul Bohannan & Mark Glazer, Editors (1988) High Points in Anthropology (NY: A.A. Knopf) page 81.

"In 1897, Franz Boas [1858-1942], curator of ethnographyat the American Museum of natural History [New York, NewYork], wrote a letter to the Kwakiutl community of Fort Rupert,British Columbia [Canada]. Boas' friend and colleague GeorgeHunt translated the letter into Kwakwala, the language spoken by theKwakiutl people, and read it alound to the group. Friends: I amMr. Boas who is speaking to you....It is two winters sinze I havebeen with you, but I have thought of you often...the ways of theIndian were made differently from the ways of the white man at thebeginning of the world, and it is good that we remember the old ways.... Your laws will not be forgotten. Your children and the white manwill understand that the old ways of the Indians were good...."As Boas knew from his first visit to the Kwakiutl in 1886, themost important ceremony of these Native people was the potlatch.... Canadian officials and missionaries both frowned on the potlatch,criticizing the vast expenditures of wealth necessary for propervalidation of chiefly status. So abhorrent did the white Canadiansfind the potlatch that the government declared it illegal in 1884[stress added]." from: Chiefly Feasts: The EnduringKwakiutl Potlatch (n.d., The American Museum of NaturalHistory).

"The Boasian method consisted of examining cultures in depth, establishing their history through language, art, myth, and ritual and studying the influences that shaped them in their distinctive environments and in contacts with neighboring cultures. .... For Boas, cultures could not be explained in terms of the native endowments of particular races. His work led inevitably to cultural relativism; he argued that anthropologists needed to bring to their work the fearless vision of the outsider and the capacity to see another culture unblinkered by one's own. Under his influence anthropology became the study of culture, not race, moving away from its biological determinist roots toward a more genuinely historical understanding of the relationship between ethnicity, culture, and society [stress added]." Hilary Lapsley, 1999, Margaret Mead And Ruth Benedict: The Kinship of Women (Amherst: U Mass Press), pages 56-57.

ON BOAS: "Clark University [Worcester,Massachusetts] renewed his docentship in 1890, and again in 1891.During this time Boas achieved a milestone in the History of AmericanAnthropology. In 1892 the university conferred on AlexanderChamberlain a doctorate in anthropology. It was the first suchacademic honor bestowed in America, and Boas took pride in havingdirected Chamberlain's study." Marshall Hyatt, 1990, FranzBoas--Social Activist: The Dynamics of Ethnicity, page 27.

"Clark [University] attained the distinction of granting the first American Ph.D. in anthropology to Alexander Francis Chamberlain (1865-1914) in 1892. Chamberlain was a Canadian, who had obtained an M.A. in modern languages from the University of Toronto... [stress added]." Regna Darnell, 1998, And Along Came Boas: Continuity And Revolution In Americanist Anthropology (Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Co.), page 108.

F. Boas in 1904: "I have been asked to speak on thehistory of anthropology. ... Before I enter into my subject I willsay that the speculative anthropology of the 18th and early part ofthe 19th century is distinct in its scope and method from the sciencewhich is called anthropology at the present time and is not includedin our discussion." (The History of Anthropology. Science,21 October 1904, Vol. 20; reprinted in R. Darnell, Editor,Readings in the History of Anthropology, 1974: 260-273, page260)

"Major changes in American graduate education were necessary at the end of the 19th century in order for a university to become a plausible institutional framework for anthropology. ... The European, particularly German, model for graduate education was readily available at precisely the right moment.... The German model was crucial on a number of fronts: First, Franz Boas [1858-1942] was trained in Germany and many of his early students, from example, Alfred kroeber [1876-1960] and Robert Lowie [1883-1957], were German in background. Second, the scope and organization of Lowie (1937) [History of Ethnological Theory] confirms that much of the intellectual foundation of Americanist anthropology was adapted directly from the German anthropological heritage: Johann Bachofen (1815-1887), Adolph Bastian (1826-1905), Friedrich Ratzel (1844-1887), Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920). The German anthropological tradition of volksgeist studies...brought the ideas of Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803), Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767-1835), and Hermann Steinthal (1823-1899) into the Americanist tradition. Third, late 19th-century German scholarship was organized around academic professional training at the graduate level. This was the model upon which Boas and his first generation of students would differentiate professional anthropologists from their amateur contemporaries [stress added]." Regna Darnell, 1998, And Along Came Boas: Continuity And Revolution In Americanist Anthropology (Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Co.), page 101.

Frederick Starr (1858-1933): "…as professor andcollector and Franz Boas as curator and professor were leadingfigures in anthropology at the turn of the century. Starr was thegreat popularizer of anthropology and Boas the greatprofessionalizer. Boas was to become the most influential figurein American Anthropology during the first half of the twentiethcentury. Starr's influence was to fade until, by the second half ofthe twentieth century, his work was seldom acknowledged[stress added]." D. McVicker, 1989, Parallels andRivalries: Encounters Between Boas and Starr. Curator[American Museum of Natural History], pages 212-228, page212.

[Supposedly] "Virtually the only anthropologist in the United States [in the late 19th century] who rejected such ethnocentric thinking was the shock-haired immigrant Franz Boas, who arrived in the United States in 1887 at the age of twenty-nine. Born into a liberal Jewish-German family, he immigrated to America, where he soon made contact with [John Wesley] Powell. Whether he was a victim of discrimination or simply a hard person to get along with, Boas did not find jobs easy to obtain or hold onto. Powell proved to be willing to fund his summer travels to study pacific Northwest tribes and, in 1895, offered to make him editor of the bureau's publications. By that point Boas had secured a position at the American Museum of Natural History in New York [City], which led eventuallyy to a faculty appointment at Columbia [University], and he refused the offer. He may have been grateful, but he was thoroughly opposed to Powell's evolutionary anthropology [stress added]." Donald Worster, 2001, A River Running West: The Life of John Wesley Powell (Oxford University Press), page 457.

NOTE SOME articles that Boas wrote for the AmericanAnthropologist and the year published: "Anthropometry ofShoshonean Tribes (1899), Changes in the Bodily Form ofDescendants of Immigrants (1912), Changes in Bodily Form ofDescendants of Immigrants (1940), Evolution and Diffusion?(1924) , Heredity in Anthropometric Traits (1907),Heredity in Head Form (1903), In Memoriam: Herman KarlHaeberlin (1919), Northern Elements in the Mythology of theNavaho (1897), Notes On the Chatino Language (1913),Notes on the Chemakum Language (1892), Notes on the ChinookLanguage (1893), On Alternating Sounds (1889), On theVariety of Lines of Descent Represented in a Population(1916), Physical Characteristics of the Indians of the NorthPacific Coast (1891), Property Marks of Alaskan Eskimo(1899), Report on the Academic Teaching of Anthropology(1919), Sketch of the Kwakiutl Language (1900), SomeRecent Criticisms of Physical Anthropology (1899), TheCephalic Index (1899), The Classification Of AmericanLanguages (1920), The Correlation of Anatomical orPhysiological Measurements (1894), The Head-forms of theItalians as Influenced by Heredity and Environment (with Helene Boas)(1913), The Methods Of Ethnology (1920), The Origin ofTotemism (1916), The Social Organization of the Kwakiutl(1920), The Social Organization of the Tribes of the NorthPacific Coast (1924), The Vocabulary of the Chinook Language(1904), Waldemar Bogoras (1937)...." You can find outmore about these at:[Public Anthropology}Anthropology Journal ArchiveProject]

"The [20th Century] Boasians were clearly rejecting racial explanations but also were against nineteenth-centuiry cultural evolution for its demeaning treatment of native peoples.... Modern students of anthropology do not seem to realize how strong a hold biological determinism and racial explanations had on the scholarly community in the interbellum [World War I and World War II] era [stress added]." Walter Goldschmidt, 2000, Historical Essay: A Perspective on Anthropology. American Anthropologist, Vol. 102, No. 4, December 2000, pages 789-807, page 791.

"It isn't necessary to wear oneself out repeating that racism iseither a monstrous error or a shameless lie. The Nazis themselveshave recently had to appreciate the accuracy of the facts that I havebrought together on the European immigrants of America." FranzBoas (1858-1942). Jonathan Green 1997, Famous Last Words(London: Kyle Cathie Limited), page 79.

"Ales Hrdlicka (1869-1943), the leading American physical anthropologist during these early years (1910-30), was the first curator in physical anthropology at the Bureau of American Ethnology in the U.S. National Museum of the Smithsoninan Institution. Hrdlicka, a medical doctor who received training in anthropology at the École d'Anthropologie de Paris and the Laboratoire d'Anthropologie ('Broca's Institute,' as Hrdlicka referred to it....[Hrdlicka] firmly believed in the innate superiority of 'native' or 'old American' whites [stress added]." Lesley M. Rankin-Hill and Michael L. Blakey, 1999, W. Montague Cobb: Physical Anthropologist, Anatomist, and Activist. IN Ira E. Harrison & Faye V. Harrison [Editors], 1999, African-American Pioneers in Anthropology (University of Illinois Press), pages 101-136, page 1-5.

Anténor Firmin [1850-1911] = "A Boasianbefore Boas. ... This year [2000] marks the publication ofThe Equality of the Human Races, Positivist Anthropology (NewYork: Garland Press) by Haitian scholar Anténor Firmin,probably the first anthropologist of African descent. ...Originally published in Paris in 1885 as De l'elegalité desRaces Humaines (Anthropologie Positive), the book has beentranslated by Asselin Charles and reintroduced to scholars as apioneering work of 19th century anthropology. [stressadded]. Carolyn Fluer-Lobban, 2000, Anthropology News(Washington D.C.), page 16. And see the AmericanAnthropologist, Vol. 102, No. 3, September 2000: AnténorFirmin: Haitian Pioneer of Anthropology. Carolyn Fluer-Lobban, pages449-466.

"Gradually there arose a need for regional studies, undertaken not incidentally to a naturalist's or missionary's main interests, but as complete investigations of particular peoples by professional anthropologists. In 1884, the British Association for the Advancement of Science appointed a committee, of which [Edward Burnett] Tylor was a prominent member, for investigating the Northwest tribes of Canada; and from 1888 until 1898, Franz Boas was connected with the relevant reports. These investigations doubtless stimulated the Jessup North Pacific Expedition (1898-1902), organized by Boas for determining Siberian-American connections. Comparable in intensiveness and roughly contemporary was the Cambridge Expedition to Torres Straits, led by Dr. A.C. Haddon [1855-1940], assisted, among others, By Dr. W.H.R.Rivers [1864-1922], and Charles Gabriel Seligman [1873-1940] [stress added]." Robert H. Lowie [1883-1957], 1937, The History of Ethnological Theory (page 89).

"In December 1895 Auguste and Louis Lumière presented theirnewly patented cinematographe to a public audience for the firsttime. ... cinema was born. Some three years later after the firstLumière screening, Alfred Cort Haddon [1855-1940]organised a fieldwork expedition to the Torres Straits islands fromCambridge. He gathered together a group of six scientists and theyset out to study the native peoples of a small group of islands lyingto the north of Australia. The Torres Straits expedition of 1898marks the symbolic birth of modern anthropology. ... and he wasquick to include a cinematographe among the team's advancedinstruments. By 1900 he was urging his Australian colleague, BaldwinSpencer, to take a camera with him as an integral part of thefieldwork equipment he planned to use in the northern territories ofAustralia [stress added]." Anna Grimshaw, 2001, TheEthnographer's Eye: Ways of Seeing in Anthropology (CambridgeUniversity Press), pages 15-16.

"The Department [of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley] was founded in 1901 on the initiative of Frederic Ward Putnam [1839-1915]. Putnam had developed the first teaching program in the United States at Harvard University and was trying to get other centers of research and teaching in anthropology established. He had already organized an anthropology program at the Field Museum in Chicago on the occasion of the World's Columbian Exposition and after that, one at the American Museum of Natural History in New York where he got Franz Boas appointed Curator. Boas was soon invited to teach at Columbia as well, and he built up the second American teaching program in anthropology there. Putnam went on to persuade Mrs. Phoebe Apperson Hearst to finance a Department of Anthropology at the University of California, of which she was a Regent. In the first report on the Department, published in 1905, Putnam explained: The Department of Anthropology was constituted by the Regents of the University of California September 10, 1901 [stress added]." From: [John H. Rowe} 1995 item on UCB] and see: [October 13, 1998 interview] The first Ph.D. (1908) awarded by the Department of Anthropology at what is now known as the University of California, Berkeley, was to Samuel A. Barrett.

"Alfred Louis Kroeber [born June 11, 1876], when hedied in October 1960, at the age of eighty-four, was thedean of American anthropologists and still one of the hardestworkers in the social sciences. ... After receiving his Ph.D. in1901 Kroeber went to California as Curator of Anthropologyfor the California Academy of Sciences to organize an anthropologicalstudy of the state. He was affiliated with the University ofCalifornia in this project and later became instructor, assistantprofessor, associate professor, and finally full professor andcurator and director of the Anthropological Museum at thatinstitution. ... Kroeber's work falls into two main categories:his ethnographical field work, and his theories on culturalprogress and the philosophy of history. In ethnography hiswork is of undisputed excellence. His theories on culture andcultural history are controversial [stress added]." A.Kardiner & E. Preble, 1961, Alfred Louis Kroeber: Man, Whales,and Bees. They Studied Man (NY: Mentor), by, pages163-177.

"The reputation of Franz Boas as a scientist declined in the decades after his death in 1942, but his reputation as a champion of human rights and an opponent of racism remained intact. More recently, however, some writers have questioned the sincerity, the results, and the political implications of his anthropology and his work against racism and ethnocentrism. Others have been critical of his relations with colleagues and students such as Ella Deloria [1888-1971] and Zora Neale Hurston [1891-1960]. In this essay I discuss some of these claims and present a more positive view. Franz Boas was passionately and consistently concerned about human rights and individual liberty, freedom of inquiry, and speech, equality of opportunity, and the defeat of prejudice and chauvinism. He struggled for a lifetime to advance a science that would serve humanity, and he was as much of a humanitarian in private as he was in public [stress added]." Herbert S. Lewis, 2001, The Passion of Franz Boas. American Anthropologist, Vol. 103, No. 2 (June), pages 447-467, page 447. 

"In an interview taped for a PBS [Public BroadcastingSystem] special of Boas in 1979, [William S.] Willis[1921-1983] ... propose[d] that race was Boas'sfundamental concern in anthropology. According to Willis, Boas'scontribution to the study of race was unique for four reasons: heintroduced a new way of looking at race as a determinant of humanbehavior; he tried to shift the main focus of anthropologicalresearch from Native Americans to others, especially to black peoplein the United States; he tried to establish a 'black presence'in anthropology by drawing black students into Ph.D. programs; andhe tried to establish a close cooperation between anthropologyas a discipline and black scholars and political leaders interestedin studying black people in the United States and elsewhere[stress added]." Peggy Reeves Sanday, Skeletons in theAnthropological Closet: The Life and Work of William S. Willis Jr.IN Ira E. Harrison & Faye V. Harrison [Editors],1999, African-American Pioneers in Anthropology (University ofIllinois Press), pages 243-264, page 260.

The PBS video also has the following:

From a January 7, 1921 letter from the former head of the BAE(Bureau of American Ethnology) to the head of the SmithsonianInstitution: "I want to tell you of certain considerations of vitalinterest to the science of anthropology. The Jewish elementcontrolled by Dr. Boas has obtained, by questionable means, theentire control of anthropology in the Research Council.... A newchairman of the Council must be selected and it is important that heshould not be of the Hewbrew kind since this would tend to secure andperpetuate the control of this element."

CONSIDER THE WORDS OF LESLIE A. WHITE [1900-1975] ON FRANZ BOAS [1858-1942]: "Boas is like the Bible, you can find anything you want to in his writings. He was not a scientist. Scientists make their arguments with an explicit logical framework. Boas was muddle-headed. Better to read clerical literature, at least the priests know why they hold their opinions! [stress added]." In Lewis R. Binford, 1972, An Archaeological Perspective (NY: Seminar Press), pages 7-8.

CONSIDER THE WORDS OF ROBERT CARNEIRO (1927->) ON LESLIE A.WHITE (1900-1975): "Leslie White was, without question, one ofthe intellectual leaders of contemporary anthropology. But he wasmore than this. He was one of the major instruments by means ofwhich anthropology became a full-fledged science. When heentered it, anthropology was dominated by a negative and criticalparticularism. When he left it, it had become a positive, expanding,and generalizing discipline. And this transformation was due inno small part to White's own efforts. He gave anthropology powerfulconcepts and invigorating theories. In a word, he gave it propulsion[stress added]." Robert l. Carneiro, Leslie White.In Sydel Silverman [editor], 1981, Totems andTeachers: Perspectives on the History of Anthropology (NY:Columbia University Press), pages 209-252, page 210.

"During the long period of some forty years in which cultural evolutionism was in almost total eclipse, a few anthropologists continued to work within the evolutionary tradition. Perhaps the best known of them are the American anthropologists Leslie A. White [1900-1975] and Julian H. Steward [1902-1972] and in England, the celebrated archaeologist V. Gordon Childe [1892-1957] [stress added]." David Kaplan and Robert A. Manners, 1972, Culture Theory (New Jersecy: Prentice-Hall), page 43.

AND CONSIDER these words from William J. Peace, 2004,Leslie A. White: Evolution and Revolution in Anthropology:"Writing a biography about any figure in the history ofanthropology is a difficult endeavor. As a group, anthropologistsdeeply care about their scholarship and the people they study.They also tend to have prickly personalities. In conductingresearch about the life and career of Leslie A. White[1900-1975] I often felt as though I were traversing aminefield: I never knew when someone was going to blow up in a furyover a question or even the mention of White's name. This wasmade quite clear to me early on in my research when I contacted anindividual who I knew had a serous fallinh-out with White. I alreadyknew White's belief's about why the friendshiop had ruptured: Iwanted to ask this scholar his interrpetation. When several letterswent unanaswered I decided to telephone, assuming the person did notwant to reply in writing. When I identified myself there was a longsilence, and then the reply came: 'I have two words to say: Fuckyou!' With that he slammed the phone down [stressadded]." William J. Peace, 2004, Leslie A. White: Evolutionand Revolution in Anthropology (University of Nebraska Press),page xiii.

REMEMBER THESE WORDS FROM THE BEGINNING OF THIS GUIDEBOOK?: "One who makes a close study of almost any branch of science soon discovers the great illusion of the monolith. When he [or she] stood outside as an uninformed layman, he [or she] got a vague impression of unanimity among the professionals. He [or she] tended to think of science as supporting the Establishment with fixed and approved views. All this dissolves as he [or she] works his [or her] way into the living concerns of practicing scientists. He [and she] finds lively personalities who indulge in disagreement, disorder, and disrespect. He [and she] must sort out conflicting opinions and make up his [and her] own mind as to what is correct and who is sound. This applies not only to provinces as vast as biology and to large fields such as evolutionary theory, but even to small and familiar corners such as the species problem. The closer one looks, the more diversity one finds [stress added]." Norman Macbeth, 1971, Darwin Retried: An Appeal To Reason (NY: Dell Publishing Co.), page 18.

Interesting (And Somewhat Appropriate) Web Sites Are:[Franz Boas][Jay Ruby on Franz Boas][on Franz Boas][F. Boas & Others! From A->Z][V.G. Childe} 1892-1957][ Herbert S. Lewis, 2001, Boas, Darwin, Science, andAnthropology. Current Anthropology, Vol. 41, No. 3 ][Public Anthropology}Anthropology Journal ArchiveProject]

WEEK 7. October 6 & 8, 2008: Mon &Wed} EXAM I [25%] on Monday, October 6, 2008 and then into20th and 21st Century Reaction and more ofComte-->Durkheim-->Malinowski+ } Exam I based on selectedreadings in Davies & Piero (pp. 1-59), Langness (pp. xi-90),selected assigned readings in Anthropology 496 Guidebook andSelected Anthropology Essays by Urbanowicz, lectures/discussions, and the quotations referred to in thisGuidebook to date. IMPORTANT NOTE: Specific Readings fromReserve WILL NOT be on the Exam. (And please remember: yourPreliminary Term Paper Topic DUE, WA#2, is due on Monday, October 20,2008.)

If possible, for Wednesday, October 8, 2008, can you pleaseread "Comments on Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942)," whichmay be viewed by clicking here:ESSAY #10 at the end of this printed Guidebook.


"The history of anthropology places us in the presence of aninfinitely varied and complex reality, and we are indeed forcedto recognize that we shall acquire a knowledge of it only at theprice of long, methodical and collective efforts, as in the case ofthe natural phenomena presented to our senses. As soon as wecontemplate societies different from that in which everything seemsclear to us because everything is familiar, we meet at every stepproblems which we are incapable of resolving by common sense, aidedonly by thought and by current knowledge of 'human nature'. Thefacts which disconcert us surely obey laws, but what are they? We cannot guess. In one sense, social reality presents moredifficulties to scientific research than does the physical world,because, even supposing that static laws are known, the state ofsociety at any given moment is never intelligible except through theprior evolution of which it is the present outcome; and how rare arethe cases where the historical knowledge of this past is so completeand so certain that nothing indispensable is missing![stress added]." Lucien Lévy-Bruhl[1857-1939], 1903, La Morale et la sciences des moeurs[Ethics and Moral Science], in LucienLévy-Bruhl (1972) by Jean Cazeneuve, pages 24-25.

"'Positive' methods are so central to Comte's [1798-1857] theme that it is surprising that he gave so little time to making clear what 'positivism' meant. In his famous Cours de philosophie positive (based on lectures that he gave in the 1820s) he observes that 'the fundamental character of all positive philosophy is to regard all phenomena as subject to invariable natural laws, whose precise discovery and reduction to the smallest number of possible is the aim of all our effotr.' [stress added]." Julius Gould, 1969, August Comte, pages 35-42, The Founding Fathers of Social Science (edited by Timothy Raison) [England: Penguin Books], page 36.

"Durkheim [1858-1917] is commonly called the heir ofComte [1798-1857] and a positivist. ... Durkheimheld that human and social phenomena must be included within theunity of nature, and as such, are in principle subject to statementsof general law. Here, Durkheim believed that Comte and Spencer[1820-1903], among others, were on the right track. ...Durkheim has been called the First of the Moderns in sociology andthe Father of Functionalism in anthropology. Both of these titleshe has earned by his particular methodology. His idea of applyingthe methods of the physical sciences to sociological data,although not new, as insisted upon to a remarkable degree. ...Another important idea which Durkheim inherited was the Frenchidea of progress. The history of this idea in France can behastily drawn from Turgot (1727-1781) through Condorcet(1743-1794) and the French Revolution, and Comte[stress added]." A. Kardiner & E. Preble (1961),They Studied Man (NY: Mentor Books), pages 98-99 and page115.

"On a clear spring afternooon in 1915, in the no-man's-land between te trenches at Marcheville, France, thousands were destroyed by machine-gun fire, among them Robert Hertz [1881-1915]. Hertz, age thirty-three, was a second lieutenant in the French infantry, a husband, and the father of an infant son. He was also foremost among the pupils of Emile Durkheim [1858-1917]--considered, in fact, most likely to succeed Durkheim as the reigning figure in French sociology. ... Of the several important papers that Hertz had published by his early thirties, one was to prove of lasting influence: 'La Prééminence de la main droite: Etude sur la polarité religieuse' (The preeminence of the Right Hand: A Study in Religious Polarity). This essay was a reasoned yet impassioned look into the cross-cultural symbolism of right an left, symbolism that had imparted a near-universal and, in Hertz's view, illegitimate auro of superiority to the right hand and everything connected with it, however arbitrarily. ... Hertz showed that not only that right versus left was one of the main dualities in many cultures but also that it was consistently associated with more abstract polarities [stress added]." Melvin Konner, 1990, Why The Reckless Survive...And Other Secrets of Human Nature (NY: Viking), pages 29-30.

"Durkheim [1857-1917] providedLévi-Strauss [born 1908 -> ] with amodel of society built up of like or unlike segments, whichmust be integraated to create mechanical or organic solidarity. FromMauss [1872-1950] he learned that this solidaritymay be best achieved by setting up a structure of reciprocity; asystem of exchanges binding the segments in alliances. Exchangesmay involve one of three media: goods and services, languages andsynmbols, and the super-gift, women. Underlying any system ofexchange is the rule of reciprocity, the rule that every giftdemands a return. The return may be direct, in which case onehas a system of restricted exchangve; or it may be indirect, in whichcase one has a system of generalized exchange. Lévi-Straussargued that the principle of reciprocity was the key to understandingkinship systems, for a kinship system was a mode of organizing theexchange of women in marriage [stress added]." AdamKuper, 1973, Anthropologists and Anthropology: The British School1922-1972 (London: Allen Lane), page 207.

PLEASE NOTE the 1891 words of R.H. Codrington [1830-1922]: "It has been my purpose to set forth as much as possible what native say about themselves, not what Europeans say about them. ... No one can be more sensible than myself of the incompleteness and insufficiency of what I venture to publish; I know that I must have made many mistakes and missed much that I might have learnt. I have felt the truth of what Mr. Fison [1832-1907], late missionary in Fiji, to whom I am indebted for much instruction, has written: 'When a European has been living for two or three years among savages he is sure to be fully convinced that he knows all about them; when he has been ten years or so amongst them, if he be an observant man, he finds that he knows very little about them, and so begins to learn.' My own time of learning has been far too short. I have endeavoured as far as possible to give the natives' account of themselves by giving what I took down from their lips and translating what they wrote themselves [stress added]." R.H. Codrington, 1891, The Melanesians: Studies In Their Anthropology And Folk-Lore (The Clarendon Press, Oxford), page vii.

"The ethnographic method has long been associated with Malinowski,who repeatedly claimed credit for its invention. But whileMalinowski--through his many students--was clearly responsible forestablishing local, village-based research as the anthropologicalnorm in Britain, claims that he single-handedly developed theethnographic method during his fieldwork in the Trobriands areexaggerated. As Stocking (1983 [Observers And Observed: Essayson Anthropological Fieldwork, pages 70-120] has shown,Malinowski was at best only one of a number of fieldworkers whohad been experimenting with systematic village-based research forseveral years; he was certainly not the first. But as a prolific andtalented writer, who was equally adept at self-promotion, hetransformed the discipline in Britain in a single generation[stress added]." Robert L. Welsch, 1998, AnAmerican Anthropologist in Melanesia: A.B. Lewis and the Joseph N.Field South Pacific Expedition 1909-1913, pages 558-559.

"The ability to understand very different kinds of people is often related to an innate lack of set values and standards. It is no accident that a great novelist like Balzac [1799-1850], who could penetrate and portray with impartial accuracy the character of bankers, prostitutes, and artists, was a relativist of psychopathic proportions. It is also no accident that the most successful field worker in the history of anthropology, Bronislaw Malinowski [1884-1942], was the most eccentric and controversial figure ever to enter the field of anthropology [stress added]" Abraham Kardiner and Edward Preble, 1961, They Studied Man (NY: Mentor Book), page 140.

"Bronislaw Malinowski [1884-1942], my father, wasstrongly influenced by women all his life: by his Polish mother, histwo British wives, his women pupils; by women not his pupils withwhom he had intellectual friendships; and by the women of variousnationalities whom he loved. He also had three daughters, of whom Iam the youngest [stress added]." Helena Wayne(Malinowska), 1985, Bronislaw Malinowski: The Influence of VariousWomen on His Life and Works. American Ethnologist, Vol. 12,No. 3, pages 529-540, page 529.

"Malinowski [1884-1942] has a strong claim to being the founder of the profession of social anthropology in Britain, for he established its distinctive apprenticeship--intensive fieldwork in an exotic community. For the fifteen years [1923-1938] which he spent at the London School of Economics after his return from the Trobriand islands he was the only master ethnographer in the country, and virtually everyone who wished to do fieldwork in the modern fashion went to work with him [stress added]." Adam Kuper, 1973, Anthropologists and Anthropology: The British School 1922-1972 (London: Allen Lane), page 13.

"In England Bronislaw Malinowski [1884-1942] had justbegun to publish the results of his field research on the TrobriandIslands. Yet in the 1920s American anthropology was far from beingin the mainstream of scholarship. It was most certainly not a careerwhich could promise security or many rewards to an ambitious scholar.There was a jocose saying among anthropologists in the late '20s that'You don't have to be crazy to become an anthropologist, but it surehelps.' Another comment, credited to Malinowski, was'Anthropology is the study of man, embracing woman.' However one feltabout the validity of these observations, it was true that oneneeded a high degree of determination and dedication, as well as anatural curiosity and a sense of the romantics, to selectanthropology as a career in those early days [stressadded]." Adelin Linton and Charles Wagley, 1971, RalphLinton (Columbia University Press), page 5.

"An anthropologist on a South Sea Island! How romantic! But the reality entails a kind of squalid loneliness which might otherwise be encountered only by a victim of political torture in solirtary confinement. The anthropologists's position is highly anomalous. He [or she!] wants to understand the values of the society which he observes around him, yet his ultimate purpose is to translate those values into his own. He must not be totally absorbed--he must not be brainwashed. So the more deeply he comes to know his tribal families the more desperately he clutches at any tenuous straw which may help him to remember that he is still, in his own right, a member of modern civilisation. Letters from home become treasures... The private diaries of fieldwork anthropologists record.... Bronislaw Malinowski, the originator of modern anthropological field method, kept such diaries in New Guinea and Melanesia in 1914-15 and 1917-18, and it is to the discredit of all concerned that they have been committed to print. ...The context of the diary adds nothing at all to our understanding of Malinowski's work as an anthropologist. ... Malinowski's widow, who holds the copyright, justifies the publication by claiming that these documents give 'direct insight into the author's inner personality'. They do nothing of the sort, but both Malinowski and his loved ones survive their sacrifice to Mammon remarkably well [stress added]." Edmund Leach, 1967, An Anthropologist's Trivia [originally published in The Guardian on 11 August 1967 as a review of A Diary in the Strictest Sense of the Term]. Stephen Hugh-Jones and James Laidlaw [editors], 2000, The Essential Edmund Leach Volume I: Anthropology and Society (Yale University Press), pages 61-62.

"A great deal has been written about the publication of this book[A Diary In The Strict Sense of the Term, 1967]. Imyself don't think it was well edited and presented, but I haveread other early diaries and diary fragments of my father's and cansee what a difficult task it is to translate and edit such jottings.All the more, I feel the diaries should not have been published asthey were but kept, together with his correspondence of thattime, as raw material for a biographer, or perhaps published in adifferent form. I know many anthropologists do not agree with mypoint of view. They have mined the diaries for insights (oftendistorted insights) into Malinowski's character and into whatday-to-day life in the field can mean, and have found these insightsmost valuable [stress added]." Helena Wayne(Malinowska), 1985, Bronislaw Malinowski: The Influence of VariousWomen on His Life and Works. American Ethnologist, Vol. 12,No. 3, pages 529-540, page 540.

BRONISLAW MALINOWSKI} "Anthropology is the science of the sense of humour. It can be thus definied without too much pretentiousness or facetiousness. For to see ourselves as others see is is but the reverse and the counterpart of the gift to see others as they really are and as they want to be: And this is the metier of the anthropologist. He [and she!] has to break down the barriers of race and cultural diversity; he has to find the human being in the savage; he has to discover the primitive in the highly sophisticated Westerner of to-day, and, perhaps, to see that the animal, and the divine as well, are to be found everywhere in man [stress added]." Bronislaw malinowski, 1937, Introduction. Julius E. Lips, 1937, The Savage Strikes Back (Hyde Park, NY: University Books), pages vii-ix, page vii.

ON BRONISLAW MALINOWSKI (1884-1942): "Nineteen twenty-twosaw the publication of The Waste Land [by T.S. Elliot]and Ulysses [by James Joyce], as well as Argonautsof the Western Pacific and A.R. Radcliffe-Brown's firstmonograph, The Andaman Islanders, all of which effectivelyremapped the discourse of their fields. As George Stocking notes,1922 also saw the death of the prominent British anthropologistW.H.R. Rivers [born 1864], more than symbolicallymarking Malinowski's victory as the leading light in British culturalanthropology. ... For his publication of this book Malinowski hasbeen credited with creating, virtually overnight, the seminaltwentieth-century anthropological discourse known as themonograph.... [stress added]." Marc Manganaro,2002, Culture, 1922: The Emergence of a Concept (PrincetonUniversity Press), pages 7-8 and page 56.

ON BRONISLAW MALINOWSKI (1884-1942): "Bronislaw Malinowski is perhaps the first recognized ethnographer. He spent more than two years doing fieldwork in a foreign land and set forth the the first scientific caveats of doing good ethnography. He believed it possible to conduct a scientific study of human behavior in the naturalistic surroundings of cultures, far from a laboratory. Set in the emiricism of the day, Malinowski's method strained to stay rigorous in application while bowing to the unpredictability of both the fieldworker and those being studied. Malinowski launched the modern ethnographic method, which soon became a staple method of an entire discipline, the later, the adopted method of many other disciplines [stress added]." Robert Sands, 2002, Sport Ethnography (Champaign, Ill: Sport Kinetics), page 9.

1938 WORDS OF BRONISLAW MALINOWSKI: "For, to quote WilliamJames [1842-1910] , 'Progress is a terrible thing.' Itis terrible to those of us who half a century ago were born into aworld of peace and order; who cherished legitimate hopes of stabilityand gradual development; and who now have to live through thedishonesty and immorality of the very historical happenings. Irefer to the events of the last few years which seem to demonstrateonce more than Might is Right; that bluff, impudence and aggressionsucceed where a decent readiness to co-operate has failed[stress added]." From the "Introduction" to JomoKenyatta, 1938, Facing Mount Kenya: The Tribal Life of theGikuyu (NY: 1962 Vintage Books edition], page ix.

COMMENT ON BRONISLAW MALINOWSKI [1884-1942]} "'That man had no aesthetic sense. If as if he was color-blind,'[Giancarlo] Scoditti said. 'Reading Malinowski, when he talks of the canoe prow boards or the dance [in the Trobriand Islands], one sees a world of absolute grayness. I was overwhelmed by the colors and vivacity of everything." Alexander Stille, 2002, The Future of the Past (NY: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux), page 161.

NOTE A.R.Radcliffe-Brown [1881-1955] from a 1940paper: "I hope you will pardon me if I begin with a note ofpersonal explanation. I have been described on more than oneoccasion as belonging to something called the 'Functional School ofSocial Anthropology' and even as being its leader, or one of itsleaders. This Functional School does not really exist; it is amyth invented by Professor Malinowski [1884-1942]. He hasexplained how, to quote his own words, 'the magnificent title of theFunctional School of Anthropology has been bestowed by myself, in away on myself, and to a large extent out of my own sense ofirresponsibility.' Professor Malinowski's irresponsibility has hadunfortunate results, since it has spread over anthropology a densefog of discussion about 'functionalism.' Professor Lowie[1883-1957] has announced that the leading, though not theonly, exponent of functionalism in the nineteenth century wasProfessor Boas [1858-1942]. I do not think that there isany special sense, other than the purely chronological one, in whichI can said to be either the follower of Professor Boas or thepredecessor of Professor malinowski. The statement that I am a'functionalist,' or equally the statement that I am not, would seemto me to convey no definite meaning. There is no place in naturalscience for 'schools' in this sense, and I regard social anthropologyas a branch of natural science. Each scientist starts from thework of his [of her!] predecessors, finds problemswhich he believes to be significant, and by observation andreasoning endeavours to make some contribution to a growing bodyof theory. Co-operation among scientists results from the fact thatthey are working on the same or related problems. Suchco-operation does not result in the formation of schools, in thesense in which there are schools of philosophy or of painting. Thereis no place for orthodoxies and heterodoxies in science. Nothing ismore pernicious in science than attempts to establish adherence todoctrines. All that a teacher can do is assist the student inlearning to understand and use the scientific method. It is not hisbusiness to make disciples. I conceive of social anthropology asthe theoretical natural science of human society, that is, theinvestigation of social ,phenomena by methods essentially similar tothose used in the physical and biological sciences. I am quitewilling to call the subject 'comparative sociology,' if anyone sowishes [stress added]." On Social Structure. TheJournal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain andIreland, Vol. 70, 1940, pages 1-12, pages 1 + 2.

Interesting (And Somewhat Appropriate) Web Sites Are:[Bronislaw Malinowski][Bronislaw Malinowski]

WEEK 8. October 13 & 15, 2008: Mon& Wed} Comte-->Durkheim/VanGennep-->Mauss-->Lévi-Strauss and British SocialAnthropology, American Cultural Anthropology, as well as Frenchanthropologie; and please remember: Preliminary Term PaperTopic DUE (WA#2) on Monday, October 20, 2008.

Required Reading in: Langness Ch 3 & 4 (pp. 91-170);please read Urbanowicz on "Lévi-Strauss" which may beviewed by clicking here:ESSAY #11 at the end of this printed Guidebook;

PLEASE read any one of the following items from theselections on RESERVE:

Darnell: #31 (pp. 426-439).
Hayes & Hayes: Any Chapter.
Hinsley: pp. 262-292.
Kardiner & Preble: pp. 140-162 and pp. 178-186.
Kuper: Ch. 1 (pp. 13-50) or Ch. 2 (pp. 51-88).
Malefijt: Ch 10 (pp. 181-214).
Montagu Selection #30: pp. 467-486.
Naroll & Naroll: Ch 6 (pp. 185-215).
Powdermaker: Ch 2 (pp. 33-45).
Silverman: Ch. 5 (pp. 141-168).
Stocking: Ch. 6 (pp. 232-297).

BY EXAM II (Wednesday, November 12, 2008) you should havefinished reading the rest of Merryl Wyn Davies and Piero, 2002,Introducing Anthropology, pp. 60-171.


"Borrowing from contemporary scientific models, thinkersin the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries such as the Marquis deCondorcet [1743-1794] and August Comte [1798-1857]believed that human history was bound by laws. If these could beunderstood and the fruits of this research judiciuslyapplied, time would bring progress. Instead of the Christianemphasis on the salvation of the individual, thinkers prophesied thatall humankind could partake of this new prosperity and knowledge.This shift in historical imagination can also be traced to theeighteenth and nineteenth centuries, when the agricultural andindustrial revolutions made prosperity possible for the multitudeinstead of the select few. Applied technology revolutionized oldeconomic traditions wherein an elite minority thrived on the labor ofserfs and slaves [stress added]." Choi Chatterjeeet al., 2002, The 20th Century: A Retrospective(Cambridge: Westview Press), pages 3-4.

"From Montesquieu [1689-1755] through Comte [1798-1857] to Durkheim [1858-1917] and his school, the dominant philosophical themes in French social thought were thus Progressivism and natural law. After World War II, however, Lévi-Strauss initiated the first major change of direction of French anthropological thought, retaining the belief in natural law but at least partially ignoring the Progressivism of his predecessors. His structuralism is in theory a universailist doctrine, which seeks to identify what is common to the thinking of all people everywhere [stress added]." William Y. Adams, 1998, The Philosophical Roots of Anthropology, page 375.

"The Baron de Montesquieu's [1689-1755] PersianLetters...[1721] chronicles the adventures of twofictional Persian travellers who make critical remarks on Frenchsociety. That book foreshadows not only the genre of ethnography,but also reflexivity.... More importantly though, Montesquieu'sSpirit of the Laws... [1748] explores the forms ofgovernment, the temperament of peoples, and the influence of climateon society, with true ethnographic examples from around the world.Central to his argument is the idea of the 'general spirit'(esprit général), which is the fundamentalessence of a given culture.... While Lévi-Strauss[born 1908 -> ] once argued that Rousseau[1712-1778] was the founder of the social sciences,Radcliffe-Brown [1881-1955] gave that honour toMontesquieu; and the styles of the later structuralists andstructural-functionalist taditions do owe much to the respectiverationalism of Rousseau and the empiricism ofMontesquieu. At the dawn of the nineteenth century the comte deSaint-Simon [1760-1825] and subsequently his pupil,August Comte [1796-1857], put forward notions whichcombined Montesquieu's interest in a science of society with a desireto incorporate it within a framework embracing also physics,chemistry, and biology [stress added]." AlanBarnard, 2000, History and Theory in Anthropology (CambridgeUniversity Press), page 23.

"Durkheim [1858-1917] employed an organic analogy to understand how social groups cohere, and Marx understood control of material conditions of life to be the engine driving human history. Both theorists therefore believed that forces existing outside the individual (psychosocial on the one hand, dialectical on the other) act to condition cultural meaning and structure social relations. In neither formulation is much room left for the creative agency of individuals, and, in fact, both Durkheim and Marx are often criticized for treating the subjects of their theories as homogenous drones, mindlessly obeying the relentless forces that shape and control every facet of their existence. In contrast, and alone of these three great social theorists of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, German Max Weber (1864-1920) is credited with viewing active, thinking individuals as central to the creation, maintenance, and innovation of social and cultural forms [stress added]." Paul A. Erickson [with Liam D. Murphy], 1998, A History of Anthropological Theory (Ontario, Canada: Broadview Press), page 108.

Claude Lévi-Strauss (born 1908): "Frenchanthropologist who helped to formulate the principles ofstructuralism by stressing the interdependence of culturalsystems and the way they relate to each other. In his analyses ofkinship, myth, and symbolism, Lévi-Strauss argued that, thoughthe superficial appearance of these factors might vary betweensocieties, their underlying structures were universal andcould be best understood in terms of binary oppositions: leftand right, male and female, nature and culture, the raw and thecooked, and so on" [stress added]. Sarah Jenkins Jones(Editor), 1996, Random House Webster's Dictionary ofScientists, page 299.

"Individual Creativity. Nobody writes in a vacuum. Even the most imaginative scholars have intellectual pedigrees. However, every now and again a man or a woman comes along with a message so novel as to stun the rest of us. Since the Second World War [1941-1945 for USA involvement], two anthropologists have taken the discipline by storm: Lévi-Strauss and Geertz. Their unique--even idiosyncratic--achievements push the borders of anthropology beyond what most of us thought was possible, and where few of us dare, or have the capacity to follow. In this context it may be warranted to evoke the notion of innate creative genius. Some theorizing in the generations ahead, if we are lucky, will carve out the equivalent of the structuralist analysis of myth of thick description [stress added]." Stanley R. Barrett, 1999, Forecasting Theory: Problems And Exemplars In The Twenty-First Century. In E.L. Cerroni-Long, editor, Anthropological Theory in North America, pages 255-281, page 264.

"Victor Turner [1920-1983] lived through exciting times inanthropology, and for much of his life was at its forefront. ...Turner's strategy is to approach society not only as socialstructure, as Radcliffe-Brown [1881-1955] orLévi-Strauss do, but as being something more, namely thecombination of the structural and the ideological[stress added]." Paul Bohannan & Mark Glazer,Editors (1988) High Points in Anthropology (NY: A.A. Knopf)pages 501-503.

"A sense of estrangement moved with Ruth Benedict [1887-1948] all her life. Although intensely sympathetic and kindly she always gave the impression of standing apart from the world she lived in. ... BENEDICT's instinct for integration and generalization prompted her from the first to take a comprehensive view of culture. ... Benedict was a severe and perceptive critic of our own culture and used, paradoxically, a strict cultural relativism as the chief argument in her criticism [stress added]." Abraham Kardiner and Edward Preble, 1961, Ruth Benedict. They Studied Man (NY: Mentor Books), pages 178-186.

"When Ruth Benedict [1887-1948] wrote about three tribalcultures in her famous book Patterns of Culture (1934), sheproposed that each culture could be characterized by a single,consistent pattern and that this pattern could be labeld by a singleword (Dionysian, Apollonioan, or paranoid). A decade later, whenBenedict studied Japan during World War II [and eventuallypublished, in 1946, The Chrysanthemum and The Sword:Patterns of Japanese Culture], she discovered that thingswere more complicated and found herself dealing with two quitedifferent patterns: the martial code of the samurai and theaesthetics of the tea ceremony. Cornell University historianMichael Kammen, inspired by Ruth Benedict's approach to Japan,descibed Americnas as the People of Paradox [1972, Peopleof paradox: An Inquiry Concerning the Origins of AmericanCivilization], who founded a country on human slavery whileproclaiming in their Declaration of Independence the inalienablerights of life, liberty, and the pursuite of happiness[stress added]." Karl G. Heider, 1997, SeeingAnthropology: Cultural Anthropology Through Film (Allynand bacon), page 15.

"Visual anthropology developed most fully as an area of specialist interests and techniques within American anthropology; and, as such, it contained many of the theoretical and methodological assumptions of the American discipline more generally. Its emergence in the late 1950s and 1960s was particularly associated with Margaret Mead. ... By the early 1970s Margaret Mead had becomeone of the key figures in the new field of visual anthropology. Other important figures included John Marshall, Tim Asch, Asen Balikci, Robert Gardner and Karl Heider... [stress added]." Anna Grimshaw, 2001, The Ethnographer's Eye: Ways of Seeing in Anthropology (Cambridge University Press), pages 87-88.

"As anthropologists, anthropological filmakers must bemethodologically explicit, explain their theoretical assumptions, andseek to make their films contribute to the scholarly dialogues thatconstitute professional anthropology. As politically and morallysensitive scholars, they must actively seek ways for the peopleportrayed to have an active voice in the construction of their image.The work must be returned to the people imaged, and an ongoingdialogue must ensue between image maker and those imaged[stress added]." Jay Ruby, 2000, Picturing Culture:Explorations of Film & Anthropology (University of ChicagoPress), page 267.

FOR EXAMPLE: "The Yanomami have moved rapidly from the relative isolation of the rain forest to being involved in global battles to save their enrionment. When [ethnographic filmaker Timothy] Asch went back to the people he filmed twenty years ago, 'They looked at the films attentively and said that while they thought the films were quite accurate, it would be the 'kiss of death' for people to think that the Yanomami still live the way they appear to in the films. They suggested that I make a film about the way they live today' [stress added]." Jay Ruby, 2000, Picturing Culture: Explorations of Film & Anthropology (University of Chicago Press), page 134.

"We had a lot of explaining to do [writes WalterGoldschmidt], and one of the first was Ruth Benedict's poetic andinfluential Patterns of Culture (1934) that gave the sense (ifnot the reality) of 'explaining' cultures with designations likeApollonian, Dionysian, and (more nakedly) paranoid. Of course,Benedict did not explain anything, but she made us feel thatwe understood something. She made us aware of thesubtleties, complexities, and the mysterious wholeness ofcultures. Her close associate and friend, Margaret Mead, tookthe issue to the field, bringing lessons from the children of naturein the idyllic South Seas that would help us get rid of ourold-fashioned moral hang-ups about sex and childhood (Mead 1928[Coming of Age in Samoa: A Psychological Study of PrimitiveYouth For Western Civilization]). She belonged to the'flapper' generation that inaugurated the first emancipation fromVictorian constraints. Mead's research methods were overblown, buther impact was great both on the public and on the profession[stress added]." Walter Goldschmidt, 2000,Historical Essay: A Perspective on Anthropology. AmericanAnthropologist, Vol. 102, No. 4, December 2000, pages 789-807,page 793.

"MARGARET MEAD. The century's foremost woman anthropologist, Margaret Mead [1901-1978] was an American icon. On dozens of field trips to study the ways of primitive [sic] societies, she found evidence to support her strong belief that cultural conditioning, not genetics, molded human behavior. That theme was struck most forcefully in Mead's 1928 classic, Coming of Age in Samoa. It described an idyllic pre-industrial society, free of sexual restraint and devoid of violence, guilt and anger. Her portrait of free-loving primitives [sic!] shocked contemporaries and inspired generations of college students--especially during the 1960s sexual revolution. But it may have been too good to be true. While few question Mead's brilliance or integrity, subsequent research showed that Samoan society is no more or less uptight than any other. It seems Mead accepted as fact tribal gossip embellished by adolescent Samoan girls happy to tell the visiting scientist what she wanted to hear [stress added]." Leon Jaroff, Time, March 29, 1999, page 183.

"Margaret Mead [1901-1978] arrived at the AmericanMuseum of Natural History in 1926. Having just completed herfirst significant ethnographic research in Samoa, she was appointedassistant curator in the Department of Anthropology. ... Over thecourse of her fifty-two year association with the Museum, MargaretMead was a scientist, curator, teacher,author, social activist, and media celebrity.The success of her first book, Coming of Age in Samoa,published in 1928, had thrust her into the media spotlight"[stress added]." Nancy C. Lutkehaus, 2001-2002,American Icon. Natural History, 12/01 - 1/02, pages 14 &15, page 14.

"Any account of Mead's work on Samoa [or perhaps all of her work?] must consider the controversy surrounding its accuracy. In 1983, several years after her death, Derek Freeman published his detailed refutation of her work. More recently, Freeman has continued his attack with attempts to prove that Mead built her description of adolescent sexuality on scanty information gleaned from a hoax perpetrated by her informants. He has also argued that she was young and credulous, that she had a poor grasp of the language, that she did not carry out her investigations properly, that Coming of Age in Samoa [1928] is littered with errors, that she twisted the facts to suit her (and Boas's and Benedict's) preconceptions, and that she was entirely wrong in her portrayal of Samoa [stress added]." Hilary Lapsley, 1999, Margaret Mead And Ruth Benedict: The Kinship of Women (Amherst: U Mass Press), pages 142-143.

BOOK REVIEW OF: Margaret Mead And Ruth Benedict: TheKinship of Women (1999) by Hilary Lapsley. "This marvelous volumemakes explicit what we've "known" forever but never had fully laidout for us to see in all its passion, intensity, and productivity:the ongoing lesbian relationship between the first fully acknowledgedfemale anthropologist, Ruth Benedict [1887-1948], and herstudent and later colleague, Margaret Mead [1901-1978]. Thetwo met when Mead was an undergraduate at Barnard College andBenedict a doctoral candidate at Columbia University and a teachingassistant in Franz Boas's acclaimed anthropology class. DespiteMead's initial coolness toward Benedict, when Mead enrolled in theColumbia graduate program, the two began working together."[from:]

"When Margaret Mead [1901-1978] and Ruth Benedict [1887-1948] met at Barnard in 1922, the sexual revolution of the decade was in full swing. ... Mead drew from the image of the flapper as a sex radical when in an unpublished essay in 1974 she depicted herself as a sex crusader in the 1920s. ... In Mead's free-love system, sex was a force that produced aesthetic and spiritual empowerment. In his autobiography, Luther Cressman [1897-1994] described it as the joyous source of creativity that made life worth living. ... if sex was free-flowing, then everyone was a potential partner for everyone else. That was Mead's ideal. Exactly when she put it into practice over the course of her life is difficult to determine. She made a communication to Benedict to reject other female lovers, and except for her involvement with Marie Eichelberger [1876-1949], she may have kept to her pledge for a number of years [stress added],"Lois W, Banner, 2003, Intertwined Lives: Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict, and Their Circle (NY: Alfred A. Knopf), pages 212 -219.

"I read the descriptions of the correspondence between Margaret[Mead, 1901-1978] and Ruth {Benedict, 1887-1948] andEdward Sapir [1884-1939], and the poems they wrote toeach other, knowing now that at some stage Ruth and margaret decidedthat neither of them would choose further intimacy with Sapir, butrather they preferred each other [page 125]. Margaretworked hard and incessantly to sustain relationships, caring mostabout those in which different kinds of intimacy supported andenriched each other, the sharing of a fine meal, the wrestling ofintense intellectual collaboration, the delights of lovemaking.Her letter takes the death of Ruth Benedict in 1948 and thedissolution of her marriage to my father [Gregory Bateson,1904-1980] gradually becoming irreversible in the same period, asthe end of a kind of completeness. Ruth and Gregory were the twopeople she loved most fully and abidingly, exploring all thepossibilities of personal and intellectual closeness. The intimacy towhich Margaret and Ruth progressed after Margaret's completion of herdegree became the model for one axis of her life while the other wasdefined in relation to the men she loved or married. After Margaret'sdeath, I asked my father how he had felt about the idea of Margaretand Ruth as lovers, a relationship that had begun before Margaret andGregory met, and continued into the years of their marriage. He spokeof Ruth as his senior, someone for whom he had great respect andalways a sense of distance, and of her remote beauty[stress added]." Mary Catherine Bateson, 1984,With a Daughter's Eye: A Memoir of Margaret Mead and GregoryBateson (NY: Morrow), page 117 [and page 125 as well].

PLEASE NOTE FROM Anthropology News May 2000 (Vol.41, No. 5), by Derek Freeman [1916-2001], Institute ofAdvanced Studies, Australian National University, Canberra,Australia:

"I write to inform members of the AAA [American Anthropological Association] of the discovery of direct evidence that brings to closure the controversy over Margaret Mead's Samoan fieldwork of 1925-26."

"This evidence is contained in a little known book, All True! The Record of Actual Adventures That Have Happened to Ten Women Today (1931). The adventure by 'Dr. Margaret Mead,' entitled, 'Life as a Samoan Girl.' begins with reference to the 'group of reverend scientists' who in 1925 sent her to study 'the problem of which phenomena of adolescence are culturally and which physiologically determined' among the adolescent girls of Samoa, with 'no very clear idea' of how she was 'to do this.' It ends with an account of her journey to the islands of Ofu and Olosega in March 1926 with the 'two Samoan girls,' as she calls Fa'apua'a and Fofoa. Mead continues, 'In all things I had behaved as a Samoan, for only so, only by losing my identity, as far as possible, had I been able to become acquainted with the Samoan girls, receive their whispered confidences and learn at the same time the answer to the scientists' questions.'"

"This account by Mead herself, is fully confirmed by sworn testimony of Fa'apua'a. It is definitive historical evidence that establishes that martin Orans is in outright error in asserting that it is 'demonstrably false that Mead was taken in by Fa'apua'a and Fofoa.' It is also evidence that establishes that Coming of Age in Samoa [1929], far from being a 'scientific classic' is a work of anthropological fiction."

"In Chapter 13 of Coming of Age in Samoa, Mead concluded unreservedly that the phenomena of adolescence are due not to physiology but to the 'social environment.' This extreme environmentalist conclusion was very much to the liking of Franz Boas [1858-1942]. In 1934, in the Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, Boas asserted that 'the genetic elements which may determine personality,' are 'altogether irrelevant as sompared with the powerful influence of the cultural environment' (emphasis added). This is a succinct statement of the Boasian culturalism that from the late 1920s became, in the words of George Stocking, 'fundamental to all American Social Science.'"

"In Samoa, Mead had acted as Boas' agent and, having been given Boas' enthusiastic commendation, Coming of Age in Samoa became one of the most influential texts of the 20th century. We now know that the conclusion to which Mead came is based on evidence that is quite unacceptable scientifically. Furthermore, this also applies to Boasian culturalism, which at the beginning of the 21st century has beccome a scientifically unacceptable belief system."

"This liberating change in the Zeitgeist is evident in the fact that the intercollegiate Studies Institute, in listing the 50 worst and best books of the century, has adjudged Mead's Coming of Age in Samoa to be the 'very worst' book of the 20th century."

"Indeed, Margaret Mead has been criticized, most notably by theAustralian anthropologist Derek Freeman [1916-2001], forminimizing the biological aspects of childrearing. According toFreeman, Mead was so eager to demonstrate the definitive role ofculture in human society that she was insensitive to fundamentalhuman drives and motives, while overly accepting accounts thatsuggested the singularity of a culture. From today's vantagepoint, we might conclude that Mead was attempting to demonstrate theimportance of cultural factors to a biologically oriented socialscience community, while Freeman was reacting to a cultural concensisthat Mead and her colleagues had succeeded in establishing atmid-century [stress added]." Howard Gardner, 2001,Introduction to the Perrenial Classics Edition. Growing Up in NewGuinea, 1930 (by Margaret Mead), page xxi.

"Karl Popper (1902-1994) is recognized around the world as one of the twentieth century's greatest philosophers of science and as one of its most articulate and influential critics of Marxism and closed society. ... Popper used to tell his students that there is no such things as a scientific method other than the method of trial and error. This simple idea has initiated a revolutionary way of thnking in philosophy and science. Popper thought that we are ll in search of a better world. And hge taught that, instead of uncritically accepting our theories and beliefs on authority or trying to justify them with appeals to reason and experience, we should search for problems and inconsistncies in them and try to eliminate them as best we can. Instead of trying to prove that we are right, we should try to find the ways in which we are wrong. He summed up his entire philosophy with the words: 'I may be wrong and you may be right, and by an effort, we may get nearer to the truth' [stress added - italics in original]. Mark Notturno, 2003, from the "Preface" On Popper (Thomson/Wadsworth), n.p.

"When she gave birth to her child [Mary Catherine Batesonin 1939], anthropologist Margaret Mead insisted on having thedelivery filmed. ... The child to whom Mead gave birth on filmwas hard won. The professor started her life hoping to have sixchildren, but had only miscarriages instead, and plenty of them. ...Margaret mead died a grandmother, when cancer took her in November1978 in New York.... [in Mead's will, for specifics shewrote:] I therefore request them to consult my friend, Dr. RhodaMetraux, and my daughter.... Rhoda Metraux [born 1914] wasmore than just a friend. Mead had shared an apartment with her onManhattan's Central Park West in her final years. Theycollaborated on the Redbook column, which offered advice,information, and common sense to millions of American women aboutfamily life. mead gave away quite a bit of money during her lifetimeto establish grants and scholarships in anthropology[stress added]." Stephen M. Silverman, 1991, WhereThere's A Will: Who Shared What and Why (NY: HarperCollins), pages 116-120.

"If the history of anthropology were to be made into a television miniseries, one of its 'great moments' would surely be set on the Sepik River [New Guinea] early in 1933. Reo Fortune [1903-1979] and his wife, Margaret Mead [1901-1978], 'starved for theoretical relevance' after two long bouts of fieldwork among the Arapesh and the Mundugumor, were just beginning their work among the Tchambuli; Gregory Bateson [1904-1980], Mead's husband-to-be, was 'floundering methodologically' after months among the Iatmul.... 'Cooped up together in the tiny eight-foot-by-eight-foot mosquito room, we moved back and forth between analyzing ourselves and each other, as individuals, and the cultures that we knew as anthropologists'--seeing a 'new formulation of the relationship between sex and temperament' [wrote Mead]....During long hours of intense conversation--in which Bateson and Mead began the dialogue of their 'amor intellectualis'--they worked out several typologies of temperament.... [stress added]." George W. Stocking, Jr. [Editor], 1986, Malinowski, Rivers, Benedict And Others: Essays on Culture and Personality (University of Wisconsin Press), page 3.

Interesting (And Somewhat Appropriate) Web Sites Are:[Margaret Mead's Legacy: Continuing Controversies][Margaret Mead Web Site][Margaret Mead][Margaret Mead Exhibit at the Library of Congress][Margaret Mead Site][Mead/Boas Correspondence} 1925/1926][Derek Freeman][Derek Freeman Papers][E-Lab} Ethnographics Laboratory, University of SouthernCalifornia][A. Cohen-Williams' List Anthro/Arch WWW Sites][Durkheim Home Page][Claude Lévi-Strauss][Claude Lévi-Strauss][Claude Lévi-Strauss][Selection of Works of Claude Lévi-Strauss][Claude Lévi-Strauss][Claude Lévi-Strauss][Claude Lévi-Strauss][Claude Lévi-Strauss][Claude Lévi-Strauss][Claude Lévi-Strauss and other individuals beginning with"L"][Lévi-Strauss]

WEEK 9. October 20 & 22, 2008: Mon& Wed} Neo-Evolution, Cultural Ecology, & Modernism; for NEXTWEEK: 1/2 the class to be assigned for Monday October 27, 2008 and1/2 for Wednesday October 29, 2008, and DISCUSSION OF YOUR INDIVIDUALRESEARCH TOPIC: Writing Assignment #2 DUE on Monday October 20, 2008.[What day you are assigned to will be distributed on WednesdayOctober 22, 2008.]

NOTE: No new required Reading in Langness but pleaseread the FINAL Urbanowicz essay on "Evolution ofTechnological Civilizations...." may be viewed by clickinghere: ESSAY #12 at theend of this printed Guidebook.

PLEASE read any one of the following items from theselections on RESERVE:

Hinsley: pp. 81-123.
Harris: Ch 22 (pp. 634-653) or Ch. 23 (pp. 654-687).
Honigman: Ch 5 (pp. 179-239).
Marcus & Fischer : Ch 2 (pp. 17-44).
Montagu Selection #35: pp. 539-565.
Naroll & Naroll: Ch 8 (pp. 247-279).
Silverman: Ch. 6 (pp. 171-206) or Ch. 7 (pp. 209-252).
Stocking: pp. 437-441.
Voget: Ch. 17 (pp. 676-696).


"My working hypothesis is elementary, even obvious:Intellectual paradigms, including anthropological traditions, areculturally mediated, that is, they are contextually situated andrelative. The inference I draw is also elementary and obvious: Ifanthropological activity is culturally mediated, it is in turnsubject to ethnographic description and ethnological analysis[stress added]." Bob Scholte, 1972, Toward a Reflexiveand Critical Anthropology. IN Dell Hymes[Editor],1972, Reinventing Anthropology, pages430-457, page 431.

"Since 1969, the place of history of anthropology within the discipline has changed substantially. The postmodernist turn to reflexivity in the humanities and social sciences has made practising anthropologists more conscious of their own standpoint(s) and the groundedness of present practices in past histories. History itself has come to be seen as contingent, relative to a standpoint, interpretation rather than a direct representation of the past [stress added]." Regna Darnell, 1998, And Along Came Boas: Continuity And Revolution In Americanist Anthropology (Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Co.), page xiv.

PLEASE NOTE THE WORDS OF DEREK FREEMAN (1916-2001): "Mypassion in life is that we will develop a genuinescience of the human species; nothing is more important tohumans than that we succeed in that task. Now, I have said that thequestion that Boas [1858-1942] gave Margaret Mead[1901-1978] to answer was a profoundly importantanthropological question and I think that now in the late1980s we have resolved that problem. It is apparent to allknowledgeable behavioral scientists that we must within operatewithin a framework in which we simultaneously take into account ourevolutionary history and our cultures and it is only when these twothings are combined within an interactionist paradigm that you havethe imperative pre-condition for a genuine science of our species.Well, I have always been a heretic. I think being aheretic is the most beautiful thing because this comes froma Greek root meaning someone who chooses for himself. In otherwords, a heretic is someone who thinks for himself and doesn'trun with the mob and I have always been a heretic and foundgreat joy in it. But what you've got to be in science is a hereticwho gets its right. It's no use in being a heretic who gets itwrong because then you are a dog in their eyes. But if you are aheretic who gets it right, you can't do better than that[stress added]." Derek Freeman, 1988, [from thevideo] Margaret Mead and Samoa (Evanston, Ill: UnitedLearning) [Cinetal productions Ltd. in Association with theAustralian Broadcasting Corporation].

"Karl Popper (1902-1994) is recognized around the world as one of the twentieth century's greatest philosophers of science and as one of its most articulate and influential critics of Marxism and closed society. ... Popper used to tell his students that there is no such things as a scientific method other than the method of trial and error. This simple idea has initiated a revolutionary way of thnking in philosophy and science. Popper thought that we are all in search of a better world. And he taught that, instead of uncritically accepting our theories and beliefs on authority or trying to justify them with appeals to reason and experience, we should search for problems and inconsistncies in them and try to eliminate them as best we can. Instead of trying to prove that we are right, we should try to find the ways in which we are wrong. He summed up his entire philosophy with the words: 'I may be wrong and you may be right, and by an effort, we may get nearer to the truth' [stress added - italics in original]. Mark Notturno, 2003, from the "Preface" On Popper (Thomson/Wadsworth), n.p.

"Scientific inquiry is problem solving, and our knowledgegrows as we propose theories to explain what we do not understand,and then criticize them in an attempt to eliminate their errors.Our understanding of ourselves and of the world we live in, like lifeitself, is constantly changing [stress added]."Mark Notturno, 2003, On Popper (Thomson/Wadsworth), page70.

"...we can learn from our mistakes [stress added]." Karl R. Popper [1902-1994], 1963, Conjectures And Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge (NY: Harper & Row), page vii.

"In the first decades of the 20th century, nature held swayover nurture in most fields. In the wake of World War I[1914-1918], however, three men recaptured the socialsciences for nurture: John B. Watson [1878-1958], whoset out to show how the conditioned reflex, discovered by IvanPavlov [1849-1936], could explain human learning;Sigmund Freud [1856-1939], who sought to explain theinfluence of parents and early experiences on young minds,; andFranz Boas [1858-1942], who argued that the origin ofethnic differences lay with history, experiences and circumstance,not physiology and psychology [stress added]." MattRidley, 2003, What Makes You Who You Are. Time, June 2, 2003,pages 54-63, pages 58-59.

"The three dominant themes on behavior for a good part of the [20th] century were Freudianism, which said aberrant behavior was produced by the childhood environment; Boasism, which said behavior was produced by the cultural environment; and behaviorism, which said behavior resulted from environmental conditioning and learning. All were united in enthroning the environment as the determinant of human behavior and in relegating biological inheritance to insignificance. This three-pronged environmentalism was the accepted wisdom that was taught in all universities and that informed serious writing on human behavior--social problems, psychological problems, mental illness--or normal child development. Professor [Henry] Higgins may have run amok, but he had also taken over--and remained in control until only recently [stress added]." William Wright, 1998, Born That Way: Genes, Behavior, Personality (NY: Knopf), page 170.

"Ralph Linton, who was born in 1893 and died in1953, was one of the most distinguished anthropologists of histime. His career in anthropology covered a period during which thisdiscipline underwent a dramatic transition; and Linton contributedfundamentally to its change. It might also be said that it wasLinton and several of his contemporaries, Robert Redfield[1897-1958], Melville Herskovits [1895-1963], LloydWarner [1898-1970], Ruth Benedict [1887-1948], andMargaret Mead [1901-1978], who brought anthropology in theUnited States out of the museums and into the mainstream of thesocial sciences [stress added]." Adelin Linton andCharles Wagley, 1971, Ralph Linton (Columbia UniversityPress), page 1.

"In 1937 Ralph Linton [1893-1953] was invited to Columbia University [New York City] as a visiting Professor of Anthropology.... It was more or less understood that, if mutually agreeable, Ralph Linton would be Senior professor and Department Chairman. Linton's first months at Columbia University were difficult ones. When he went to pay his respects of Boas [1858-1942] the old man's greeting was, 'Of course, you know this was not what I wanted.' ... Ruth Benedict [1887-1948] was then an Assistant Professor without tenure and was that year acting Chairman of the Department. ... Benedict was cool and unreceptive to Linton as a colleague. It was rumored that Benedict was Boas's own choice for successor. Without tenure and as a woman (there were no woman in the graduate faculties at Columbia at that time), she undoubtedly felt challenged by Linton's appointment [stress added]." Adelin Linton and Charles Wagley, 1971, Ralph Linton (Columbia University Press), pages 48-49.

"Geertz's [born 1926 ->] alternative to substantive,middle-range theory is 'thick description,' an elaborate account ofthe many meanings involved in any specific human activity in anyparticular time and place. So, for Geertz, there is heuristictheory as a guide and thick description, with no substantive theoryin between [stress added]." Philip Carl Salzman andPatricia C. Rice, 2004, Thinking Anthropologically: A PracticalGuide For Students (NJ: Pearson/Prentice-Hall), page 34.

"Clifford Geertz has a vividly original mind--one can never tell just which wall he will bounce off next. Born in San Francisco in 1926.... It is more difficult to summarize Clifford Geertz's contribution to anthropology theory than it is to summarize that of other authors. Geertz does not provide us with key terms or even with direct ties to other anthropological traditions. Neither does he furnish us with fixed methods of doing ethnography or thinking about anthropology. However, his contributions to anthropological thought are as fundamental as they are subtle. Geertz wants us to understand a culture in its own terms. To do that, we must understand its complexities, subtleties, and nuances. Reading Geertz suggests archaeology: a culture is exposed and explicated layer by layer until a mental image of it appears to the reader. ... Geertz's idea of culture is not an eclectic one: he holds a semiotic view. He believes, with Max Weber and Durkheim, that a human being is suspended in a web of significances that he [and she!] has himself created. Geertz's is a search for meaning, for explication--indeed, literary explanation--and not for laws of experimental science. Interpretation is the name of the tool he uses to accomplish this goal of excavating for meaning [stress added]." Paul Bohannan & Mark Glazer, Editors (1988) High Points in Anthropology (NY: A.A. Knopf) pages 529-530.

IN 2002 CLIFFORD GEERTZ (1926->) wrote thefollowing: "I have arrived, it seems, at that point in mylife and my career when what people most want to hear from me is notsome new fact or idea, but how I got to this point in my life andcareer. ... So far as phases, periods, era, and the like areconcerned, I shall, for my own convenience, mark out four ofthem. None of them is internally homogeneous, none of them is sharplybounded; but they can serve as useful place-markers in a lurching,tangled, digressive history. The first, roughly between 1946 and1960--all dates are moveable--was a period of after-the-warexuberance, when a wave of optimism, ambition, and a sense ofimproving purpose swept through the human sciences. The second,about 1960 to about the miod-1970s, was dominated, on the onehand, by the divisions of the universal cold war, and, on the other,by the romances and disappointments of Third-Worldism. From 1975or so to, shall we say, in honor of the fall of The Wall, 1989,there was, first, a proliferation of new, or anyway newfangled,approaches to social and cultural analysis, various sorts oftheoretical and methodological 'turns,' Kehre, tournuresd'esprit; and then on the heels of these, the rise of radicallycritical and dispersie 'post-' movements, brought on by increasinguncertainty, self-doubt, and self-examination, both withinanthropology and in Western culture generally. Finally, from the1990s until now, interest has begun to shift toward ethnicconflict, violence, world-disorder, globalization, transnationalism,human rights, and the like, although where that is going, especiallyafter September 11, is far from clear. These again, are not the onlycuts that could be made, nor even the best. They are but thereflections, diffuse and refracted, in my own mind of the way of theworld and the ways of anthropology within the way of the world[stress added]." Clifford Geertz, 2002, An InconstantProfession: The Anthropological Life in Interesting Times. AnnualReview of Anthropology (edited by William H, Durkham) [PaloAlto, CA: Annual Reviews], Vol. 31, pages 1-19, pages 1-3.

"The ability of anthropologists to get us to take what they say seriously has less to do with either a factual look or an air of conceptual elegance than it has to do with their capacity to convince us what they say is a result of their having actually penetrated (or, if you prefer, been penetrated by) another form of life, one way or another, truly 'being there.' And that, persuading us that this offstage miracle has occurred, is where the writing comes in [stress added]." Clifford Geertz, 1988, Works And Lives: The Anthropologist As Author

"One of the most celebrated pieces of fictitious ethnography everwritten is J. G. Frazer's [1854-1951] account of thePriest-King of Nemi awaiting his execution by his as yet unknownsuccessor. It comes in the first chapter of The Golden Boughbut its immense verbosity, even in the abridged edition, makes itunquotable. I refer to it now only because the status of CliffordGeertz as Priest-King of American Cultural Anthropology seems tome to be rather similar [stress added]." Edmund Leach,1989, "Review" of Works And Lives: The Anthropologist AsAuthor (by Clifford Geertz). american ethnologist: The Journalof the American Ethnological Society, Vol. 16, No. 1, pages137-141, page 137.

"Modernism is a term drawn from the study of literature and art. Applied to anthropology, it broadly refers to the years between the 1920s and the mid-1970s.... Analysts suggest that that some of the attributes of modernist writing in anthropology were detachment, the assumption of a position of scientific neutrality, and rationalism. ... Postmodernists challenge these assertions. They maintain that such claims are distorted or, at best, true in only a very limited sense. They believe that objective, neutral knowledge of another culture (or any aspect of the world) is impossible. The postmodernist challenge has led anthropologists to examine the basis of their discipline and engage in an rancorous debate bteween the two points of view [stress added]." Post-modernism has been one of the most controversial developments in anthropology...." R.J. McGee & R.L. Warms , 2002, Anthropological Theory: An Introductory History (Second Edition) (Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Co.), page 517.

"Some anthropologists complain that the use of the termmodernism is simply a valorization of aesthetics over social science,and in a sense that objection is undeniable. However, sosymbiotic has the relationship become between artistic theory andanthropology that a focus upon modernism can no longer be seen as theprivileging of literature, say, over social science[stress added]." Marc Manganaro, 1990, Textual Play,Power, and Cultural Critique: An Orientation To ModernistAnthropology. Modernist Anthropology: From Fieldwork to Text,1990 (edited by Marc Manganaro), page 5.

"If there is one word which summarizes the anthropological recognition of a postmodern mood, it is irony. And the current rediscovery of irony indicates all the differences between the 'free play' which some descriptions of postmodernism hint at and postmodernist 'play,' if it exists, in anthropological writings. Irony involves not a scrambling but a deliberate juxtaposition of contexts, pastiche perhaps but not jumble [stress added]." Marilyn Stratherhn, 1990, Out Of Context: The Persuasive Fictions Of Anthropology. Modernist Anthropology: From Fieldwork to Text, 1990 (edited by Marc Manganaro), page 113.

"What makes Strathern's reading work is what we might call adouble chiasmus, signified by the double juxtapositionFrazer/Malinowski and Malinowski/Frazer. If we were formalists, wemight write <F x M> x <M x F>. Or, more hieroglyphically,perhaps...." Stephen A. Tyler and George E. Marcus, 1990,Modernist Anthropology: From Fieldwork to Text, 1990 (editedby Marc Manganaro), page 125.

"I take irony to be the central trope of modernism. But just as modernism is no monolith--as Marc Manganaro properly notes in his Introduction, there are many modernisms to consider--neither is irony; there are many ironies to consider, as well. Among ironic figures, let me name four: antiphrasis or negation, aporia or doubt, oxymoron or paradox, and catachresis or misuse [stress added]." Arnold Krupat, 1990, Irony In Anthropology: The Work Of Franz Boas. Modernist Anthropology: From Fieldwork to Text, 1990 (edited by Marc Manganaro), page 136.

"A recent volume by James Clifford and George Marcus[Writing Culture: The Poetics And Politics Of Ethnography,1986] highlights cultural anthropology's attempt 'to come toterms with the politics and poetics of cultural representation'(1986, viii). Concerned with the ideology underlying 'transparent'representation and armed with the post-paradigmatic suspicions ofimposing a unit on their own texts, Clifford nevertheless remarksthat the essays that follow his introduction find a common ground inthe Foucaltian position outlined above. They share the 'new spaceopened up by the disintegration of 'Man' as telos for a whole newdiscipline,' drawing instead on recent developments in the fields oftextual criticism, cultural history, semiotics, hermeneuticphilosophy, and psychoanalysis' (1986, 4)." (Robert Sullivan, 1990,Marxism And The 'Subject Of Anthropology. Modernist Anthropology:From Fieldwork to Text, 1990 (edited by Marc Manganaro), page244.

"Postmodern theory crystalized in anthropology in the mid-1980s with, among other works by Clifford and Marcus (1986) [Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography] and Clifford (1988), Anthropology as Cultural Critique, subtitled An Experimental Moment in the Human Sciences, by George Marcus and Michael Fischer (1986). The authors draw on influential nonanthropological works on postmodernism, such as Jean-Francois Lyotard's The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge ([1979] 1984), on Geertz's interpretative anthropology, and on Marxist anthropology, a paradigm based on subjectivist epistemology and moral advocacy (or, as Marcus and Fischer prefer, 'cultural critique')." Philip C. Salzman, 2001, Understanding Culture: An Introduction to Anthropological Theory (Prospect Heights, Illinois: Waveland Press), page 121

"Partly under the influence of Geertz [born 1926 ->]and interpretive anthropology, a more recent heuristic theory,postmodernism (Marcus and Fischer 1986 [Editors,Anthropology and Cultural Critique: An Experimental Moment in theHuman Sciences]; Clifford and Marcus 1986 [Editors,Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography];Marcus 1998 [Ethnography Through Thick andThin]), rejects a scientific approach and all empiricismand positivism in anthropology as false and politically suspect, andrejects any 'master narrative' as one sided. Postmodernism stressesthe subjectivity of the researcher and the injustice in treating thesubjects of research, the people being studied, as objects.Rejecting any formulation of scientific, substantive, middle rangetheories, postmodernism has stressed giving 'voice' to thesubjects of research so that they can tell their own stories ratherthan have our theories or interpretations imposed on them. Sopostmodernism too goes directly from heuristic theory to 'voice,'with no intermediate theoretical forumulation [stressadded]." Philip Carl Salzman and Patricia C. Rice, 2004,Thinking Anthropologically: A Practical Guide For Students (NJ:Pearson/Prentice-Hall), page 34.

"Postmodernism (Pomo) is an intellectual movement or orientation that promotes itself as the antithesis of modernism. The term itself was introduced by architects in the late 1940s. Of the many intellectual strands that run through postmodernism, the most prominent and important is the disparagement of Western science and technology." Marvin Harris, 1999, Theories of Culture in Postmodern Times, page 153.

"Postmodernism constitutes a critique of all 'modern'understandings. Postmodernists define what is 'modernist' as what isall-encompassing; they reject both grand theory in anthropologyand the notion of completeness in ethnographic description[stress added]." Alan Barnard, 2000, History andTheory in Anthropology (Cambridge University Press), page168.

"The central argument of this book is that throughout their history humans used symbols to create webs that communicated agreed-upon meanings and so, as time went by, sustained cooperations and conflict among larger and larger groups of people [stress adeded]." William H. McNeill, in J.R. McNeill & William H. McNeill, 2003, The Human Web: A Bird's-Eye View of World History (NY: W.W. Norton & Co.), page 323.

"The essence and raison d'être of communication isthe creation of redundancy, meaning, pattern,predictability, information, and/or the reduction ofthe random by 'restraint [stress added].'" GregoryBateson [1904-1980], 1972, Steps To An Ecology of Mind(NY: Ballantine Books), page 133.

Interesting (And Somewhat Appropriate) Web Sites Are:[Melville Herskovits][Melville Herskovits][Ralph Linton[Anthropology"button"][Culture][Forensic Science][Located in the Department of Anthropology at CSU, Chico][Clyde Snow} 1928->][William R. Maples} 1937-1997][Clifford Geertz} 1923->][HyperGeertz World Catalogue][Clifford Geertz][Paul Smith} Writing, General Knowledge, and PostmodernAnthropology]

WEEK 10. October 27 & 29, 2008: Mon& Wed} DISCUSSION OF YOUR INDIVIDUAL TERM PAPER interests[approximately 1/2-the-class on each day).

NOTE: No new required Reading in Langness andno more required Reading in Urbanowicz.

"When you ferret out something for yourself, piecing the cluestogether unaided, it remains for the rest of your life in some waytruer than facts you are merely taught, and freer from onslaughts ofdoubt." Colin Fletcher, 1968, The Man Who Walked Through Time,p. 109.

"Whatever you cannot understand, you cannot possess." J. W.Von Goethe [1749-1832].

"Keep away from people who belittle your ambitions. Small peoplealways do that, but the really great make you feel that you, too, canbecome great." (Mark Twain [Samuel Langhorne Clemens,1835-1910])

"Let every man [or woman!] judge by himself [or herself!!], by what he himself read, not by what others tell him [or her!!!]." Albert Einstein [1879-1955], 1934 statement.

"Contrary to popular belief, messiness is not necessarily asign of mental disorganization. ... A clue to the nature ofmessiness may lie in the fact that many messy people are unconcernedor unaware of the seeming chaos of their local environment.Perhaps messiness and neatness are just markers of a person'sspatial awareness and orientation [stress added]."Richard Friedman, 2003, Forget Oscar and Felix: Messiness Is noLaughing Matter. The New York Times, April 29, 2003, pageD5.

"No matter how much I admire our schools, I know that no university exists that can provide an education; what a university can provide is an outline, to give the learner a direction and guidance. The rest one has to do for oneself." Louis L'Amour, 1989, The Education Of A Wandering Man, page 3.

WEEK 11. November 3 & 5, 2008: Mon &Wed} Symbolism, Modernism, Reflexivity, & Post-Modernism. TermPaper Presentation Order Distributed on Monday, November 3, 2008.Winding down and general discussions and review for EXAM II (25%) onWednesday November 12, 2008. EXAM II will be based on selectedreadings in Davies & Piero (2002), Langness (pp. 171-288),selected assigned readings in Fall 2008 Anthropology 496 Guidebookand Selected Anthropology Essays by Urbanowicz,lectures/discussions, and the quotations referred to in thisGuidebook to date. Specific Readings from Reserve WILL NOT BE on theExam.

NOTE: A "sample" self-paced exam should be available at: by Monday November 3, 2008, to assist you as a Review for EXAM II on Wednesday November 12, 2008. (Again, I am aware that "older" versions of my ANTH 496 Exams exist "out there" - I return them so you might learn from any mistakes; by all means, if you have access to "old" exams, do look at them; but r.e.m.e.m.b.e.r to read and study for EXAM II as if you might be faced with BRAND NEW EXAMINATION QUESTIONS - which could well be the case!)!


ON ELECTIONS IN GENERAL: "An overwhelming majority of a miniscule number of Chico State university students decided everybody on campus will be paying higher fees at least through 2009. By a margin of 749 to 42, students at Chico State approved a referendum calling for a $14-a-semester fee to fund campus athletics. The total voter turnout amounted to 4.9 percent of the 16,251 eligible students [stress added]." Roger H. Aylworth, 2002, minority Rules: Chico State Approves Sports Fee. Enterprise-Record, May 11, 2002, page 1.

Required Reading in: Please finish Langness: Ch 5, 6, 7,& 8 (pp. 171-288).

PLEASE read any one of the following items from theselections on RESERVE:

Barrett (1999): In E.L. Cerroni-Long, pp. 255-281(Conclusions).
Clifford & Marcus (1986): pp. 1-26.
Daniel & Peck (1996): pp. 1-33.
Darnell: #25 (pp. 322-329).
di Leonardo: pp. 1-48.
Fox (1994): Ch. 17 (pp. 341-349) and Ch. 20 (pp.363-380).
Fox (1997): pp. 13-15 and pp. 161-199.
Geertz (1995): Ch. 5 (pp. 96-135).
Hakken (1999): Ch. 7 (pp. 179-211)
Harris (1968): Ch. 20: pp. 568-604.
Harris (1999): Ch. 1 [pp. 19-29] and Ch. 153-160.
Honigman: Ch 6 (pp. 241-288) or Ch. 13 (pp. 579-612).
Hays: Ch 36, 37, and 38 (pp. 390-427).
Kuper: Ch 7 (pp. 204-226).
Malefijt: Ch 14 (pp. 325-347).
Marcus: Ch. 2 (pp. 57-78) or Ch. 10 (pp. 231-253).
Moore: pp. 228-247.
Naroll & Naroll: Ch 7 (pp. 217-245).
Voget: Ch 20 (pp. 786-805). 


"At the beginning of the twentieth century, the climate of social opinion in British anthropology began to change. Emblematic of this change was the rise of the 'diffusionist' school, whose most prominent members were G. Elliot Smith [1871-1937], W.J. Perry [1889-1949], W.H.R. Rivers [1864-1922], and A.M. Hocart [1884-1939], whose theoretical loyalties lay with the diffusionists more than with any other school. The conspicuously lunatice aspects of diffusionism, and the disrepute into which it fell in the 1930s, should not blind us to the school's earlier importance [stress added]." Henrika Kuklick, Tribal Exemplars: images of Political Authority in British Anthropology, 1885-1945. In} Functionalism Historicized: Essays on British Social Anthropology [Edited by George W. Stocking, Jr.] (University of Wisconsin Press), pages 59-82, page 66.

"The study of human social life has come along way since WalterBaldwin Spencer [1860-1929] searched for the origins ofhis own society among the Australian aborigines. Anthropologynowadays doesn't waste time on speculative theories about howsocieties evolved but following Spencer's example it does it does atleast at least go out into the field for its own facts. Franz Boas[1858-1942] in America emphasized that good anthropologydepended on systematically collecting every aspect of a culture andunderstanding it through its own language. However, anthropologyhasn't become the science that William Rivers[1864-1922] anticipated but because of his attention tomethod it took a more scientific approach to analyzing cultural lifein the field. With Bronislaw Malinowski [1884-1942]fieldwork became a process of total saturation, immersion in theculture being studied and produced masterpieces of anthropologicaldescription. Margaret Mead [1901-1978] recognized thatthe topics anthropologists investigated had great popular appeal andher writings gave it a relevance for a much wider public. By turninganthropology away from the search for universal laws of humanbehavior, Edward Evans-Pritchard [1902-1973] changedits direction. He emphasized that the anthropologist must was to beseen as an interpreter rather than a scientist and the task was thetranslation of culture. One of the main ambitions of this series[and the ANTH 496 course!] has been to show how ourunderstanding of other societies, and incidentally of our own, hasimproved over the past hundred or so years. This deeper insighthas obviously not been reached by people just sitting around andexchanging ideas; rather it's been gained by anthropologists going tolive in remote societies, often in extreme hardships, but coming backwith a special kind of evidence; facts which they gathered firsthandfor themselves [stress added]." Bruce Dakowski,1985, [from the video] Stranger Abroad: Edward Evans-EvansPritchard (1902-1973).

"Like many social anthropologists of my generation, I was from an early stage given to understand that psychology was taboo. Between 1940 and 1970, a firmly anti-psychological approach characterised mainstream British anthropology. This was the more remarkable because from the 1920s cultural anthropology in the USA had moved in the opposite direction, embracing a developmental psychology of Freudian inspiration. The British, however, would have nothing to do with the 'culture and personality' school associated with Mead [1901-1978], Benedict [1887-1948], Kardiner [1891-1981], Linton [1893-1953] and the Whitings [John} 1908-1999] & Beatrice]. Nor were they interested in the alternatives on offer, As Evans-Pritchard [1902-1973] explained, with lordly certainly: 'Psychology and social anthropology study different kinds of phenomena and what the one studies cannot therefore be understood in terms of conclusions reached by the other. Psychology is the study of individual life. Social anthropology is the study of social life. Psychology studies psychical systems. Social anthropology studies social systems. The psychologist and social anthropologist may observe the same acts of raw behavior but they study them at different levels of abstraction' [stress added]." A. Kuper, 1999, Among the Anthropologists, page 79.

"But while I think that different social anthropologists whostudied the same people would record much the same facts in theirnotebooks, I believe they would write different kinds of books.Within the limits imposed by their discipline and the culture underinvestigation anthropologists are guided in choice of theme,in selection and arrangement of facts to illustrate them, and injudgement of what is and what is not significant, by theirdifferent interests, reflecting differences of personality, ofeducation, of social status, of political views, of religiousconvictions, and so forth. One can only interpret what one sees interms of what one is, and anthropologists, while they have a bodyof knowledge in common, differ in other respects as widely as otherpeople in their backgrounds of experience and in themselves. Thepersonality of an anthropologist cannot be eliminated from his[or her!] work any more than the personality of anhistorian can be eliminated from his. Fundamentally, in his accountof a primitive people the anthropologist is not only describing theirsocial life as accurately as he can but is expressing himselfalso. In this sense his account must express moral judgement,especially where it touches matters on which he feels strongly;and what comes out of a study will to this extent at least depend onwhat the individual brings to it [stress added]." SirEdward Evans-Pritchard [1902-1973], Fieldwork and theempirical tradition. Social Anthropology and Other Essays(1962), pages 64-85, pages 83-84.

"And so for anthropology, you are studying not just as an observer but also as a participant; you are not just a member of the audience, you are also on the stage. To understand the Nuer, you've got to learn to think as the Nuer, to feel as a Nuer, in a kind of way to be a Nuer. And this can't be done in any kind of scientific technique; and this is why the anthropologist I think is in a very peculiar position because he's trying to interpret what he sees not just with the head but with his own personality, with his heart as well." Sir Edward Evans-Pritchard [1902-1973].

"[Edmund] Leach [1910-1989] did not disputewith Evans-Pritchard [1902-1973], and they seem to have kepttheir distance. Though there was a similarity of class origins, therewere matters that separated them. Their life-styles weredifferent: Evans-Pritchard had converted to Catholicism and soughtsolace in the Church, while Leach was not enamoured of particvipatingin institutionalized Christianity. But even more importantlyEvans-Pritchard, who had earlier been a member of Malinowski's[1884-1942] seminar, in time became estranged from him andcritical of his work, and joined up with Radcliffe-Brown[1881-1955] at Oxford. Jack Goody [1919 ->] inhis [1995] Expansive Moment [the rise of socialanthropology in Britain and Africa, 1918-1970] conveys theproblematic dimensions of Evans-Pritchard's persona in hisnegative attitudes not only to those loyal to Malinowski, but alsotowards most of his peers as well. These attitudes were conveyedin his personal letters.... [stress added]." StanleyJ. Tambiah, 2002, Edmund Leach: An Anthropological Life(Cambridge), page 73.

AND SEE:[Anthropological and Other Ancestors} Quick-Time Video on theWWW]

One Never Knows Where Information Can Come From: "JuliaChild became a household name when she entered the lives ofmillions of Americans through our hearts and kitchens. Yet few knowthe richly varied private life that lies behind this icon whosestatuesque height and warmly enthused warble have become synonymouswith the art of cooking. In this biography, we meet the earthly andoutrageous Julia, who at age eighty-five, remains a complex rolsmodel. Fitch, who had access to all of Julia's private letters anddiaries, takes us through her life from her exuberant youth as ahigh-spirited California girl to he years at Smith College, whereJulia was at the center of every prank and party. When most of hergirlfriends married, Julia volunteered with the OSS in India andChina during World War II, and was an integral part of this elitecorps. There she met her future husband, the cosmopolitan PaulChil, who introduced her to the glories of art, fine French cuisine,and love. Theirs was a deeply passionate romance and a modernmarriage of equals." [no page #] ... On the one side isher close relationship with many gays, including Cora DuBois[1903-1969]...[stress added]." NoëlRiley Fitch, 1997, Appetite For life: The Biography of JuliaChild (NY: Doubleday), page 472.

"Just as in dress, any attempt to make oneself conspicuous by adopting some peculiar and unusual fashion is the sign of a small mind, so in language, the quest for new-fangled phrases and little-known words springs from a puerile and pedantic pretension [stress added]." Michel Eyquem de Montaigne [1533-1592] French philosopher/essayist, Essays, translated by J.M. Cohen, 1958, page 80.

"Anthropologies of late modernity (also called postmodernity,postindustrial society, knowledge society, or information society)provide challenges for all levels of social, cultural, andpsychological theory, as well as for ethnographic field methods andgenres of writing. There are three key overlapping arenas ofattention. 1. The continuing transformation of modernities byscience and technology.... 2. The reconfiguration ofperception and understanding, of the human and social sensorium....3. The reconstruction of society in the wake of social traumacaused by world war and civil and ethnic wars.... [stressadded]." Michael M.J. Fischer, 1999, Emergent Forms of LIFE:Anthropologies of Late or Postmodernities. Annual Review ofAnthropology, Vol. 28, pages 455-478, page 457.

"Modern cultural anthropology, or ethnology as I will usually be calling it, is the major area of inhabited-world making (especially other-world making), at least in terms of its explicitness of focus and of its historical consequentiality. From within the borders of the culture of science it articulates entire and distinct webs of possibility for human relations, actions, imagination, meanings. Anthropology in its large sense considers these cultural webs in pursuit of a more general and unified description of the human, per se. The ethnographies underpinning anthropological knowledge of cultures are subject to the limitations of human vision, especially the vision of novelty, and human language (inevitably culture-bound as even the technical lexicons of the sciences are). The magnetism of the ethnographer's own cultural assumptions curves her [or his!] descriptions of other cultures into globes that tend to function as versions--better, worse, or merely wondrous in their difference--of the home globe" [stress added]." Mary Baine Campbell, 1999, Wonder & Science: Imagining Worlds in Early Modern Europe (Cornell University Press), pages 10-11.

"Perhaps the lesson about social theorizing won with the greatestrecent effort is that intellectual practises cannot escape beingaffected by the concepts with and through which thought proceeds.Consequently, describers must be reflective, trying to be as clearabout the work they intend their concepts to accomplish as they areabout the picture they wish to paint." David Hakken, 1999,Cyborgs@Cyberspace? An Ethnographer Looks to the Future, page3.

"Science does not have appropriate tools for the dissection of the spirit." Jane Goodall [with Phillip Berman], 1999, Reason For Hope: A Spiritual Journey (NY: Warner Books), page 165.

"Good heavens! For more than forty years I have been speakingprose without knowing it [stress added]!"(Molière, pseudonym for Jean Baptiste Poquelin[1622-1673]).

"Seven specific hurdles and four epistemological issues with particular salience to anthropological cyberspace ethnography have been listed. Yet the stories anthropologists are able to tell have always depended on
  • The Problems we choose,
  • The points at which we enter the field,
  • The ways we draw intellectual and social boundaries,
  • The levels of our units of study,
  • Our practises in the field, and
  • The terms we employ to describe those experiences.

Hurdles and issues like these were problematic in the Malinowskian era as well; we just weren't aware of it. Thus, cyberspace ethnography is no more (and no less) at risk of collapse under the critique of ethnography than is any other ethnographic practise." David Hakken, 1999, Cyborgs@Cyberspace? An Ethnographer Looks to the Future, page 67.

"Post-moderninsm is dead, assuming there ever was such a thing."The Character V.T. Newbury in Robert K. Tanenbaum, 1994, JusticeDenied (NY: Signet Books), page 258. 


JANE GOODALL, born 1934} "The greatest danger to ourfuture is apathy. We cannot expect those living in poverty andignorance to worry about saving the world. For those of us able toread this magazine [or Guidebook!], it isdifferent. We can do something to preserve our planet. You maybe overcome, however, by feelings of helplessness. You are justone person in a world of 6 billion. How can your actions make adifference? Best, you say, to leave it to decision makers. And so youdo nothing. Can we overcome apathy? Yes, but only if we havehope. One reason for hope lies in the extraordinary nature ofhuman intellectual accomplishment [stress added]."[][See:,9263,1101020826,00.html[Special Report in Time magazine, August 26, 2002:"How To Save the Earth"]

"Chimps in Peril. Famed naturalist Jane Goodall issued a warning that chimpanzees across central Africa are coming under a grave threat due to commercial hunting, wars and increased logging in the region. She told reporters that new logging roads allow the hunters to now go deep into the forest where they kill the primates and shop their smoked meat off to be eaten in exotic restaurrants. Goodall warned that the entire chimp population across 21 African nations has declined from about 2 million a century ago to 220,000 today. 'Because they are very slow breeders and give birth only at five-year intervals, the species could be on its way to extinction if nothing is done to protect the animals and their habitat,' Goodall said [stress added]." Earthweek: A Diary of the Planet, by Steve Newman, The San Francisco Chronicle, July 7, 2001, page A4.

"When Goodall [born 1934 -> ] came to Gombe inthe 1960s, about 150 chimpanzees inhaibted the area. Todayabout a hundred survive in the dwindling forest. 'When the firstsatellite images were taken of Gombe in 1972, there was littledifference between what was inside the parl and what was outside,'says conservation biologist Lilian Pintea of the University ofMinnesota .... Today Gombe, only eight miles wide, is surroundedby farms and people, including thousands of refugees fleeing violencein nearby countries [stress added]." In an articleby] Jane Goodall, 2003, Update Lessons From Gombe, Tanzania.The National Geographic, April 2003, pages 76-89, pages80-81.

"Troops of rogue chimpanzees have begun to attack human children in parts of Uganda, and the BBC reports that the loss of primates' habitat to farming is responsible for the assaults. Chimpanzees do not normally attack humans, but at least 15 young children in the west of the country have been badly injured by aggressive male chimps during the past few years, with around half the infants being killed. In one case a child was said to have been snatched directly from its mother's back by a maurauding chimpanzee. The January [2004] issue of BBC Wildlife magazine reports that the felling of forests for farming is forcing the chimps to move into populated areas in search of food. It is still unclear why the animals are specifically targeting human children for attack [stress added]." Steve Newman, 2004, Earthweek: Chimp attacks. The San Francisco Chronicle, January 3, 2004, page C10.

"My reasons for hope are fourfold: (1) the human brain;(2) the resilience of nature; (3) the energy andenthusiasm that is found or can be found or can be kindled amongyoung people worldwide; and (4) the indomitable human spirit[stress added]." Jane Goodall [with PhillipBerman], 1999, Reason For Hope: A Spiritual Journey (NY:Warner Books), page 233.

"Robben Island was used at various times between the 17th and the 20th century as a prison, a hospital for socially unacceptable groups, and a military base. Its buildings, and in particular those of the late 20th century, such as the maximum security prison for political prisoners, bear witness to the triumph of democracy and freedom over oppression and racialism." [Robben Island, South Africa} 1999]

On the hatchery at Adobe Creek, California: "The hatchery wasdedicated on April 25, 1993, as students unfurled their banner:'Together we will change the world' [from the UnitedAnglers of Casa Grande high School, Petaluma, CA.][stress added]." SEE: Malcolm McConnel, 1999,Miracle at Adobe Creek. The Reader's Digest, Vol. 154, No.924, pages 78-84, page 84.

"...I have been lucky to work with some fine scientists and have had the opportunity to discover prized relics of our evolutionary history. Many people experience a deep, almost primordial urge to understand our beginnings as a species, and the search for such relics in ancient sediments brings one into direct contact with our species' history. Those of us who are in this line of work are truly privileged" [stress added]." Richard Leakey & Roger Lewin, 1995, The Sixth Extinction: Patterns of Life and the Future of Humankind (NY: Anchor Books), page 4.

SOME QUESTIONS asked of Richard Leakey [born December19, 1944]: "What do you think is the biggest problem facing theworld today? Global warming. ... Which historical figure would youmost like to invite to a dinner party? Charles Darwin, so thatI could tell him of what we now know and re-assure him that he hasmade some of the most significant contributions ever in terms ofplacing us within context on this planet [streessadded]." (Discover, May 1999, pages 18-19).

"The chasm between what scientists do and what the public understands about science widens daily. A new Web site, produced by a group of top paleontologists, aims to provide a bridge across that chasm to the confusing world of human origins and offer a clear view of how science develops its notions about our beginnings [stress added]. ..." Tim Friend, 2001, Site digs at the roots of the human family tree. USAToday, April 16, 2001, page 6D.

"You may not believe in evolution, and that is all right. How wehumans came to be the way we are is far less important than how weshould act now to get out of the mess we have made for ourselves.How should the mind that can contemplate God relate to our fellowbeings, the other life-forms of the world? What is our humanresponsibility? And what, ultimately, is our human destiny?[stress added]." Jane Goodall [with PhillipBerman], 1999, Reason For Hope: A Spiritual Journey (NY:Warner Books), page 2.

"There are so many, many ways in which we are destroying the planet. And once we understand, once we care, then we have to do something." Jane Goodall (with Gary McAvoy and Gail Hudson), 2005, Harvest for Hope: A Guide to Mindful Eating (NY: Warner Books), page xix.

FINALLY, Urbanowicz likes and appreciates the words ofThomas Jefferson [1743-1826] as provided by Silvio A. Bedini,2002, Jefferson And Science (Monticello: Thomas JeffersonFoundation), page 107, from an 1818 letter of Jefferson: "When Icontemplate the immense advances in science and discoveries in thearts which have been made within the period of my life, I lookforward with confidence to equal advances by the presentgeneration, and have no doubt they will consequently be as muchwiser that we have been as we than our fathers were and they than theburners of witches [stress added]." Silvio A. Bedini,2002, Jefferson And Science (Monticello: Thomas JeffersonFoundation), page 107.

Interesting (And Somewhat Appropriate) Web Sites Are:[Jane Goodall] [UnitedAnglers of Casa Grande, Petaluma, CA][Biographies: Richard Leakey][The Leakey Foundation][Feminist Anthropology Theory Matrix][Digital Ethnography Project from CSU, Sacramento][Culture and Computational Anthropology][viewing notes} Edward Evans-Pritchard][History of Anthropology in Oxford][Anthropological and Other Ancestors} Quick-Time Video on theWWW]

WEEK 12. Monday November 10, 2008 andWednesday November 12, 2008 }: EXAM II (25%) on Wednesday November12, 2008. This will be based on selected readings in Davies &Piero (2002), Langness (pp. 171-288), selected assigned readings inFall 2008 Anthropology 496 Guidebook and Selected AnthropologyEssays by Urbanowicz, lectures/discussions, and the quotationsreferred to in this Guidebook to date. Specific Readings fromReserve WILL NOT BE on the Exam.

Please Finish The Required Reading in: Langness: Ch 5, 6,7, & 8 (pp. 171-288).

WEEK 13. November 17 & 19, 2008:Mon & Wed} Term Paper Presentations begin on Monday November 17,2008. [Please Remember: Class participation, including Term paperpresentation, represents 15% of your total grade.]

AND REMEMBER, OPENING, on November 21, 2008: Harry Potter and the Half-BloodPrince.  [Now scheduled for a 2009opening.]

"As Harry Potter begins his 6th year at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, he discovers an old book marked mysteriously "This book is the property of the Half-Blood Prince" and begins to learn more about Lord Voldemort's dark past."


WEEK 14. November 24 -> 28, 2008}THANKSGIVING VACATION WEEK!

WEEK 15. December 1 & 3, 2008: Mon & Wed} Term PaperPresentations/Discussions Continue. [Please Remember: Classparticipation, including Term paper presentation, represents 15% ofyour total grade.]

WEEK 16. December 8 & 10, 2008: Mon & Wed} Term PaperPresentations/Discussions Continue. [Please Remember: Classparticipation, including Term paper presentation, represents 15% ofyour total grade.]

WEEK 17. December 15, 2008 [Monday] FINALS WEEK} TermPaper Discussions CONCLUDE (if needed) and your TERM PAPER is DUE(25%) on that date.


"The most important word in the English language is attitude. Love and hate, work and play, hope and fear, our attitudinal response to all these situations, impresses me as being the guide." Harlen Adams (1904-1997)

"The Moving Finger writes; and, having writ,
Moves on: nor all your Piety nor Wit
Shall lure it back to cancel half a Line,
Nor all your Tears wash out a Word of it."
From the 1859 publication of The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám [1048-1131] by
Edward Fitzgerald [1809-1883]


"I am an optimist. It does not seem too much use being anything else." Sir Winston Churchill [1874-1965].


"A teacher affects eternity;
he [or she!] can never tell
where his [or her] influence stops."
Henry Brooks Adams [1838-1918],
The Education of Henry Adams, chapter 20


"What we cannot speak about we must pass over insilence."
Ludwig Wittgenstgein (1889-1951) Proposition #7 from TractatusLogico-Philosophicus.
IN Prototractatus: An Early Version of TractatusLogico-Philosophicus by Ludwig Wittgenstein
Edited by B.F. McGuiness et. al (Cornell University Press),page 237.

and what are your thoughts now on the Lévi-Strausswords?

"It has often been said--I don't know if it is universally true but it is probably true for many of us--that the reason we took up anthropology was that we had difficulty in adapting ourselves to the social milieu into which we were born." In G. Charbonnier, 1969, Conversations with Claude Lévi-Strauss (London: Jonathan Cape Ltd), page 17. [This is a 1969 translation of the 1961 Entretiens avec Claude Lévi-Strauss.]

Some additional words to considerand discuss in Fall 2008:

"My intention is not, however, to [simply] impart information, but to throw the burden of study upon you. If I succeed in teaching you to observe, my aim will be attained [stress added]." Louis Aggasiz [1807-1873], Swiss-American Scientist.

"I say my philosophy, not as claiming authorship of ideas whichare widely diffused in modern thought, but because the ultimateselection and synthesis must be a personal responsibility." SirArthur Eddington [1882-1944], The Philosophy of PhysicalScience, 1949: viii.

"Any education is the process of learning how little youknow." Eichard Corliss, 2003, Hook, Line And Thinker. Time,May 26, 2003, pages 60-63, page 63.

"Learning can be seen as the acquisition of information, butbefore it can take place, there must be interest; interest permeatesall endeavors and precedes learning. In order to acquire and remembernew knowledge, it must stimulate your curiosity in some way." RichardSaul Wurman, Information Anxiety, 1989: 138.

"A quotation is a polished prefabricated unit of thought or discourse which has many connotations and associations built in to it. It is thus like the text for a sermon, serving as a point of departure for many lines of thought." Alan L. Mackay, 1977 Statement.
"In the field of observation, chance only favors those whoare prepared." Louis Pasteur [1822-1895].
"From an institutional perspective, the significance of ethnography can be attributed to three roles it has played in the professional careers of anthropologists. First, the reading and teaching of exemplary ethnographic texts have been the major means of conveying to students what anthropologists do and what they know. Rather than becoming dated as in other fields, classic works in anthropology, remain vitally relevant, and their materials are a perennial source for the raising of new conceptual and theoretical problems. ... Second, ethnography is a very personal and imaginative vehicle by which anthropologists are expected to make contributions to theoretical and intellectual discussions, both within their discipline and beyond. ... Third, and most importantly ethnography has been the initiatory activity which has launched careers and established reputations" [stress added]. George E. Marcus and Michael M.J. Fischer, 1999, Anthropology As Cultural Critique: An Experimental Moment In The Human Sciences, 2nd Edition (University of Chicago Press), page 21.
"What we know is a drop. What we don't know is an ocean."Sir Isaac Newton [1642-1727] The Wall Street Journal,November 1, 1991.

"How often do the involuntary movements of our features revealwhat we are secretly thinking and betray us to those about us!"Michel Eyquem de Montaigne [1533-1592] Frenchphilosopher/essayist) in Essays, translated by J.M.Cohen, 1958, page 189.

"The farther backward you can look, the farther forward youare likely to see." Sir Winston Churchill [1874-1965], 1953Nobel Prize Winner in Literature.
"This great world, which some still reckon to be but one example of a whole genus, is the mirror into which we must look if we are to behold ourselves from the proper standpoint." Michel Eyquem de Montaigne [1533-1592] French philosopher/essayist), Essays, translated by J.M. Cohen, 1958, page 64.

"Scientific explanation consists not in moving from the complex to the simple but in the replacement of a less intelligible complexity by one which is more so." Claude Lévi-Strauss, 1962, The Savage Mind, 1968 edition, page 248.

"Facts are not pure unsullied bits of information; culture alsoinfluences what we see and how we see it. Theories, moreover, are notinexorable inductions from facts. The most creative theories areoften imaginative visions imposed upon facts; the source ofimagination is also cultural." Stephen Jay Gould, AmericanBiologist/Author.

"Facts are the air of science. Without them a man [or a woman!] of science can never rise. Without them your theories are vain surmises. But while you are studying, observing, experimenting, do not remain content with the surface of things. Do not become a mere recorder of facts, but try to penetrate the mystery of their origin. Seek obstinately for the laws that govern them." Ivan Pavlov, Russian Physiologist [1849-1936].

"The cutting edge of knowledge is not in the known but in theunknown, not in knowing but in questioning. Facts, concepts,generalizations, and theories are dull instruments unless they arehoned to a sharp edge by persistent inquiry about the unknown." RalphH. Thompson [1911-1987] American Educator.

"I say, therefore, that we think with or through ideas and what we call thinking is generally the application of preexisting ideas to a given situation or set of facts. ...When a thing is intelligible you have a sense of participation; when a thing is unintelligible you have a sense of estrangement." F. Schumacher, 1973, Small is Beautiful: Economics as if People Mattered, page 84.

"Interest is a sense of being involved in some process, actual orpotential. ...Interest is not the same as attention. Attention is asimple response to a stimulus--either to a loud bang or (much morepowerful) to a feeling of interest. Interest is selective, anexpenditure of energy by the interested party. ... Memory is aninternally edited record of interests (not of attention, much less of'events')." Henry Hay, 1972, The Amateur Magician's Handbook,pp. 2-3.

"In many crucial ways, the Earth is becoming as small as it appears to orbiting astronauts and cosmonauts. Global communications, universal trends, and common aspirations are making us more alike than we are different. Despite our rich cultural diversity, we gradually are becoming nearly one world. ... We share history. World War II tore us apart. ... We share technology. Communication satellites make it possible for millions to share the information and entertainment that's on television. Satellites have also revolutionized telephone and telefax communication. We sent reporters all over the world, but rarely were they out of reach of a telephone. We share high-speed transportation. Today, it takes less than twenty-four hours to travel between virtually any two points in the world." A. Neurath with Kelley & Walte, 1989, Nearly One World, pages 4-6.

"One of the greatest lessons that can be learned from the historyof science is one of humility. Science may indeed be steadilylearning more about the structure of the world, but surely what isknown is exceedingly small in relation to what is unknown. Thereis no scientific theory today, not even a law, that may not bemodified or discarded tomorrow [stress added]."Martin Gardner, 1990, The New Ambidextrous Universe: Symmetry andAsymmetry From Mirror Reflections to Superstrings, 3rd edition,page 335.

August Comte (1798-1857) and St. Simon (1760-1825) are the founders of sociology. In 1839, in Volume IV of Cours de Philosophie Positive (or System of Positive Polity), Comte coined the term sociologie to serve as an equivalent to "social physics" (which came from Comte and St. Simon). Comte's schema was: Mathematics, Astronomy, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Sociology. Anthropologie was the 7th science for Comte for in 1852 he wrote:

"Elle n'était point apprécable avant que ma fondation de la sociologie eut terminé la préparation encyclopédique qu'exigeait l'avénement systématique de la véritable anthropologie, à laquelle il faut conserver son nom sacré de morals. Cette condition finale étant désormais remplie, et m'ayant déjà conduit à construire subjectivement la saine théorie cérébrale, le septieme et dernier degré de la grand hiérarchie abstraite devient aussi caractérise que tous les autres."

A translation from 1875:

"The consequences could not be seen, until, by founding Sociology, I was able to add the last group to the Encyclopedic series of the sciences, When this was affected, it was possible to have a systematic basis for an Anthropology, or true science of Man, though this science ought ever to retain its sacred name of morals. Now that this last condition has been fulfilled, and now that it has already enabled me to construct on subjective methods a sound Cerebral Theory, the seventh and last gradation in the Grand Hierarchy of Abstract Science is a distinctively defined as any of the others [ALL STRESS ADDED]" (1874 translation of System of Positive Polity, Vol. II, pages 356-347).

Elsewhere Comte had written:

"Leaving Sociology, it only remains for me to describe the third term of the grand progressive series, which gives us the true encyclopedic inventory: I mean the study of Moral Laws, the necessary goal of all healthy speculation. The field of Morals [NOTE: ANTHROPOLOGY] is at once more special, more complex, and more noble than that of Sociology strictly so called, the exact rank of which has been determined....Morals is the most eminent of the sciences, both because of the superior dignity of its object, Man, from which we get our type of true nobleness, and because, as I am about to explain, of its theoretic plentitudes [ALL STRESS ADDED]."

From Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931): The individual "...whodoesn't make up his [or her!] mind to cultivate the habit ofthinking misses the greatest pleasures in life...My business isthinking."

"The highest stage in moral culture at which we can arrive, is when we recognise that we ought to control our thoughts...." Charles R. Darwin (1809-1882), The Descent of Man And Selection in Relation to Sex, 1871 [1981 Princeton University Press edition, with Introduction by John T. Bonner and Robert M. May], Chapter 3, page 101).

"Any teacher who can be replaced by a computer deserves to be![stress added!]" David Smith; as cited by MikeCooley, 1999, Human-Centered Design. In InformationDesign (1999), edited by Robert Jacobson (MIT Press), pages59-81, page 73.

"There is, nevertheless, a certain respect, and a general duty of humanity, that ties us, not only to beasts that have life and sense, but even to trees and plants." (Michel Eyquem de Montaigne [1533-1592] French philosopher/essayist) or in another translation: "...there is a certain consideration, and a general duty of humanity, that binds us not only to the animals, which have life and feeling, but even to the trees and plants." Essays, translated by J.M. Cohen, 1958, page 189)

"We were getting close to the answer and I was beginning to fly. Icould feel my brain cells doing a little tap dance of delight. I washalf-skipping, excitement bubbling out of me as we crossed thestreet. 'I love information. I love information. Isn't this great?God, it's fun...'" The character Kinsey Milhone, in Sue Grafton,1990, "G" Is For Gumshoe, page 277.

"Still, a book is less important for what it says than for what it makes you think." Louis L'Amour, 1989, Education of A Wandering Man, page 101.

Urbanowicz adds again: "I quote others only the better toexpress myself." (Michel Eyquem de Montaigne [1533-1592]French philosopher/essayist); or, in another translation: "Ionly quote others to make myself more explicit." (Essays,translated by J.M. Cohen, 1958, page 52).


Class participation counts for 15% of your final grade:this includes class attendance throughout thesemester, your classroom presentation, and thoughtfulcomments on other student presentations. The followinginformation should be of value to you when it comes to your termpaper presentation beginning WEEK 13 (November 17, 2008):

Some selections from "Preparing and presenting aspeech" by Shirley Shields (in The Great American BathroomBook I, 1992, edited by Steven W. Anderson). [The informationas it appeared in GABB I was actually an edited summary of theShields 1989 publication entitled Change Your Voice, ChangeYour Image (Chapter 7)].

"Consider these ten key steps when preparing a talk:

1. Choose your subject with care....
2. Analyze the audience....
3. Ascertain your purpose: Are you spewaking chiefly to persuade, entertain, or inform?
4. Gather materials....
5. Organize the material....The introduction...The body of your talk....The conclusions...
6. Select words carefully....
7. Use quotations correctly....
8. Employ (on a limited basis) personal references....
9. Make your speech your own....
10. Time your speech: Nothing kills a good speech [or classroom presentation!] than going overtime [stress added]."

CONSIDER, If you will, the following:

"With verbal reports, much of the data gets lost in translation. Most people aren't trained to listen. Given the complexity of our mental processes, the recipient tunes out, blocks, forgets, or misinterprets eighty percent of what's been said. Take any fifteen minutes' worth of conversation and try to reconstruct it later and you'll see what I mean. If the communication has any emotional content whatever, the quality of the information retained degrades even further [stress added]." Sue Grafton, 1998, N Is For Noose (NY: Henry Holt and Company), page 23.

Some selections from "How To Get Your Point Acrossin 30 Seconds--or Less" by Milo O. Frank (in The GreatAmerican Bathroom Book II, 1993, edited by Steven W.Anderson), pages 455-456.

"The three principles of effective communication: The first component of an effective 30-second message--the passive, pre-planned part of your communication--consists of the three principles necessary for effective communication: know your objective, know your listener, and know your approach. ... The three techniques of effective communication: The second part of your 30-second message is the actual message itself. The effectiveness of your message pivots on the three techniques of effective communication--the three K's of your message. Your 'hook' is designed to 'Katch' your listener; the 'subject' will 'Keep'em interested; and the 'closing' will 'Konvince'em' to work with you. Adding Impact: The finishing touches of a 30-second message include a number of measures you can take to add impact. ... Imagery - Make sure your listener sees as well as hears what you are saying....Clarity - Choose words and images appropriate to your listeners level of understanding. ... Personalizing - Use personal stores or examples to illustrate key points.... Emotional Appeal - The most effective messages are those that reach the listener's heart [stress added]."

To possibly be of assistance in this (and otherpresentations), the following chart has been created from varioussources; it is not "gospel" but merely a guide for what you presentand what you see and hear being presented:

NON-VERBAL (Eye contact, gestures, body language, etc.)
Consistent and appropriate.
VOICE (tone, volume, etc.)
Difficult to understand.
Fairly easy to understand.
Easy to understand.
Clear voice, enthusiastic, not too slow or fast.
ORGANIZATION (introduction, main points, transitions, and conclusions)
Missing introduction.
Missing Introduction and/or conclusions.
Missing main points.
Getting better.
Clear and easy to follow.
Little or no evidence of research.
Modest evidence of research.
Some evidence of research.
Considerable evidence.
Excellent coverage of concept or idea.
Messy or inappropriate.
Difficult to see or read.
Clear, easy to see/read.
Presentation aids added greatly to presentation.


For the purpose of this class (ANTH 496 / ANTH 496H), theminimal definition of "Writing Proficiency" encompasses all three ofthe levels described below. It is expected that anyone who receives agrade of "C-" or better in this class has achieved these levels ofwriting proficiency.

Level #1: Minimally, writing proficiency begins with theability to construct meaningful sentences that follow theconventional rules of grammar, punctuation, and spelling; exhibitappropriate choice of words; and utilize sentence structures thatclearly, efficiently, and precisely convey the writer's ideas andrelevant information to readers who observe the same conventions ofwriting.

Level #2: At the next level, writing proficiency entailsthe constructing and arranging of sentences into paragraphs that:

a. Develop arguments logically.
b. Present a body of information systematically.
c. Express an idea effectively.
d. Provide a coherent answer to a question.
e. Describe a given phenomenon effectively.
f. Summarize a larger body of information or abstract its essence accurately.
g. And/or otherwise achieve a specific objective efficiently and effectively.

Level #3: Writing proficiency at the third level requiresthe construction and arrangement of paragraphs in a such a mannerthat the reader is led successively through the intent or theobjective of the paper, the implementation of the objective, and theconclusion which summarizes and meaningfully relates the body of thepaper to its objective; please note this level also includesthe use of "section headings" to break up the flow of thepaper (beginning with INTRODUCTION and ending withCONCLUSIONS).

AND PLEASE SEE: (the American Anthropological Association "Style Guide") for Writing Assignment #2.

Note the following:

"Vigorous writing is concise. A sentence should contain no unnecessary words, a paragraph no unnecessary sentences, for the same reason that a drawing should have no unnecessary lines and a machine no unnecessary parts. This requires not that the writer make all his [or her!] sentences short, or that he [or she] avoid all detail and treat his [and her] subjects only in outline, but that every word tell."

"There you have a short, valuable essay on the nature and beautyof brevity--fifty-nine words [not counting those in thebrackets added by Urbanowicz] that could change theworld." E.B. White, commenting on the original words of WilliamStrunk Jr. in The Elements of Style, 4th edition, 2000, pagesxv-xvi.

 PLEASE NOTE: This is in no wayintended to be a "definitive" listing (or categorization) and someindividuals could (obviously) be placed in one or more "boxes" below!Also please note: Not everyone in the world would necessarily agreewith my definition of "assumption(s)" nor my placement of "someindividuals" below! NOTE: And please read and think about the wordsof John Godfrey Saxe (1816-1887) at the end of this brief section -below the final chart.

Acculturation: also called, by some, Cultural Dynamics.
Change(s) through time.

Melville J. Herskovits (1895-1963), H.G. Barnett (1906-1985); Nancy O. Lurie (1924->).

(American) Cultural Anthropology: also called, by some, Historical Empiricism.

Ethnographic "facts" are obtained through fieldwork.

Franz Boas (1858-1942); Alexander Chamberlain (1865-1914); Alfred Kroeber (1876-1960); Elsie Parsons (1874-1941); Robert H. Lowie (1883-1957) ; Paul Radin (1883-1959); Ella Cara Deloria (1888-1971); Esther Goldfrank (1896-); Erna Gunther (1896-1982); Robert Redfield (1897-1958); Ruth Bunzel (1898-1990); Julian Steward (1902-1972); Gene Weltfish (1902-1980); Zora Neale Hurston (1903-1960); Ruth Landes (1908->1991); Ernestine Friedl (1920->); Eric Wolf (1923-1998); William S. Willis Jr. [1921-1983] Morton Klass (1927-2000).

(British) Social Anthropology.


The "social" aspect (and "social organization") is crucial for an understanding of people.

Robert H. Codrington (1830-1922); Alfred C. Haddon (1855-1940); W.H.R.Rivers (1864-1922); Charles G. Seligman (1873-1940); A.R. Radcliffe-Brown (1881-1955); Beatrice M. Blackwood (1889-1975); Hortence Powdermaker (1896-1970); Camilla Wedgwood (1901-1955); Raymond Firth (1901-2002); Edward Evans-Pritchard (1902-1973); Sigfried Nadel (1903-1954); Isaac Schapera [1905-2003]; Monica Wilson (1908-1982); Edmund Leach (1910-1989); Max Gluckman (1911-1975); Ann K. Fischer (1919-1971); Victor Turner (1920-1983); Mary Douglas (1921->2007); F.G. Bailey (1924->).

Cross-Cultural Research.
Statistical analyses based on previous research.

Edward Burnett Tyor (1832-1917); George P. Murdock (1897-1985).

Diffusionism (Kulturkreise and Heliolithic).
Change as a result of diffusion (borrowing).

Friedrich Ratzel (1844-1904); Wilhelm Schmidt (1868-1954); Grafton Elliot Smith (1871-1937); Leo Frobenius (1873-1938); Fritz Graebner (1877-1934); Wilhelm Koppers (1886-1961); William J. Perry (1889-1949); V. G. Childe (1892-1957).

Evolutionary ideas (various).
Change(s) over time.

Charles R. Darwin (1809-1882); Johann Jacob Bachofen (1815-1887); Edward B. Tylor (1832-1917); Lewis H. Morgan (1818-1881); Herbert Spencer (1820-1903); Karl Marx (1818-1883); Henry Maine (1822-1888); Pierre Paul Broca (1824-1880]; Thomas H. Huxley (1825-1895); John McLennan (1827-1881); Augustus Pitt-Rivers (1827-1900); Paul Topinard (1830-1911); John Lubbock (1834-1914); Max Weber (1864-1920); Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881-1955); Leslie White (1900-1975); Robert Carneiro (1927->); Marshall Sahlins (1930->)

French Sociologie / Structuralism.
Culture (and Society) shaped by pre-programmed codes (of the human brain).

Émile Durkheim (1858-1917); Marcel Mauss (1872-1950); Arnold van Gennep (1873-1957); Claude Lévi-Strauss (1908->)

Discovering how parts of a culture function (not concerned with "origins" or "history").

Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942); Audrey I. Richards (1899-1984)

Modernism / Postmodernism.
Thinking about what we are thinking about (and more!)

Eleanor B. Leacock (1922-1987), Clifford Geertz (1926-); Renato Rosaldo (1941->); Sherry Ortner (1941->); George Marcus (1943->).

Neoevolutionism: also called, by some, Cultural Ecology.
Cultures develop in relation to their capacity for harnessing energy.

Julian Steward (1902-1972); Roy Rappaport (1926-1997); Marvin Harris (1927-2001]

Use of the Scientific Method and natural "laws" can be discovered.

Charles de Montesquieu (1689-1775); Marquis de Condorcet (1743-1794), August Comte (1798-1857); Gregory Bateson (1904-1980); Derek Freeman (1916-2001).

Pre [Non]-Boasian American Cultural Anthropology.
Somewhat Self-Explanatory.

Joseph François Lafitau (1670-1746) ; Henry Schoolcraft (1793-1864); John Wesley Powell (1834-1902); Erminnie Smith (1836-1886); Alice Fletcher (1838-1923); Frederick Putnam (1839-1915); Matilda Stevenson (1849-1915); Anténor Firmin (1850-1911); Franklin Cushing (1857-1900); Zelia Nuttall (1857-1933); Frederick Starr (1858-1933); Edward S. Curtis (1868-1952).


"Primitive" Mentality.

Somewhat Self-Explanatory.

Theodore Waitz (1821-1864); Adolph Bastian (1826-1905); Lucien Levy-Bruhl (1857-1939).

Psychological Anthropology: also called, by some, Culture & Personality.
Dealing with the relationship between culture and psychology.

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939); Edward Sapir (1884-1939); Ruth Benedict (1887-1948); Margaret Mead (1901-1978); Abram Kardiner (1891-1981); Ralph Linton (1893-1953); Cora DuBois (1903->); John Whiting [1908-1990] & Beatrice Whiting [1914-2003]; Horace Miner (1912-1993); Rhoda Metraux (1914->).

Research / writing based on previously published and unpublished information.

James George Frazer (1854-1941); Charles F. Urbanowicz (1942->)

According to Leslie A. White & Beth Dillingham, "Thewhole history of ethnological theory is embraced [below] bythis simple diagram" Leslie A. White (1900-1975) and Beth Dillingham,The Concept of Culture, 1973, page 38.


The Blind Men and the Elephant by John Godfrey Saxe(1816-1887), American poet.

It was six men of Indostan
To learning much inclined,
Who went to see the Elephant
(Though all of them were blind),
That each by observation
Might satisfy his mind

The First approached the Elephant,
And happening to fall
Against his broad and sturdy side,
At once began to bawl:
"God bless me! but the Elephant
Is very like a wall!"

The Second, feeling of the tusk,
Cried, "Ho! what have we here
So very round and smooth and sharp?
To me 'tis mighty clear
This wonder of an Elephant
Is very like a spear!"

The Third approached the animal,
And happening to take
The squirming trunk within his hands,
Thus boldly up and spake:
"I see," quoth he, "the Elephant
Is very like a snake!"

The Fourth reached out an eager hand,
And felt about the knee.
"What most this wondrous beast is like
Is mighty plain," quoth he;
" 'Tis clear enough the Elephant
Is very like a tree!"

The Fifth, who chanced to touch the ear,
Said: "E'en the blindest man
Can tell what this resembles most;
Deny the fact who can
This marvel of an Elephant
Is very like a fan!"

The Sixth no sooner had begun
About the beast to grope,
Than, seizing on the swinging tail
That fell within his scope,
"I see," quoth he, "the Elephant
Is very like a rope!"

And so these men of Indostan
Disputed loud and long,
Each in his own opinion
Exceeding stiff and strong,
Though each was partly in the right,
And all were in the wrong!


So oft in theologic wars,
The disputants, I ween,
Rail on in utter ignorance
Of what each other mean,
And prate about an Elephant
Not one of them has seen!


and see:]

NOTE: You might find someof the following sites of value (and some of these have beenalready referred to above):

In addition to the Department of Anthropology "Home Page" atCSU, Chico (,some Interesting (and specific CSU, Chico) web sites include thefollowing:[Department of Anthropology} Ethnographic Laboratory][Anthropological Archives at Chico State][Chico Campus Culture Project][Museum of Anthropology][Greg White} CSU, Chico: Steward of the Past And Future.Inside Chico State, May 15, 2003.][Museum of Anthropology Presents International Drumming Exhibit.Inside Chico State, December 7, 2000].[Museum displays make her days. The Orion. March 24,2000][Atari, records, bicycles on display in museum. TheOrion, January 28, 1998][Museum exhibit looks at America. The Orion,September 17, 1997][Photos feature fashion fads, faux-paus. The Orion,October 2 1996][Forensic Anthropology at CSU, Chico][Bones, death, stench: just another day in class. TheOrion, May 21, 2002.][Murad & Willey} Forensic Anthropology Cuts Straight to theBone. Inside Chico State, May 2, 2002].[P. Willey} America's Earliest Cave Explorers Were the Best inthe World. Inside Chico State, February 14, 2002][Bringing out the dead. The Orion, February 21,2001][P. Willey} Battle Bones Tell Dead Men's Tales. Inside ChicoState, September 30, 2000][P. Willey}Forensic Anthropology Lectures: Notes from the Dead.Inside Chico State, March 3, 2000][Inside the minds of crime scene experts. The Orion,February 23, 2000][Anthro grad students lure some of nation's best: Forensicexperts to visit campus next week for conference The Orion,February 16, 2000][Turhon Murad Surveys the Physical Evidence in the Polly KlaasCase. Inside Chico State, March 5, 1998][Murad} The leg bone's connected to... the ankle bone. TheOrion, Nov. 30, 1994][Zooarchaeology. Chico Statements, Fall 2001][Zooarchaeology. Inside Chico State, September 7,2000][Bones in Context: Zooarchaeology/Field Ecology Summer School atEagle Lake. Inside Chico State, September 7, 2000].[Greg White} On the "Rock Shelf." Chico Statements, Spring2000].[Chris O'Brien}These Teeth Aren't Flossed. ChicoStatements, Spring 1999][Zooarchaeology. Inside Chico State, February 12,1998][Zooarchaeology. Inside Chico State, November 6,1997][Chico State talks trash. The Orion. October 15,1997] Research at CSU, Chico: The Archaeometric Lab.Inside Chico State, October 23, 1997][Traveling across the country with Chico State Universityprofessor Frank Bayham can be a smelly experience. The Orion,November 15, 1995][Without Shovel or Trowel: Archaeologists Investigate BidwellMansion Underground Without Turning Soil. Inside Chico State,November 21, 2002]][archived at:][Urbanowicz} Motivating and Engaging Students in 'Jumbo' Classes(and smaller classes, too), Inside Chico State (December 4,2003 Volume 34, Number 6), page 2[Urbanowicz}Darwin's insight evolves to CD-ROM. The Orion,February 4, 1998][Urbanowicz} The Enthusiasm of Teaching. Inside ChicoState, October 23, 1997][Urbanowicz} Camping Is Great but Nothing Beats Home: Across theUSA in Pursuit of Educational Technology. Inside Chico State,September 25, 1997].[Loker} Anthropologist Bill Loker: Eye Witness to HurricaneMitch. Inside Chico State, February 4, 1999][Reinschmidt} Beyond Words: Local voices resonate with a nationalcrisis. Inside Chico State, January 31, 2002.][Farrer] Students Invent Modern Rituals in ExperimentalHonors Class. Inside Chico State, November 6, 2001][Farrer} Anthropologist Receives Distinguished VisitingProfessorship. Inside Chico State, November 6, 2001].[Farrer} Master Teachers Selected for 1999-2001. Inside ChicoState, April 15, 1999.][Heinz} Open Book. Chico Statements, Fall 1999].[Heinz}Computer crash? Take a class. The Orion. February3, 1999][Heinz} Asian Cultural Traditions. Chico Statements, Fall1999].[Heinz} A Hindu Cremation in Nepal. Inside Chico State, February11, 1999][Lehmann} 'Witchcraft' instructor dies. The Orion,September 22, 1999][Lehmann} Anthropologist tells of African experience, career aseducator. The Orion, November 29, 1995]
ttp://[Anthropology's Valene Smith Retires: "Learn by Doing; Teach byBeing." Inside Chico State, May 14, 1998]

SOME ADDITIONAL WEB SITES INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING:[Anthropology jobs][A Massive Anthropology site!][Check out CSU Chico][Anthropology Resources beginning with CSU, Chico][Anthropology in The News][Department of Anthropology, Smithsonian Institution][The Silicon Valley Cultures Project][Anthropology Theory from Indiana University][CHECK Out Anthropology Biographies from Minnesota StateUniversity, Mankato and their Emuseum][Biographies of Archaeologists][A Timeline for Anthropologists by Peter W. Wood][History of Anthropology][Online Dictionary of Anthropology][Anthropological Theories: A Guide prepared for Students byStudents]][Founding the AAA 100 years ago} by Curtis Hinsley][Anthropological and Other Ancestors} Quick-Time Video on theWWW][ChicoRio - Research Instruction On-Line][Jane Goodall][About Sarah Blaffer Hrdry][Dian Fossey}1932-1985][Mary Leakey: 1913-1996][Mary Leakey} 1913-1996][Louis S.B. Leakey} 1903-1972],3266,21822,00.html[Donald Johanson on the Leakey Family!][Society for California Archaeology][Bullfinch's Mythology][Piltdown Man site][BBC} Fifty Years After Piltdown Hoax - November 21,2003][Darwin Day Home Page][Charles Darwin Foundation, Inc.][The Friends of Charles Darwin Home Page][The Ilkley Pages: Darwin Gardens][Official Darwin Awards} "...showing us just how uncommon commonsense can be." Wendy Northcutt, 2000, The Darwin Awards: Evolutionin Action (Dutton)[Books on Line][Darwin/Evolution+ "Jumping Off" point!][On Darwin][Design vs. Darwin} April 1, 2002][Darwin} From WGBH/PBS "Evolution" Show][Evolution: Online Course for Teachers][Interactive Case study on Galápagos Finches][BBC Education: Evolution Homepage][Darwin Day Program][C. Darwin} Origin of Species][Interesting Darwin "lecture hall"][Richard Owen} 1804-1892][The Scopes "Monkey Trial," or "A 1925 Media Circus"][Inherit/1925][Alfred Russell Wallace 1855 paper][Alfred Russell Wallace 1858 paper][Thomas Henry Huxley: 1824-1895][Thomas Henry Huxley: 1824-1895][The Huxley File][Creationism & Darwnism, Politics & Economics} TaoistDarwinism][Sir Francis Galton} 1822-1911][Louis Agasiz} 1807-1873][David Douglas} 1799-1835][David Douglas][Francis Galton Links][Sir Charles Lyell} 1795-1875][William Robertson Smith} 1846-1893] [TheNatural History Museum] London][The National Center for Science Education][Official Darwin Awards} "...showing us just how uncommon commonsense can be." Wendy Northcutt, 2000, The Darwin Awards: Evolutionin Action (Dutton).[Edward Burnett Tylor][Alfred Cort Haddon: 1855-1940][W.H.Rivers Rivers][Robert H. Lowie} 1883-1957][Zora Neale Hurston: 1891-1960][Zora Neal Hurston: 1891-1960][Anthropology"button"][Max Gluckman][Culture][Alice Fletcher: 1838-1923][Anthropology Field Study][Herbert C. Taylor, Jr.: 1924-1991][Makes reference to H.G. Barnett: 1906-1985][Makes reference to Ralph L. Beals: 1901-1985][Margaret Mead's Legacy: Continuing Controversies][Margaret Mead Web Site][Margaret Mead][Margaret Mead Exhibit at the Library of Congress][Margaret Mead Site][Margaret Mead Web Site][Margaret Mead's Legacy: Continuing Controversies][Margaret Mead][Margaret Mead Exhibit at the Library of Congress][Margaret Mead Site][Ruth Benedict][Franz Boas: 1858-1942][Jay Ruby on Franz Boas][on Franz Boas][Franz Boas][Mead/Boas Correspondence} 1925/1926][F. Boas & Others! From A->Z][Derek Freeman][Derek Freeman (1916-2001)][Gregory Bateson (1904-1980)][Gregory Bateson as UC Regent],,60-219476,00.html[Sir Raymond W. Firth (1901-2002) Obituary in London TimesOnline][Marvin Harris} 1927-2001][George Peter Murdock} 1897-1985][George Peter Murdock} 1897-1985][Melville Herskovits][Melville Herskovits][Ralph Linton][Bronislaw Malinowski][Bronislaw Malinowski][September 2000 Stattement by Chagnon on Darkness][November 13, 2000 statement on Darkness][On Napoleon Chagnon} 1999 article][Darkness in Eldorado overview} The Center forEvolutionary Psychology][Piltdown Hoax][Ian Hodder's Çatalhöyük site][Archaeology: An Introduction by Kevin Greene][Sir Arthur Evans (1851-1941)][Barry Cunliffe} European Archaeology][Augustus Lane Fox Pitt-River][V.G. Childe} 1892-1957][The Archaeology Archive} University of Texas][20,000 year old cave paintings][Gordon Willey} 1913->][Linda Schele][Linda Schele][W.W.Taylor} 1913-1997][Pierre Paul Broca} 1824-1880][Adam Ferguson} 1723-1815][E.A. Hoebel, 1960} William Robertson: An 18th CenturyAnthropologist-Historian][Durkheim Home Page][Claude Lévi-Strauss][Claude Lévi-Strauss][Claude Lévi-Strauss][Selection of Works of Claude Lévi-Strauss][Claude Lévi-Strauss][Claude Lévi-Strauss][Claude Lévi-Strauss][Claude Lévi-Strauss][Claude Lévi-Strauss][Claude Lévi-Strauss and other individuals beginning with"L"][Lévi-Strauss][Clifford Geertz} 1923->][HyperGeertz World Catalogue][Clifford Geertz][Paul Smith} Writing, General Knowledge, and PostmodernAnthropology][Forensic Science][Located in the Department of Anthropology at CSU, Chico][Clyde Snow} 1928->][William R. Maples} 1937-1997][Electronic HRAF! - begin from CSU, Chico][The ANTHAP - Applied Anthropology ComputerNetwork][E-Lab} Ethnographics Laboratory, University of SouthernCalifornia][Anthropology Resources on the Internet][Anthro Internet Resources} Western Conn. State Uni.][A. Cohen-Williams' List Anthro/Arch WWW Sites][UC Santa Barbara Anthropology: Nice "jumping off"location][Interactive Multimedia by Marcus Banks][Feminist Anthropology Theory Matrix][Digital Ethnography Project from CSU, Sacramento][Culture and Computational Anthropology][Anthropology Careers][Writing Tools for Anthropology Students][Office of Experiential Education} Internships+]

PLEASE SEE The Meriam Library and which states the following: "The eHRAFCollection of Ethnography, available on the web, is a smallbut growing collection of HRAF full text and graphicalmaterials supplemented, in some cases, with additional researchthrough approximately the 1980's. The eHRAF Collection of Ethnographyincludes approximately 48 cultures, and regular additions areplanned." (And See

ALSO SEE "Anthropology On The Internet: A Review And Evaluation Of Networked Resources" by Brian Schwimmer, 1996, Current Anthropology, Vol. 37, No. 3, pages 561-568; also see a hypertext version of this paper, with linkable URLs at:[Interview With Sydel Silverman in CurrentAnthropology

BRIEF DISCLAIMER ESSAY for thosewho make the time to read about the FALL 2008Web-assisted courses taught by Dr. Charles F. Urbanowicz,Professor Emeritus of Anthropology, California StateUniversity, Chico.

NOTE TO STUDENTS: This is actually a very brief"essay" about web-based instruction and web pages (which you arereading either "electronically" or in the requiredGuidebook form). The World Wide Web is an "electroniccreation" of human beings, is constantly modified by human beings,and as human beings change, the WWW continues to "evolve" over time.Education will radically change by the time I fully retire andeventually die and (a) while I try to "keep up" with as muchas possible for my students (and myself) I realize that(b) I am behind as soon as I begin! With that in mind, thereader (or viewer) of these pages (either "electronically" or inprint") is reminded that this course is not a web-based coursebut is a "traditional" course, taught on the campus of CaliforniaState university, Chico, to "traditional" (or perhaps a"semi-traditional" group of) students who are sitting in aclassroom in for ~sixteen weeks. These web pages contain noframes, no Javascripts, no interactive exams, nostreaming video, no Power Point Presentations, and noother "bells-and-whistles" which are current on the WWW but theydo contain numerous "live" links which are appropriatefor various weeks of the semester-long course. These WWW pages arenot meant to be "downloaded" and printed outat home or in a computer laboratory but (a) they are meant tobe read in the required printed form and (b)checked for the updates that will be added throughout theentire semester: it is in the updating this Guidebook that theWWW is "alive" (as well as this course and, indeed, alleducation) and evolving through time. Please note that thepages in this Guidebook do contain numerous links appropriatefor various weeks of the semester-long course (and some links willeventually guide you to sample exams, streaming videos, and PowerPoint presentations!).

THE READER MAY WELL ASK: Why make these "printed pages"(gasp!) available on the WWW? Why did Urbanowicz gothrough all-of-the-trouble to place this on the WWW if it is not aninteractive course? As The Wall Street Journal on July 20,1998 pointed out: "It Isn't Entertainment That Makes The Web Shine:It's Dull Data" (Page 1 and page A8). Although I trust thatyou have not purchased a bound volume of "dull data" but avolume of ideas (with data) I also add that for morethan a decade I have been providing my students (in varouslower-and-upper-division courses) with Guidebooks that have"video notes" and "lecture outlines" for the appropriate course thatsemester. Human beings are "visual creatures" and I useNUMEROUS films, slides, and Power Points (most of which arenot included on these web pages) in my classes and since I amcomfortable with the Guidebook format, I continue to place theGuidebook on "the web" (with numerous links) forstudents. I encourage all readers of these pages to "weigh"all of the information very carefully: contrastand compare what you know with what is beingpresented and please consider the following from The WallStreet Journal, June 25, 1999, page 1 & A11):

"Who invented the telephone? Microsoft Corp's Encarta multimedia encyclopedia on CD-ROM has an answer to that simple question. Rather, two answers. Consult the U.S., U.K., or German editions of Encarta and you find the expected one: Alexander Graham Bell. But look at the Italian version and the story is strikingly different. Credit goes to Antonio Meucci, an impoverished Italian-American candlemaker who, as the Italian-language Encarta tells it, beat Bell to the punch by five years. Who's right? Depends on where you live. ... in the age of the Internet, the issue of adapting products to local markets is raising trickier problems. Technology and globalization are colliding head-on with another powerful force: history. Perhaps nowhere is this conflict more apparent than in information as with Microsoft's Encarta, which has nine different editions, including one in British English and one in American. It's Microsoft's peculiar accomplishment that it has so mastered the adaptation of its products to different markets that they reflect different, sometimes contradictory, understandings of the same historical events. 'You basically have to rewrite all of the content,' says Dominique Lempereur, who, from her Paris office, oversees the expansion of Microsoft's education-related products to foreign markets. 'The translation is almost an accessory.' ... Consistency is clearly not Encarta's goal, and that's something of a controversial strategy. Encyclopedia Britannica, for example, has a policy of investigating contradictions across its editions and deciding on a standard presentation. Where it can establish a fact that is internationally solid, 'we go with that, and present other interpretations as need be,' says Dale Holberg, Britannica's editor in Chicago. His staff has looked into the Meucci question. Their verdict: Bell still gets the credit, world-wide, for inventing and patenting the electric telephone. ... Microsoft, as a technology conglomerate, has an interest in not stirring up controversies that endanger the sale of its other products. But the universaility of the Web also frustrates efforts to localize content. And there remains the possibility that it will bring about pressure for one universally aplicable version of history. Perhaps one day Mr. Meucci will share space with Alexander Graham Bell in all of the Encartas [stress added]." Kevin J. Delaney, 1999, Microsoft's Encarta Has Different Facts For Different Folks. The Wall Street Journal, June 25, 1999, page 1 & A11. 

ALTHOUGH THE ELECTRONIC WORLD is changing very rapidly, andone might question the value of the "printed word" (considering thenumber of "electronic books" currently on "the web" such as theBible or Darwin and1000s of other available from sources such as theINCREDIBLE Bookson Line and ProjectGutenberg), there will always (I honestly believe as ofthis writing), a place for the "printed page" that you can hold inyour hands, that YOU can read in bed, read outside when theelectricity goes off, or read when you can't make an Internetconnection to read the Web pages located in cyberspace! In short,while the ephemeral culture of the WWW is extremely important, thetangible culture of a physical object is just as important and Ifollow some of the thoughts in the Library of Congress: Literascripta manet, or the written (or physically published) wordendures! Incidentally, as with EVERYTHING, double-check thewritten (printed) word as well.

PLEASE: the reader of this Guidebook is stronglyencouraged to process, question, read,search, and think about various issues and ideasthroughout the semester and perhaps come to anunderstanding of how you relate to anthropology and howanthropology relates to you! As Clark Kerr stated: "The universityis not engaged in making ideas safe for students. It isengaged in making students safe for ideas [stressadded]." The University and the Internet and the World Wide Weband Cyberspace are changing the very environment "we" all interact inand the "web" should point to new sources to provide you with newthoughts. This is how I have personally envisioned this web-relatedweb-related Guidebook ( ~69,327 words): NOTE,this does not count the words in the 12 essays in theprinted Guidebook); it is a GUIDE to other resources toexplore on your own to prepare for your individual futures.Please consider your own age, where you wish to go in thefuture, and please ponder the following:

"It's a cliche of the digital age: Parents wonder how children so helpless in the real world can navigate the virtual world with such skill. Using computers is second nature to most kids--and with good reason, according to many neurologists. Being exposed to the wired world at early ages is effectively wiring children's brains differently, giving them an ease and comfort with computers that adults may never match. Will the new millennium see the generation gap turn into the digital divide? ... The cognitive gap is likely to continue well into the future, even as today's cyberkids become tomorrow's parents. While kids are growing up with brains well suited to the digital world of today, as adults they are likely to face the difficult task of adapting to a future where technology evolves even more rapidly--and more profoundly--than it does today [stress added]." Yocki J. Dreazen & Rachel Emma Silverman, 2000, Raised In Cyberspace. January 1, 2000, The Wall Street Journal, page R47.

FINALLY, please think about these words and why I may havechosen them:

"Knowledge, we have to realize, is not fixed in stone. It is ephemeral and exists only so long as we pump it with meaning. It is merely part of the mad, vaporous wheel of existence, an ongoing cycle of discovering and forgetting, of lurching forward and then stumbling back and standing up again and taking everything we think we know and packing it into a little puffy snowball and hurling it at the head of the Future in the hopes that the Future will turn around and unbutton its liquid trench coat and show us something surprising. Or maybe just laugh and return fire. It's pretty much all we can do. How many thousands of species are as yet undiscovered in the world's oceans? How many tens of thousands of undiscovered plants and animals exist in the rain forest? What about the capacity of the human mind, the mystery of the dream state or the immensity of space, the knowledge that the tiny portion of our galaxy we've been able to see and measure, our entire solar system is merely the equivalent of a grain of sand on the edge of a beach stretching for roughly 1 billion miles. Are you exercising the muscle of wonder? Is this synapse firing in your head every damn day? Are you aware of how much you are not aware of and are you completely humbled and amused and made drunk and giddy and turned on by this fact? Because let me tell you, it is easy to forget [stress added]." Mark Morford, 2006, Awakening pinch from a mysterious new crustacean. The San Francisco Chronicle, March 17, 2006, pages E6+E8, page E8.

"If by some fiat I had to restrict all this writing to onesentence, this is the one I would choose: The summit of Mt. Everestis marine limestone." John McPhee, 1998, Annals of the FormerWorld (NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux), page 124.

"Every individual matters. Every individual has a role to play. Every individual makes a difference."
Jane Goodall, 1999, 40 Years At Gombe, page 103.


The pages that follow in the printed version of the Fall2008 Anthropology 496 Guidebook and Selected Anthropology Essays byUrbanowiczcame from various web pages created over the years. (Onthe web, the essays may be accessed by clicking below.) The essaystell students something about their instructor, and,hopefully, place some of my ideas and actions intocontext and perspective. I have been a member of the faculty at CSU,Chico, since August 1973. I received my Ph.D. in Anthropologyin 1972 from the University of Oregon, based on 1970 and1971 fieldwork in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga. In1972-1973, prior to joining the faculty at CSU, Chico, I taught at the University of Minnesota. As Marshall Sahlins wrote inhis collection of essays in 2001:

"Written over the course of thirty years, the texts collected here represent a temporal succession of interests and topics, if not exactly a chronological sequence of publication." Marshall Sahlins, 2001, Introduction. Culture in Practise: Selected Essays (NY: Zone Books), page 9.

The brief WWW essays below do not cover as lengthy a periodof time as John W. Bennet did in his 1998 work entitledClassic Anthropology Critical Essays: 1944 - 1996 (NewBrunswick & London: Transaction Publishers), but I adhere to hisfollowing statement: "I have avoided major rewriting and revisingof the older pieces, because I want the reader to view them as moreor less" as they appeared at the time (page xv).

For those who make the time to consult my complete résuméon the web, some interesting things have happened to me sincegraduating from high school in 1960 and I found the followingwords from a 2001 publication intriguing:

"Jersey City was a tough place to grow up, except I didn't know any better. I had nothing to compare it to. All I knew was that I was well fed and comfortable in our apartment. The air was filled with industrial smells that meant home [page 10]. ... I made a break for it after high school, escaping to New York University, commuting every day on the PATH train. Greenwich Village was only a few miles away, but it may as well have been in another solar system [stress added]." Helene Stapinski, 2001, Five-Finger Discount: A Crooked Family History (NY: Random House), page 171.

Perhaps being born in Jersey City, New Jersey, in1942, graduating from high school in 1960, commuting toNew York City and New York University for 1960-61, flunkingout of NYU in 1961, enlisting in the United States Air Force(1961-1965) and getting married in 1963 and why I became an anthropologist! A lot of everythinggoes into who, what, and why each of us is whatwe are today and how we do what we do and when andwhere we do it! Incidentally, I retired after 32 yearsat CSU, Chico on May 31, 2005 and am participating in theFERP (Faculty Early RetirementProgram) and am currently a Professor Emeritus ofAnthropology, teaching the fall semester. I also like the words ofthe columnist/humorist Art Buchwald (1925-2007) who wrote thefollowing in his 2006 book (shortly before he died):

"The thing that is very important, and why I'm writing this book, is that whether they like it or not, everyone is going to go. The big question we still have to ask is not where we're going, but what we were doing here in the first place." Art Buchwald, 2006, Too Soon To Say Goodbye (NY: Random House), page 30.
and again

"Old age has a way of forcing a person back upon themselves. The pace of life slows an brings with it a natural inclination to reflect upon the past." Linda Lear, 2007, Beatrix Potter: A Life In Nature (NY: St. Martin's Press), page 427.

# # #  


THE FOLLOWING TWELVE ESSAYS (printed in the boundGuidebook available in the Associated Students Bookstore atCSU, Chico) ARE FOR ANTHROPOLOGY 496 / ANTHROPOLOGY 496H FOR FALL2008:

#1} 1997, THE ENTHUSIASM OF TEACHING. [Printedfrom

#2} 1992, FOUR-FIELD COMMENTARY [Printed from]

#3} 2002 A "STORY" (VISION OR NIGHTMARE?) OF THE REGION IN2027. [Printed from]. 


#5} 1993, CHARLES R. DARWIN: HAPPY 116TH ANNIVERSARY[Printed from 

#6} 2001, REVIEW of: VictorianSensation: The Extraordinary Publication, Reception, and SecretAuthorship of Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation[Printed from]

#7} 2002, REVIEW of: The Tangled Wing: BiologicalConstraints on the Human Spirit (Second Edition, 2002) byMelvin Konner [Printed from].

#8} 1970, MOTHER NATURE, FATHER CULTURE...[Printed from]

#9} 1998, COMMENTS ON TASMANIAN PUBLICATIONS OF 1884 AND1973/74 [Printed from

#10} 1968, COMMENTS ON BRONISLAW MALINOWSKI(1884-1942) [Printed from]




PLEASE NOTE: The following eighteen essays appeared in earlierprinted versions of this Guidebook (but were eliminated overtime as a result of student input); perhaps, however, youmight be interested in some of them (by going to the webaddresses):

A.} 1970, DISCUSSION WORDS FROM 1970 / 1969 [Printedfrom]



D.} 1976, JOHN THOMAS, TONGANS, AND TONGA![Printed from]








L.} 2000, BOOK REVIEW OF: Unto Others:The Evolution And Psychology of Unselfish Behavior[Printed from]

M.} 2000, ANTHROPOLOGY ACCORDING TO The War OfDreams: Studies in Ethno Fiction by Marc Augé[Printed from]

N.} 2001, TEACHING AS THEATRE.... [Printed from]

O.} 2001, REVIEW Essay of Annie's Box: Charles Darwin, HisDaughter, and Human Evolution, by Randal Keynes (2001).[Printed from'sBox.html]

P.} 2001, REVIEW of Biology, Evolution,and Human Nature [Printed from]


R.} 2003, THE ANTHROPOLOGY FORUM: 1973->2003![Printed from]

# # #

Throughout the entire fall 2008 semester, I shall be "updating"these web pages; when you go to the URL for this class,at the top of the "web page" you will see:

FOR UPDATED INFORMATION ADDED Month & Day, 2008please click here.

and this will take you to the bottom of the pages.

On Monday December 8, 2008, the finalitems were added to these pages:

"Try to learn something about everything and everythingabout something."
Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895)

Please remember that your finished TERM PAPER (25%) isDUE on Monday, December 15, 2008 by 1pm.  

My office hours for finals week will be: Monday 12/15/2008from 8->10am & Tuesday 12/16/2008 from8->11am.

And for your cross-culturalinformation:[Interfaith Calendar] "Sacred times are windows intoreligions"[Aish HaTorah - Chanukah Site ][The Official Kwanzaa Web Site]


The Universality of the Golden Rule in World Religions:


Christianity: All things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye so to them; for this is the law and the prophets.   Matthew 7:1.

Confusianism: Do not do to others what you would not like yourself. Then there will be no resentment against you, either in the family or in the state. Analects 12:2.

Buddhism: Hurt not others in ways that you yourself would find hurtful. Udana-Varga 5,1

Hinduism: This is the sum of duty; do naught onto others what you would not have them do unto you. Mahabharata 5,1517.

Islam: No one of you is a believer until he desires for his brother that which he desires for himself. Sunnah.

Judaism: What is hateful to you, do not do to your fellowman. This is the entire Law; all the rest is commentary. Talmud, Shabbat 3id.

Taosim: Regard your neighbor's gain as your gain, and your neighbor's loss as your own loss. Tai Shang Kan Yin Píien.

Zoroastrianism: That nature alone is good which refrains from doing another whatsoever is not good for itself. Dadisten-I-dinik, 94,5.

And see:


"Nothing is so easy as to deceive one's self; for what we wish, we readily believe." (Demosthenes, Athenian orator and statesman [384B.C.-322B.C.])

"The most important word in the English language is attitude.Love and hate, work and play, hope and fear, our attitudinal responseto all these situations, impresses me as being the guide." HarlenAdams (1904-1997)

# # #

On Monday November 3, 2008, the following items were added tothese pages:

Your "sample" self-paced exam is now available at: assist you as a Review for EXAM II on Wednesday, November 12,2008.

Please Note: Although there will be no "areal" (or map) component to your exam, you might have fun looking at to see how you do. You also might be interested in this page (for some future activities):

Some of you might be aware that Louis "Studs" Terkelrecently died (1912-2008) and for his epitaph he wanted thefollowing: "Curiosity did not kill this cat." The article inThe San Francisco Chronicle (1 November 2008) also quotedCharles Kuralt (1934-1997) as follows: "When Studs Terkel listens,everybody talks." Charles Kuralt is also noted for the followingchoice statements:

"It's that enthusiasm, that passion for what you aredoing, that is most important."


"Thanks to the Inerstate Highway System, it is now possible totravel from coast to coast without seeing anything."

If you have the time, you might also be interestedin previous "History of Theory" self-test exams for EXAM II fromprevious years:

2007 [CSU, Chico ANTH 496, Self-Test #2 for Exam II, November 14).

2006 [CSU, Chico ANTH 496, Self-Test #2 for Exam II, November 8).

2005 [CSU, Chico ANTH 496, Self-Test #2 for Exam II, November 9).

2004 [CSU, Chico ANTH 296, Self-Test #2 for Exam II, November 10).

2004 (CSU, Chico ANTH 296, Self-Test #2 for Exam II, April 27).

2003 [CSU, Chico ANTH 296, Self-Test #2 for Exam I, November 17).

2003 [CSU, Chico ANTH 296, Self-Test #2 for Exam II, April 28).

2002 [CSU, Chico ANTH 296, Self-Test #2 for Exam II, November 13).

2002 (CSU, Chico ANTH 296, Self-Test #2 for Exam II).

2001 (CSU, Chico ANTH 296, Self-Test #2 for Exam II).

On October 31, 2008, the following items were added to thesepages:

FIRST-OF-ALL, HERE IS SOME SCHOLARSHIP INFORMATION we have beenasked to make you aware of:

The 2009-2010 CSU, Chico scholarship application is now available. This single online application allows students to apply for any of the over 700 university scholarships for which they may be eligible. Paper applications are not available. Scholarship criteria may include scholastic achievement, financial need, campus or community service, and educational objectives, as well as other measures. Please encourage students to apply before the end-of-semester rush. The scholarship Web site also includes a guide for writing letters of recommendation. The application deadline is December 15, 2008 for all materials, including references. Additional information regarding scholarships is available at the above Web site.

SECONDLY, The Chico State Career Center will host its fall AllMajors Career and Internship Fair, Wednesday, Nov. 5, from 10 a.m. to2 p.m. in the BMU Auditorium.

Attendees such as Auberge Resorts, Federated Mutual Insurance, Lam Research, Systron Donner Automotive and Enloe Medical Center will have contact with a variety of students from across campus seeking internships and full-time positions. "Career Fairs at Chico State continue to be strong, even in light of the current challenging economic times," said Career Center Director Jamie Starmer. "Students continue to make significant professional contacts at our career fairs, which directly lead to professional jobs and internships." Starmer said he expects approximately 60 employers and 1,000 students to attend the fair. See:

SOME of you might be interested in the following words:

"For nearly 3 million years of human history, saving and investment was a dumb dea. We hunted, we gathered, we consumed, and we moved on to greener pasture. Only when migrating tribes learned to settle down and farm did they need to save and plan, storing seeds and surpluses to tide them over from season to season. We've had 10,000 years to absorb the truth that cultures that don't value thrift ultimately flame out and die. Apparently that isn't long enough to learn the lesson [stress added]." Nancy Gibbs, 2008, Essay. Time, October 13, 2008, page 96.
Interesting, no?

AND FOR RECENT news on Jane Goodall, please see The SanFrancisco Chronicle of October 30, 2008: "Goodall, Nishida winLeakey Prize" (also at

FINALLY, TERM PAPER presentations will begin onMonday November 17, 2008; not everyone can go first and noteveryone can go last so the "early" papers are more of"works-in-progress."

MONDAY} 17 November 2008 [4]

Ashley Kendall - The History of Forensic Anthropology.
Angela Remillard - Forensic Anthropology.
Christiana Alonso - Dr. Bass: The Birth and Life of the BodyFarm.
Allison Ehresman - Medical Anthropology.

WEDNESDAY} 19 November 2008 [4]

Amy Crossland - The History of Archaeological Thought.
Emily Filce - Biblical Archaeology
Brian Denham - Views on Hunter-Gatherer Societies in Anthropology and Archaeology
Puja Pandit
- Gregor Mendel and his Relatonship to Pea Plants.

November 24 -> 28, 2008} THANKSGIVING VACATIONWEEK!

MONDAY} 1 December 2008 [4]

Deborah Clark - Lewis Henry Morgan
Alyssa Ervin - Sylvanus Griswold Morley (1883-1948)
Brian Overmeyer - Leonard Wooley (1880-1960)
Andrew Low - Roy Chapman Andrews

WEDNESDAY} 3 December 2008 [4]

Claire Aldenhuysen - James G. Frazier
Katherine Carrion - Robert Hertz: Perceptions of Death and Rituals Through Time.
Brandon Bickley - Bronislaw Malinowski
Rachael Ambrose - Bronislaw Malinowski: Changes in Research Methods From Previous Researchers.

MONDAY} 8 December 2008 [4]

Shaundel Sanchez - Zora Neale Hurston: Boas' Influence andNegative Criticism.
Oceana Lucini - Eugenics
Nick Lor
- Museums
Katie Cohan - NAGPRA: Historical Background & theInfluence of Ethical Concerns on Anthropological Thought.

WEDNESDAY} 10 December 2008 [4]

Jennifer Hatfield - Alfred Louis Kroeber.
Stacey McBroome - Psychological Anthropology: Reductionism and Psychic Commonality.
Kathryn Walker - Margaret Mead: Evolution of an American Icon.
Juliet Barton - Clifford Geertz

NOTE: IF FOR SOME REASON (after discussion with me) youmust change your topic, you will still make your presentation on thedate assigned above.

ALSO, PLEASE REMEMBER that your finished term paper is due onMonday December 15, 2008 (by 3pm).

REMEMBER, time will be limited when you make yourindividual presentations (just as in a professional meeting) soplease keep in mind the information from pages 92 & 93 ofyour 2008 Guidebook, including the following:

NON-VERBAL (Eye contact, gestures, body language, etc.)
Consistent and appropriate.
VOICE (tone, volume, etc.)
Difficult to understand.
Fairly easy to understand.
Easy to understand.
Clear voice, enthusiastic, not too slow or fast.
ORGANIZATION (introduction, main points, transitions, and conclusions)
Missing introduction.
Missing Introduction and/or conclusions.
Missing main points.
Getting better.
Clear and easy to follow.
Little or no evidence of research.
Modest evidence of research.
Some evidence of research.
Considerable evidence.
Excellent coverage of concept or idea.
Messy or inappropriate.
Difficult to see or read.
Clear, easy to see/read.
Presentation aids added greatly to presentation.

It would also be worth your while to check out some of theother information around those pages!

On October 22, 2008, the following items were added to thesepages:

FIRST-OF-ALL, should you wish to review and/or re-watch the51 minute video, Margaret Mead And Samoa, please go to: are also other Margaret Mead videos available on check out Bronislaw Malinowski videos).

Next week, per the syllabus, on Monday October 27and Wednesday October 29, we are scheduled for our nexthalf-class meeting. This time we are "clustered" by topics ofinterest and we will be discussing term paper research to date (andanything else appropriate to the class, including readings to date):if you don't have it with you at all times (!) please bring yourANTH 496 / ANTH 496H Guidebook to class on your assigneddate next week.

PLEASE NOTE: The names and topics below should not beconstrued as term-paper-presentation order! It is simply a groupingfor discussion next week.

ALSO: On Monday the 27th, we should "really" have a discussionabout the numerous "Malinowski" proposals: some individuals may wishto change their topic (so please consider that for the discussion onMonday, October 27).


Deborah Clark - Lewis Henry Morgan
Alyssa Ervin - Sylvanus Griswold Morley (1883-1948)
Andrew Low - Roy Chapman Andrews
Brian Overmeyer - Leonard Wooley (1880-1960)
Shaundel Sanchez - Zora Neale Hurston: Boas' Influence, andNegative Criticism.

Claire Aldenhuysen - James G. Frazier
Rachael Ambrose - Bronislaw Malinowski: Changes in ResearchMethods From Previous Researchers.
Brandon Bickley - Bronislaw Malinowski
Amy Crossland - Bronislaw Malinowski
Allison Ehresman - Bronislaw Malinowski: Analysis and ChangesIver the Course of His Career..
Jennifer Hatfield -Bronislaw Malinowski
Angela Remillard - Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942):Approaches to Fieldwork.


Christiana Alonso - Dr. Bass: The Birth and Life of theBody Farm.
Juliet Barton - Clifford Geertz
Katherine Carrion - Perceptions of Death and Rituals ThroughTime.
Katie Cohan - NAGPRA: Historical Background & theInfluence of Ethical Concerns on Anthropological Thought.
Brian Denham - Views on Hunter-Gatherer Societies inAnthropology and Archaeology
Emily Filce
- Biblical Archaeology
Ashley Kendall - The History of Forensic Anthropology.
Nick Lor - Museums
Oceana Lucini - Eugenics
Stacey McBroome
- Psychological Anthropology: Reductionism andPsychic Commonality.
Puja Pandit - Gregor Mendel and his Relatonship to PeaPlants.
Kathryn Walker - Margaret Mead: Evolution of an AmericanIcon.

On-the-day you are not in attendance in ANTH 496 next week,please use your time wisely: PLEASE REMEMBER that the date for EXAMII is WEDNESDAY November 12, 2008.

Final Term Paper presentation order will be distributed onWednesday November 5, 2008 and presentations begin beforeThanksgiving Break on Monday November 17, 2008.

AFTER the Thanksgiving break, TERM PAPER presentations willcontinue on Monday, December 1, 2008.

Your completed TERM PAPER is DUE on Monday, December15, 2008.

On October 20, 2008, the following items were added to thesepages:
HERE are the quotations that will appear in the video Margaret Mead & Samoa which we will begin viewing on Monday October 20 and which we will continue viewing and discuss on Wednesday October 22, 2008:
"Truth is hard to come by." Karl Popper (1902-1994)

"Dreaming of systems so perfect that no one will ever need tobe good." T.S. Eliot (1888-1965)

"It is a good morning exercise for a research scientist todiscard a pet hypothesis every day before breakfast." KonradLorenz (1903-1989)

"All that man can do for humanity is to further the truth,whether it be sweet or bitter." Franz Boas (1858-1942)

"No one's observations can be trusted until repeated."Charles Darwin. (1809-1882)

"The less one knows, the longer it takes to explain what littleone knows." Niko Tinbergen (1907-1988)

"The best way to escape from a problem is to solve it."Brendan Francis (1923-1964)

IN ADDITION to the various web links already shared withyou, you might find some of these of value for your own research(either for this class or other Anthroology classes):[The Indigenous Rights Movement in the Pacific][Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs][Indigenous node of the World Wide Web Virtual Library][UR-List} Web Resources for Visual Anthropology - NOTE:Indicates that the last update was in September 2001]

On September 26, 2008, the following items were added to thesepages:

Your "sample" self-paced exam is now available at: assist you as a Review for EXAM I on Monday, October 6,2008.

If you have the time, you might also be interestedin previous "History of Theory" self-test exams over pastyears:

2007 [CSU, Chico ANTH 496, Self-Test #1 for Exam 1, October 8, 2007 ].

2006 [CSU, Chico ANTH 496, Self-Test #1 for Exam 1, October 2, 2006 ].

2005 [CSU, Chico ANTH 496, Self-Test #1 for Exam I, October 3).

2004 [CSU, Chico ANTH 296, Self-Test #1 for Exam I, October 4).

2004 (CSU, Chico ANTH 296, Self-Test #1 for Exam I, March 9).

2004 (CSU, Chico ANTH 296, CrossWord #1 for Exam I, February 26 ).

2003 [CSU, Chico ANTH 296, Self-Test #1 for Exam I, October 6).

2003 [CSU, Chico ANTH 296, Self-Test #1 for Exam I, March 12].

2002 [CSU, Chico ANTH 296, Self-Test #1 for Exam I, September 30).

2002 [CSU, Chico ANTH 296, Puzzle #1 for Exam 1, September 30).

2002 (CSU, Chico ANTH 296, Puzzle #1 for Exam I).

2002 (CSU, Chico ANTH 296, Self-Test #1 for Exam I).

2001 (CSU, Chico ANTH 296, Self-Test #1 for Exam I).  


On September 15, 2008, the following items were added to thesepages:

WHAT do you think about the following from USATodayof September 10, 2008, when the author (Don Campbell) writesabout:

"...the lack of intellectual curiosity in students that I have noticed in recent years, along with a decline in such basic skills as grammar, spelling and simple math. A sense of history? History is what happened since they left middle school. ... for the younger generation, the Internet has moved knowledge from the brain to the fingertips: Who needs to know about Impressionism or Charles Dickens [or Charles Darwin!] or George Washington Carver or - hell - even George Washington? Why carry such information around in your head when Google will deliver it in seconds [stress added]. AND: "The digital culture has changed the way kids learn, but at the expense of Cultural awareness." Don Campbell, Plugging in, tuning out. USAToday, September 10, 2008, page 11A.

NEXT WEEK (Monday September 22 and Wednesday September 24,2008) we will have half-class day: I shall be in class both daysbut appoximately one-half of you on Monday and one-half on Wednesday.The day you are not in class, you might want to consider going to theInternship Center on campus:

And again: Office of Experiential Education

Your first Writing Assignment is DUE on the day you come toclass and will form the basis of our seminar-discussion that day.INCIDENTALLY, while it is not of major importance for thisfirst writing assignment which is a critique, you will use the stylepreferred by the American Anthropological Association for your finalTERM PAPER (Writing Assignment #3). Please see the link on theDepartment of Anthropology Home Page []or go directly to

And from page 46 of the Guidebook:

NOTE: Writing Assignment #1 is a CRITIQUE of any chapter thatyou have read from the readings to date that are on reserve. Somepoints to consider in your critique are the following: (#1) whatwas the main idea of the chapter? (#2) whatfacts were used to support the main idea? (#3) anyfaulty reasoning, faulty logic, or obvious "bias" in thechapter ? (#4) what additional information could beadded to the author's argument? and, finally, (#5) is there a"counter-argument" to the main idea of the chapter? These are alot of points to consider so please take your time!

"To know how to write well is to know how to think well."Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)

Charles R. Darwin (1809-1882) was an amazing individual andyou might be interested in all of the following Darwin"videos" available on the web as indicated below:

Note: The 1997 video (#1 in the series) was show in classon Wednesday September 10, 2008.

The 2003 video (#4 in the series) was shown in class on MondaySeptember 15, 2008.

Also: remember that 2004 item entitled "The Darwin Project:1996 to 2004!" (explaining the making of the four videos) which canbe found at

1997 Charles Darwin: Reflections - Part one: TheBeginning. [ ~Seventeen Minutes Video. Darwin inEngland]. [].Produced and Edited by Ms. Donna Crowe: Instructional Media Center,CSU, Chico. Available via the Internet with REAL PLAYER[].

Imagine that you could visit with Charles Darwin as he remembers his youth. Perhaps you could learn what early experiences sharpened his power of observation and contributed to his unique perspective of the world. Join Dr. Charles Urbanowicz as he portrays the fascinating and very human Charley Darwin in the first program of the series Charles Darwin: Reflections: The Beginning. 

1999 Charles Darwin: - Part One: The Voyage. [~Twenty-two Minute Video. Darwin sailing from England to SouthAmerica.] []Produced and Edited by Ms. Donna Crowe: Instructional Media Center,CSU, Chico. Available via the Internet with REAL PLAYER[].

Sail along with Charley Darwin on the first half of his historic journey around the world aboard the HMS Beagle. In this second video in the series, Charley Darwin (Professor Charles Urbanowicz ) travels from England to unexplored reaches of South America and along the way he confronts slavery, rides with gauchos, experiences gunboat diplomacy, encounters a future dictator of Argentina, explores uncharted rivers, and discovers dinosaur bones. 

2001 Charles Darwin: - Part Two: The Voyage. [~Twenty-seven Minute Video. Darwin from South America, throughthe Galápagos Islands, and back to England.][]Edited by Ms. Vilma Hernandez and Produced by Ms. Donna Crowe:Instructional Media Center, CSU, Chico. Available via theInternet with REAL PLAYER [].

The second half of the historic journey of the HMS Beagle finds Charles Darwin exploring more of South America and several islands in the Pacific. In this episode, Charley Darwin (Professor Charles Urbanowicz) views several active volcanoes, experiences an earthquake, treks to the Andes, explores the Galapagos Islands, and then heads for home. 

2003 Charles Darwin: - Part Three: A Man of Science.[ ~Twenty-four Minute Video. Darwin from South America,through the Galápagos Islands, and back to England.][]Produced and Edited by Ms. Donna Crowe: Instructional Media Center,CSU, Chico. Available via the Internet with REAL PLAYER[].

Within a few years of his return to England, Charles Darwin happily settled into marriage, moved to a quiet house in the country, and begun a routine of research and writing which would occupy the rest of his life. In this episode discover why Darwin (Professor Charles Urbanowicz) waited over 20 years to publish his groundbreaking work Origin of Species, and learn how ill health, family tragedies, friends, respected colleagues and ardent supporters shaped his life and career.

Also remember those Darwin self-tests listed on page 33 of theyour Fall 2008 Guidebook (as well as ESSAY #5 in theGuidebook):

2005 (Darwin Self-Test Five} February 2005).

2004 (Darwin Self-Test Four} September 2004).

2003 (Darwin Self-Test Three} October 2003).

2001 (Darwin Self-Test Two} November 2001].

2000 (Darwin 2000-2001 [Self]Test One} January 2000).

And consider, if you will, the following words of GregoryBateson: "Information can be defined as a difference that makesa difference [italics in original;stress added]." Gregory Bateson (1904-1980) and MaryCatherine Bateson, 1987, Angels Fear: Towards an Epistemology ofthe Sacred (NY: Bantam Books), page 17.

NOTE: In that 1981 publication Bateson and Bateson have thefollowing statement:

"In the Middle Ages, it was characteristic of theologians to attempt a rigor and precision that today characterize only the best science. The Summa theologica of Saint Thomas Aquinas was the thirteenth-century equivalent of today's textbooks of cybernetics. Saint Thomas divided all created things into four classes: (a) those which just are--as stones; (b) those which are and live--as plants; (c) those which are and live and move--as animals; and (d) those which are and live and move and think--as men. He knew no cybernetics and (unlike Augustine) he was no mathematician, but we can immediately recognize here a prefiguring of some classification of entities based upon the number of logical types represented in their self-corrective and recursive loops of adaptation [stress added]." Gregory Bateson and Mary Catherine Bateson, 1987, Angels Fear: Towards an Epistemology of the Sacred (NY: Bantam Books), page 11.

On September 3, 2008, the following items were added to thesepages:
"Alas, the past is full of things [or ideas or events or people] unknown to those who have not made the effort to learn them" Angelo M. Codevilla, 2000, Between the Alps and a hard Place: Switzerland in World War II and Moral Blackmail Today (NY: Regnery Publishing, Inc.), page 2.

Here is the address from The Chico Enterprise-Recorddocumenting the "Public Safety" in Chico:[Public Safety Report]

Although already mentioned above, you might be interested inchecking out:[Minnesota State University, Mankato} Anthropology BiographyWeb]

and[American Anthropological Association]

Other addresses that might be of interest to some of you:[National Center for Science Organization][Paleoanthropology, Evolution and Human Origins][The Cave of Lascaux]

"A play [or a classroom lecture or a public presentation] should make you understand something new. If it tells you what you already know, you leave it as ignorant as you went in [stress added]." (The character John Wisehammer. In Timberlake Wertenbaker's Our Country's Good [based upon the novel The Playmaker by Thomas Keneally], 1989, Act II, sc. 7, page 89.]

To go to the home page of CharlesF. Urbanowicz.

To go to the home page of the Departmentof Anthropology.

To go to the home page of CaliforniaState University, Chico.

© Copyright [All Rights Reserved] Charles F. Urbanowicz / August 25, 2008} This copyrighted Fall 2008 Anthropology 496 Guidebook and Selected Anthropology Essays by Urbanowicz, printed from,, is intended for use by students enrolled at California State University, Chico, in the FALL Semester of 2008 and unauthorized use / publication is definitely prohibited.

[~69,327 words} 25 August 2008]

[~73,504 words} 8 December 2008]

© 2008 All Rights Reserved Charles F. Urbanowicz

8 December 2008 by CFU