Dr. Charles F. Urbanowicz / Professor of Anthropology
California State University, Chico / Chico, California 95929-0400
530-898-6220 [Office: Butte 317]; 530-898-6192 [Department: Butte 311]; 530-898-6143 [FAX]
e-mail: / home page:

29 October 2004 [1]

 [This page printed from]

© [All Rights Reserved.] Placed on the WWW on October 29, 2004, for a presentation this date (with numerous visuals) in Professor Sarah Richardson's RECR 50 (Hospitality Industry) at CSU, Chico. This is an updated presentation similar to one made on March 26, 2004 for RECR 50. For that complete paper, please see


"Gambling has held human beings in thrall for millennia. It has been engaged in everywhere, from the dregs of society to the most respectable circles. Pontius Pilate's soldiers cast lots for Christ's robe as He suffered on the cross. The Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius was regularly accompanied by his personal croupier. The Earl of Sandwich invented the snack that bears his name so that he could avoid leaving the gaming table in order to eat. George Washington hosted games in his tent during the American Revolution. Gambling is synonymous with the Wild West. And 'Luck Be A Lady Tonight' is one of the most memorable numbers in Guys and Dolls, a musical about a compulsive gambler and his floating crap game [stress added]." Peter L. Bernstein, 1996, Against The Gods: The Remarkable Story of Risk, page 12.

"Gambling, or the gaming industry, has become a major force in the tourism industry. The gaming industry has grown from a narrow Nevada base with limited acceptance in the financial and public sector to a recognized growth industry. While gaming has always been a popular form of recreation, it has also been controversial [stress in original]. Charles R. Goeldner and J.R. Brent Ritchie, 2003, Tourism: Principles Practices Philosophies (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.), page 211.



"entertainment....n. 1. the act of entertaining. 2. a diversion or amusement. 3. something affording diversion or amusement, esp. a performance. 4. hospitable provision for guests." Jess Stein, 1975, The Random House College Dictionary: Revised Edition [NY: Random House], page 441.

Although it has been written that the words "gaming" and "gambling" are "interchangeable" (Rocco M. Angelo and Andrew N. Vladimir, 2001, Hospitality Today: An Introduction, Fourth Edition [Michigan: Educational Institute], page 319), I do not agree with this statement; nor do I believe "gaming" to be synonymous with the term "entertainment" (which is often used by the casino industry) to describe the action which takes place within a casino. While gaming may have a dictionary definition defining it as "gambling. --adv. 2. of or pertaining to gambling" looking at "gambling" itself provides some insight into this aspect of the hospitality industry:

"gamble...v.i. 1. to play at any game or chance for stakes. 2. to stake or risk money, or anything of value, on the outcome of something involving chance; bet; wager.--v.t. 3. to lose or squander by betting (usually followed by away): He gambled all his hard-earned money away in one night. 4. to bet or stake (something of value): I'll gamble my life on his honesty. --n. 5. any matter or thing involving risk or hazardous uncertainty. 6. a venture in a game of chance for stakes, esp. for high stakes [stress added]." Jess Stein, 1975, The Random House College Dictionary: Revised Edition [NY: Random House], page 542.

The venerable Oxford English Dictionary defines "game" as "Amusement, delight, fun, mirth, sport" (The Oxford English Dictionary, 1978, Volume IV, F-G, page 36) and I would venture to state that the vast majority of individuals who lose money in a casino do not view it as amusement! Werner Muensterberger, a distinguished psychoanalyst has written on various topics, but in one book he looks at "auctions" (such as Sotheby's of London) and "casinos" in the same context:

"The charged atmosphere of the gambling casino and the auction room tends to create a protohypnotic ambience among those in attendance. As a result, judgement and perception can be blunted or reduced, and it is at this time that the passive-receptive longing of the gambler or the object hunger of the collector succumbs to the potentially mesmerizing effect of the room itself. Characteristically, people tend to be 'carried away,' as the self-explanatory expression implies [stress added]." Werner Muensterberger, 1994, Collecting: An Unruly Passion (Princeton University Press), pages 247-248.

The "entertainment" industry will use virtually any technique to create this "protohypnotic ambience" in the casino:

"Consumers associate certain smells with perfume counters, cookie store, even sporting goods outlets. Now gamblers may get a whiff of an odor that supposedly makes them risk more money, a researcher said recently. An undisclosed scent manufactured by a Chicago-based firm was suffused through a bank of slot machines in Las Vegas over a weekend and the machines took in an average of 45 percent more money, the Smell & Taste Treatment Foundation said. ... 'It is quite possible that, within the next few years, the use of odorants as a gambling incentive will be as common as the neon lights in the streets of Las Vegas,' Alan Hirsch, a neurologist who conducted the study, said. Hirsch would not divulge the exact nature of the odor that hghtened the gambling urge. He said consumers respond to certain scents by becoming nostalgic, or even childlike, making them more relaxed and possibly willing to make purchases of take risks [stress added]." Anon., 1992, Secret Scent Increases Urge To Gamble, Casno Tests Show. The San Francisco Chronicle, September 9, 1992.



"Las Vegas was built on odds. Through the years, it has been delighted to defy them. The city is a cacophony of color, of swirling sights and sounds. It is a place where stunning resort hotels--each its own destination--rise dramatically from the desert floor. Las Vegas is a study in human imagination. It is a place with 18 of the 20 largest hotels in the United States and 127,000 hotel rooms, more than any city in the world. It is a place where you walk down the street and marvel at striking replicas of an Egyptian pyramid, the Sphinx, Venice and the Eiffel Tower, improbable neighbors to an erupting volcano and dancing waters. It is a place where time appears suspended but, at the same time, rushes forward [stress added]." Manuel J. Cortez [President and CEO, Las Vegas Convention and Visitor Authority], 2004, Las Vegas: To Brand the New Destination. The Complete 21st Century Travel & Hospitality Marketing Handbook (Edited by Bob Dickinson and Andy Vladimir (NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall), pages 159-167, page 160.

"[March 4, 2004] LAS VEGAS - (Press Release) -- Fortune Magazine has named MGM Mirage (NYSE: MGG) one of 'America's Most Admired Companies' in its annual survey of companies with large U.S. operations. MGM Mirage outscored all competitors in the 'Most Admired 'Hotels/Casinos/Resorts category. Overall, MGM Mirage ranked second in the Hotels/Casinos/Resorts category after Marriott International, a non-casino hotel resort company. MGM Mirage has been named to Fortune's 'America's Most Admired Companies'industry list each year since the merger of MGM Grand, Inc. and Mirage Resorts, Inc. created MGM Mirage in 2001. In both 2002 and 2003, MGM Mirage also outscored all competitors and ranked second in the category after Marriott International [stress added]." (From:



"Owners and operators in the gaming sector of the hospitality industry must interact with many organizations in both public and private sectors - from investment banks, analysts and commercial lending institutions, to governing bodies and licensing agencies that regulate and monitor these operations. Those responsible for significant land-based casino/ entertainment/resort operations require a variety of strategy and financial advisory services [stress added]." (From:} PriceWaterhouseCoopers]

Not everyone is successful in this volatile industry and on Friday October 22, 2004, the following headline appeared in USA Today: "Chapter 11 now a sure bet for Trump casinos" and that "the move all but wipes out existing shareholders who already endured a 99% drop in the stock's value [stress added]."( Matt Krantz, USA Today, October 22, 2004, page 5B.) Mergers and consolidations will occur in the very near future for casinos to be financially viable and at least two are currently being considered: a Harrahs-Caesars deal (a $5,000,000,000 merger that would create "the world's largest hotel and casino company") and an MGM Mirage-Mandalay Bay Resort Group (a $4,800,000,000 merger) which would provide MGM Mirage with other major Las Vegas locations. (Please see George Raine, 2004, Rolling the big dice. The San Francisco Chronicle, July 20, 2004, pages C1-C3.



"More than 200 California Indians, claiming they've been banished from their tribes by greedy or power-mad tribal leaders, on Wednesday [July 14, 2004] asked Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger to halt compact negotiations with gambling tribes until they establish independent tribal courts to deal with membership disputes [stress added]." Stephen Magagnini, 2004, Indians barred from tribes seek help. The Sacramento Bee, July 5, 2004, pages A3 + A4, page A3.

"The initiative, dubbed the "Gaming Revenue Act of 2004," would force Indian tribes with casinos to renegotiate compacts signed with the state and contribute 25 percent of gambling revenue, a number used by tribes in Connecticut. Under the initiative, if California tribes did not agree to pay the 25 percent, they would lose a statewide monopoly on casino gaming because the state would allow 11 card clubs and five horse racing tracks throughout Southern California and the Bay area to operate slot machines and other video gaming. The card rooms and race tracks guarantee that 33 percent of revenue, an estimated $1 billion, would go to local governments for law enforcement and schools [stress added]." [From: } March 19, 2004]

"California Treasurer Phil Angelides said Thursday [October 7, 2004] that the sale of bonds backed by tribal gambling revenues will generate millions less than anicipated by state budget writers. Angelides said a financing deal by Go. Arnold Schwarzenegger and five Indian tribes won't yield the $1.2 billion anticipated by the governor. Instead, he estimated the proceeds would be $846 million [stress added]." Gilbert Chan, 2004, The Sacramento Bee, October 8, 2004.

"...the Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation, also reported today a $19.3 million contribution to the State of Connecticut for June [2004], increasing to $1.9 billion contributed to the state since Foxwoods began making the payments in 1993. The funds sent to the state represent a 25 percent share of the casino's net win for slots [over 7,400 slot machines], and is part of a unique revenue-sharing agreement that results in payments to every town in the state. The tribal nation and the state negotiated the agreement [stress added]." Anon., 2004, Foxwoods Has All-Time Record Slot Revenue. The Pequot Times, September 2004, page 3.

Indeed, revenue continues to flow into the State of Connecticut's coffer as a result of their negotiated arrangement with the Mashantucket pequot Tribal Nation:

"Foxwoods Resort Casino reported a net slot win of $74.6 million in August [2004], a month that saw the partial completion of the casino's $99 million Rainmaker Casino expansion. ... The casino's owners, the Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation, also reported today a $18.6 million contribution to the State of Connecticut for August, increasing to $1.921 billion contributed to the state since Foxwoods began making the payments in 1993. The funds sent to the state represent a 25 percent share of the casino's net win for slots.... [stress added]." Foxwoods reports winning slot win. The Pequot Times, October 2004, page 7.

For information about the "local" casino expansion activities at the junction of California highways 99 and 149 (a few miles south of Chico, en route to Oroville where there are already two casinos), please see (from the February 19, 2004 issue of CN&R: Chico News & Review). How many casinos can the area support? (And see:



As of this writing, two major conflicting propositions are on the ballot for California residents next week: Proposition 68 and Proposition 70. Although the backers of Proposition 68 have stopped advertising for it, Proposition 70 information still appears. It is interesting to read the following, concering the "backers' of the various propositions:

"Proposition 68, which would in effect allow a group of card rooms and racetracks to operate slot machines, had gathered $22.7 million. Not surprisingly, the biggest givers were Pinnacle Entertainment, a Las Vegas-based company that is landlord to two Southern California car rooms ($3.4 million); the Commerce Club, a Los Angeles card casino ($2.5 million); and three racetracks, which forked over about $2.5 million each. ... The other gambling-related measure, Proposition 70, would give tribes virtually unlimited gambling for 99 years, in return for sharing revenues with the state that equaled the corporate tax rate, now about 8.8 percent. ... Almost all of its $26.3 million in contributions have come from three tribes: The Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians in Palm Springs ($12.5 million); the San Manuel Band of Mission Indians in San Bernadino ($10 million); and the Morongo Band of Mission indians ($3.5 million) [stress added]." Steve Wiegand, 2004, Bib bucks, little impact. The Sacramento Bee, October 22, 2004, page A3 + A4.

On Sunday October 24, 2004, one could read in the San Francisco Chronicle the following banner headline by Jim Doyle: "Backlash on betting: Californians have second thoughts about gambling" (Section E, pages A1 + 36):

"What seemd impossible to imagine only a few years ago, now appears conceivable: In the next decade, California could rival Nevada as a meccca for casino gambling resorts. Gambling experts estimate that California's tribal casinos are a $6 billion a year industry (although the tribes claim their revenus are only about half that. Since 1977, the number of slot machines in the state has tripled to about 60,000. Some tribes have already teamed up with major gaming corporations such as Harrah's and Caesars Entertainment to build Las Vegas-style casinos with hotels, spas, and entertainment facilities [stress added]." Jim Doyle, 2004, Backlash on betting: Californians have second thoughts about gambling. The San Francisco Chronicle (Section E, pages E1 + E6, page E6.

Indeed, what may have seemed "impossible" to some was not so impossible for those who read a 1998 article in an influential trade journal, namely International Gaming & Wagering Business:

"Imagine a California with 40 or more Foxwood-sized gaming facilities, many lining the thoroughfares leading from Southern California to the Nevada border, each aggressively wooing the millions of customers from the population centers of Anaheim and San Diego to the gambling meccas of Las Vegas, Reno, Stateline, and Laughlin. That's the doomsday prediction of some gaming observers watching the action in California.... [stress added]." Matt Connor, 1998, Nevada's Bad California Dream. International Gaming & Wagering Business, July 1998, page 1, pages 26-31, page 1 and 26.

Just as I predicted in October 1998 (three weeks before the November 1998 elections) that Proposition 5 would be passed by the voters of California, so I am now writing (four days before the November 2004 elections) that both Propositions 68 and 70 will be defeated by the voters of the State of California. There are obviously those who saw the potential casino development in California in 1998 and also saw the problems that would affect the State of Nevada when Proposition 5 was passed by California voters in 1998:

"...Nevada's gambling expected to sustain significant losses if Indian casinos were allowed to expand. One recent estimate shows northern Nevada losing 15 percent of its casino business to California tribes if a ballot initiative passes in November. ... A recent report by Bear Stearns analysts predicted casinos in Las Vegas and Laughlin would lost $260 million to $300 million--a hit of about 7 percent--in the first years that wide-open Indian gambling his California. Casinos in the Reno-Lake Tahoe area would fare even worse, losing 15 percent of their business--$110 million to $130 million--to California Indian casinos [stress added]." (Reno Gazette-Journal August 18, 1998, page A1 and 6A.

As an anthropologist, I am intrigued by the following statement of the distinguished anthropologist Gregory Bateson (1904-1980): "The unit of survival [or adaptation] is organism plus environment. We are learning by bitter experience that the organism which destroys its environment destroys itself." Gregory Bateson, Steps to an Ecology of Mind, 1972: 483. What is the "carrying capacity" of any area? How far can the environment be "pushed" before it is pushed too far?

"An Indian tribe with historic ties to Contra Costa County is challenging another tribe's claims to ancestral land in Richmond in hopes of halting plans for a Las Vegas-style casino at Point Molate [stress added]. Cecilia, M. Vega, 2004, Tribes battle over casino land. The San Francisco Chronicle, 18 August 2004, page B1 + B3, page B1.

"A landless Indian tribe and an Emeryville developer have agreed to pay $50 million to the city of Richmond to build a Las Vegas-style casino at Point Molate, city officials said Friday [August 20, 2004] [stress added]." Kelly St. John, 2004, Guidivilles reach deal for casino at Point Molate. The San Francisco Chronicle, August 21, 2004.

"A Florida gaming company has filed a $1 billion lawsuit against Harrah's and the Emeryville developer the gambling giant is working with to build an Indian casino at Richmond's Point Molate, claiming it already had a casino deal with the tribe in question. The suit, filed Monday [September 20, 2004] in U.S. District Court in San Francisco by NGV Gaming of Florida, claims Harrah's and Upstream Development illegally lured the Guidiville Band of Pomo Indians away from the Florida firm, killing their agreement to buil a casino in Solano County. 'It's like adultery in business,' Stephen Calvacca, an attorney for NGV, said Tuesday. 'It's adultery committed right during the honeymoon [stress added]." Cecilia M. Vega, 2004, $1 billion Indian casino suit filed. The San Francisco Chronicle, September 22, 2004, page B5.

There are some very large amounts of money involved when it comes to casinos! In January 2004 it was reported that the Thunder Valley Casino in Placer County was very profitable:

"The economic steamroller that is the Thunder Valley Casino showed no signs of slowing down in the last three months of 2003, according to numbers reported Thursday by the casino's management company. Station Casinos Inc., the Las Vegas-based firm that runs Thunder Valley for the United Auburn Indian Community, reported management fees of $17.2 million from the Placer County casino for October, November and December. The 240-member tribe zealously, and legally, guards income figures from the casino it opened in June [2003]. But Station, as a public company, is required to report the money it makes for managing the casino -- an amount equal to 24 percent of the casino's take. That extrapolates to $68.8 million in total revenues for the quarter, or about $275 million a year. And that makes the young casino one of the most financially successful in the world [stress added]." Steve Wiegand, 2004, Big Thunder Valley quarter. The Sacramento Bee, January 30, 2004, page D2.

Please consider the above words and the direct quote: " of the most financially successful in the world." There are some tremendous profits to be made but I ask the following questions: when does "cannibalization" begin to take place? How many casinos (Native American or otherwise) can a region or nation support? As this aspect of the "entertainment" industry expands for Native Americans, major corporations (with long-standing experience in the "gaming industry") are actively involved in the Native American expansion movement because they currently have the expertise to successfully manage gaming operations. (This will eventually change over time but partnerships are being brokered all of the time.) Coincidentally, on profits, Harrah's Entertainment just released their earnings for the third-quarter of this year (as of September 30): $1,309,657,000. This may be compared with their third-quarter revenue for 2003: $1,043,412,000! (The New York Times, October 27, 2004, page W8.) On the web (at Hotel Online: News for the Hospitality Executive) one can read the following:

"Harrah's Entertainment, Inc. today reported record third-quarter revenues of $1.31 billion, up 25.5 percent from revenues of $1.04 billion in the 2003 third quarter. ... Third-quarter 2004 income from operations rose 26.9 percent to a record $257.8 million from $203.2 million in the year-earlier quarter. Third-quarter 2004 net income was a record $118.8 million, up 19.4 percent from $99.5 million in the 2003 third quarter [ stress added]."

The above web item for Harrah's also pointed out that "Northern Nevada revenues fell 1.7 percent from the third quarter last year" which was predictable in 1998!

It is clear that the entire "gaming/gambling" situation in the state of California is in (almost) constant flux: although the following casino plan is now moot, please consider the development that was anticipated in the San Francisco Bay area:

"The nation's third-largest gambling emporium [after Foxwoods and Mohegan Sun in Connecticut]--a six-to-eight-story casino with up to 5,000 slot machines--would sprout in the heart of San Pablo under the terms of a deal between an indian tribe and Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger.... The deal would guarantee that no new casino open shop within a 35-mile radious of San Pablo.... [stress added]. John M. Hubbell, San Pablo set to host 5,000-slot casino. The San Francisco Chronicle, August 18, 2004, pages A1 + A14, page A1.

The current deal is now "dead" but the debate continues! The "gaming" industry is a changing one and gambling itself is exciting and people wish to be excited and perhaps win! Various individuals have studied gambling and consider the research of the anthropologist Hayano:

"Many lay people erroneously believe that the cultural anthropologist studies only ancient or nonwestern cultures, digs in the ground, or otherwise studies primates. A passage from a book by card authority John Scarne stood out in my mind as a prime example: 'The observation of crooked card players is my business, as the observation of nonhuman primates is the anthropologist's.' (John Scarne, Scarne On Cards, p. 4). Cultural anthropology is the study of extant human cultures and societies around the world. As a branch of cultural anthropology, ethnography is devoted to the scientific description of one particular culture or group of people [stress added]." D. Hayano, 1982, The Life And Work Of Professional Card Players, page 183.

My research has also encouraged me to follow the words of Steve Wynn (cited by David Spanier, 1992, Welcome To The Pleasuredome: Inside Las Vegas, page 17) on making money: Wynn is quoted as saying "If you wanna make money in a casino, own one [stress added!]"

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Note: The following chart is a "very rough approximation" of casino space in various locations in the USA gathered over several years and from various sources: talking to people, publications, as well as the World Wide Web. At some point in the pastthirty years I have been to every one of the facilities listed below (except for the "proposed" listings; and I have not been to the Table Mountain Casino in Friant, California). The figures, as far as I can ascertain, provide you with the approximate casino space at each location. Space in all of these facilities is also devoted to various food and beverage services, as well as management functions, but the chart can give you a "rough" idea of the size of various casinos. Please be advised that "evolution" is an on-going event in this industry and several of the following locations have probably expanded in size since the information was gathered.

Note that "Casino San Pablo" (located on Interstate 80 in San Pablo, just before San Francisco) is currently a 71,754 square foot cardroom. In the year 2000, Casino San Pablo "was placed in trust for the landless Pomo Indians" and in August 2004 an agreement was made with Governor Schwarzenegger to allow expansion of this facility to a "600,000-square-foot, six - to eight-story establishment [stress added]." (Please see Erin Hallisy, 2004, Congressman, governor bicker over casino. The San Francisco Chronicle, October 24, 2004, page B5.) As mentioned above, the agreement is "dead" and the planned expansion is no longer being considered (for now), but consider the "existing" card room facility of 71,754 at Casino San Pablo (now a Native American Casino) and the potential expansion to 600,000 square feet. The proposed "600,000 square foot" facility probably includes various other functions (such as entertainment, rooms, food and beverage services, as well as management functions) and the actual "gaming" space won't be that large, but what of the future? The Scotts Valley Band of Pomo Indians are proposing a 225,000 square foot casino in North Richmond and a Native American tribe once proposed a 152,000 square foot facility for Marysville, California, and they are now talking about a 207,760 square foot facility! Where does it end? (A valuable web site, where some of the information below came from, is [Casino City: Your Casino Directory.)



Foxwoods, Connecticut [Native American; hereafter NA]
344,000 square feet
 Mohegan Sun, Connecticut [NA]
Cache Creek (Capay Valley), California [NA]
Table Mountain Casino (Friant), California [NA]
MGM Grand Hotel/Casino, Las Vegas, Nevada
Mandalay Bay Resort & Casino, Las Vegas, Nevada
Bellagio, Las Vegas, Nevada
Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada
Grand Casino, Tunica, Mississippi
Harrah's St. Louis Riverport,St. Louis, Missouri
Taj Mahal, Atlantic City, New Jersey
The Reno Hilton,Reno, Nevada
117,400 [Note: when it opened in 1978 it had 100,000 square feet of casino space and was the largest casino in the world!]
Cache Creek (Capay Valley), California [NA]
113,000 (now demolished)
Excalibur, Las Vegas. Nevada
The Venetian, Las Vegas, Nevada
Luxor, Las Vegas, Nevada
Sam's Town, Tunica, Mississippi
The Mirage, Las Vegas, Nevada
Tulalip Casino, Marysville, Washington [NA]
Harvey's, Lake Tahoe, Nevada
Silver Legacy, Reno, Nevada
New York New York, Las Vegas, Nevada
John Ascuagua's Nugget, Sparks, Nevada
Eldorado Hotel & Casino, Reno, Nevada
Thunder Valley, Lincoln, California [NA]
Las Vegas Hilton, Las Vegas, Nevada
Peppermill, Reno, Nevada
Treasure Island, Las Vegas, Nevada
Paskenta Band, Corning, California [NA]
Skagit Valley Casino Resort, Skagit Valley, Washington [NA]
Circus Circus, Reno, Nevada
Harrah's Cherokee Casino & Hotel, Cherokee, North Carolina [NA]
Harrahs, Lake Tahoe, Nevada
Hollywood Casino, Tunica, Mississippi
Harrahs, Reno, Nevada
Cher-Ae Heights, Trinidad, California [NA]
Harrahs, Tunica, Mississippi
Rincon Band (San Diego area), California [NA]
The Mechoopda Indian Tribe of Chico Rancheria [NA]
41,600 (proposed)
Caesars Tahoe, Lake Tahoe, Nevada
Ballys, Tunica, Mississippi
Boomtown, Reno, Nevada
Harrah's Phoenix Ak-Chin Casino, Phoenix, Arizona [NA]
Harrah's Prairie Band Casino, Topeka, Kansas [NA]
Lummi Silver Reef Casino, Ferndale, Washington
Fitzgerald's Casino/Hotel, Reno, Nevada
Nooksack River Casino, Deming, Washington [NA]
20,160 square feet

From: Erin Hallisy, 2004, Tribes battle long odds, The San Francisco Chronicle, October 24, 2004, pages B1 + B4, page B4.

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Please note: The various items below contain numerous reference which should be of some value in attempting to understand this growing and volatile industry. I have also included some of my earlier work dealing with Tourism in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga (even though this was not gaming-gambling related).

2004a (Hospitality and Gambling = Big Business! (CSU, Chico RECR [Recreation] 50, Hospitality Industry, at CSU, Chico, March 26).

2004b, [Gaming or Gambling: Recreation or...Really Big Business! February 24, 2004 for RECR 198C]

2003, [Power and Scarcity: Tourism in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga (1970-1971) and Tourism/Gambling/Gaming interests (1970->2003). April 16, 2003 for ANTH 16]

2001 Gambling_into_the_21st_cent.pdf [Cambling Into The 21st Century. Hosts And Guests Revisited: Tourism Issues of the 21st Century, edited by Valene Smith and Maryann Brent (NY: Cognizant Communication Corp.), pp. 69-79. (NOTE: this is based on a 1998 item, Gambling (Gaming) In The United States of America From An Anthropological Perspective. Presented at the 14th ICAES [International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences] Meetings on the Anthropology of Tourism for the 1998 Congress held at Williamsburg, Virginia, July 26-August 2, 1998.)

1998a, [Proposition 5 And Native American Gaming issues. For the Anthropology Forum at California State University, Chico, on October 8, 1998.]

1998b, [Gambling (Gaming) in the united States of America From an Anthropological Perspective. Presented at the 14th ICAES [International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences] Meetings on the "Anthropology of Tourism" for the 1998 Congress held at Williamsburg, VA, July 29-August 2, 1998.]

1989 [Tourism in Tonga Revisited: Continued Troubled Times? Hosts And Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism, edited by V. Smith, 2nd Edition (University of Pennsylvania), pp. 105-117.]

1977 [Tourism in Tonga: Troubled Times.Hosts and Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism, edited by V. Smith (University of Pennsylvania), pp. 83-92.]

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[~ 5,087 words] = 29 October 2004

1.© [All Rights Reserved.] Placed on the WWW on October 29, 2004, for a presentation on this date (with numerous visuals) in Professor Sarah Richardson's RECR 50 (Hospitality Industry) at CSU, Chico. To return to the beginning of this paper, please click here.

To go to the home page of Charles F. Urbanowicz.

To go to the home page of the Department of Anthropology.

To go to the home page of the Department of Recreation.

To go to the home page of California State University, Chico.

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Copyright © 2004; all rights reserved by Charles F. Urbanowicz

29 October 2004 by cfu

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