Dr. Charles F. Urbanowicz/Professor of Anthropology
California State University, Chico
Chico, California 95929-0400
(530-898-6220 [Office]; 530-898-6192 [Dept.] FAX: 530-898-6824)
e-mail: email@example.com / home page: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban
15 November 2000 
[This page printed from http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Darwin2000.html]
ORIGINAL ABSTRACT [12 February 2000]:
I love translating the words of an author into a practiced presentation by a theatrical ensemble. The idea to present Darwin in the first person to undergraduate students is not unique and Richard M. Eakin (1910-1999), University of California, Berkeley Professor of Zoology, portrayed various individuals to inspire students about science (R.M. Eakin, 1975, Great Scientists Speak Again). As at CSU, Chico colleagues wrote: "Acting is one of the most exciting, enjoyable, and creative art forms in existence. It can also be one of the most daunting, challenging, and humbling experience anyone can face. Cultural anthropologists tell us that acting, at least in ritual form, is as old as the first humans ." (Susan Pate, Randy Wonzong, Donna Breed, 1996, A Beginning Actor's Companion, 3rd edition, page 1). Teaching since 1972 has also proven to be a challenging, daunting, exhilarating, and fantastic experience (and theatrical as well). A Darwin tape was shown in 1993 (http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Darwin116.html) and at the 2000 Meetings a brief segment of a new Darwin-in-the-first person tape is presented, including comments on availability, classroom use, student reaction, and discussion. Suggestions for attempts by other anthropologists are made and work to date on an interactive Darwin CD-ROM is discussed. The presentation will be available in November 2000 (at http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Darwin2000.html).
COMMUNITY, CREATIVITY, INVOLVEMENT, AND KNOW YOUR AUDIENCE
COMMENTS AND EVENTUAL CONCLUSIONS
APPENDIX I: SELECTED URBANOWICZ DARWIN WWW REFERENCES ONLY
APPENDIX II: VARIOUS DARWIN-APPROPRIATE WWW SITES
APPENDIX III: SOME VISUALS
While I do have "gambling" (or gaming) interests, I also enjoy teaching and hence "teaching as theatre" since it combines information and technique and "gambling" to get ideas across! There is an excellent Spanish phrase which, for me at least, epitomizes the instant the "curtain goes up" and the actors and audience begin their interaction: el momento de la verdad! Although this refers to the critical moment when the bullfighter makes the final sword thrust, in the theatre situation it is when it all begins! The rehearsals pay off, the practice and props are all set and the show must go on: el momento de la verdad!
"Snippets" of Darwin videotapes are presented, two of which are on the WWW: http://mole.csuchico.edu:8080/ramgen/archive/darwinreflections.rm [1997, 18 minute video available with REALPLAYER; this is tape #1 of a four-part series: it "sets the setting" England] and http://mole.csuchico.edu:8080/ramgen/archive/darwinvoyage.rm [1999, 22 minute video available with REALPLAYER; this is tape #2 of the four-part series, taking "Darwin" from England to South America.]. If you are interested, you may wish to take a "Darwin Self-Test" available at Darwin 2000-2001 [Self]Test One.
"To gamble is to put something (a stake) at risk voluntarily, to court and cultivate 'deep play' -- play that has consequences, personal and material, within and against the narratives of a particular time, place, and culture. Everyone craves gamble in some form, for an infinite variety of reasons, many of them twisted, though all are connected to the desire for action that makes one feel more alive, that gets the juices going. Even if, especially if, it means playing with fire, the possibility of going in over one's head, head over heels." Paul Lyons [Editor], 1999, The Quotable Gambler (NY: The Lyons Press), page 3.
Teaching (given all of the issues connected with retention, tenure, and promotion) is, perhaps, "survival of the fittest" and I also have interests in gaming (another form of "survival"); in an April-May 2000 issue of a "gaming" publication one reads the following:
"All poker is a form of social Darwinism: the fit survive, the weak go broke. Walter Matthau once said that, 'The game exemplifies the worst aspects of capitalism that have made our country so great [stress added]." Al Alvarez, 2000, The World Series of Poker. Poker Digest, Vol. 3, No. 9, April 21-May 4, 2000, pages 34-37, page 37.
In my chapter entitled Mnemonics, Quotations, Cartoons, and a Notebook: "Tricks" For Appreciating Cultural Diversity in Strategies in Teaching Anthropology (2000, edited by Patricia Rice and David McCurdy), I cited some words pertaining to the distinguished author, James Michener [1907-1997]:
"Remember, Jim [Michener]. Writing a book or a dozen books [or giving a lecture or a dozens of lectures] doesn't remake you or create miracles. Next morning, when you wake up, you're the same horse's ass you were yesterday. Writing [or teaching!] is a job. Do it well, it's a great life. Mess around, its disappointments will kill you [stress added]." James A. Michener, 1992, The World is my Home: A Memoir, p. 323.
In this presentation, I would like to add a few more words that are quite appropriate for teaching, the theatre, and anthropologists:
"If it were easy, everyone would do it. We're the lucky few who can, and it's worth all the headaches." James Michener, as quoted in Lawrence Grobel, 1999, Talking With Michener (Jackson: University of Mississippi Press), page xiii.
When I began teaching more than a quarter-of-a-century ago for the 1972-1973 academic year (my first full-time position was a one-year appointment in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota), I believed that there was a "fine thin line" between "teaching and acting" and I have come to change my opinion: there is NO fine thin line for we act (or "perform") as we teach. In 1996, my colleagues at CSU, Chico wrote:
"Acting is one of the most exciting, enjoyable, and creative art forms in existence. It can also be one of the most daunting, challenging, and humbling experience anyone can face. Cultural anthropologists tell us that acting, at least in ritual form, is as old as the first humans ." Susan Pate, Randy Wonzong, Donna Breed, 1996, A Beginning Actor's Companion, 3rd edition, page 1.
There is a relationship between anthropology and acting; consider the words of the distinguished Sir Edward E. Evans-Pritchard (1902-1973) who wrote "and so, for anthropology, you are studying not just as an observer, but also as a participant; you are not just a member of the audience, you are also on the stage." Consider the following from a theatrical person:
"If I wasn't involved in theatre I would be an archaeologist or an anthropologist. I love the idea of starting with a text that I know very shallowly and spending hours and hours digging deeper and deeper into it, opening lots of doors for its possible meaning. I love that process intellectually and emotionally. I love the preparation and I love the work with the actors." Katie Mitchell, 1999, In On Directing: Interviews With Directors, edited by Gabriella Giannachi and Mary Luckhurst (NY: St. Martin's Griffin), pages 95-102, page 96.
With these words, I should like to point out the following: I, who am an anthropologist (born in 1942 and Ph.D. in Anthropology from the University of Oregon in 1972, based on fieldwork concerning the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga), write that if I wasn't involved in anthropology (as a tenured Professor of Department of Anthropology at California State University, Chico, and a member of the faculty since 1973), I would work at being an actor! (Indeed, as I approach retirement from full-time teaching, I am looking at increased theatrical involvement as one of my post-retirement activities.) I love the idea of attempting to translate the written words of an author into the practiced and rehearsed moves of a theatrical ensemble into a production for the public. As Mitchell stated it: "I love the preparation and I love the work with the actors" and I love being part of making the process into an ephemeral product. To summarize, I love the theatre! Your attention is called, incidentally, to Item #1 in APPENDIX I #1 below (http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/CELTFall26October.html, "Charlie on Darwin"), which is a paper I presented last month on the campus of California State University, Chico, at a CELT (The Center for Excellence in Learning and Teaching) and Anthropology Forum presentation; while this current November 2000 paper is similar to that October 2000 paper, that October 2000 paper may also be viewed as a companion piece to this current paper: some ideas were repeated (once again) yet some new points and interpretations were added to this November 2000 paper. As I wrote last month, I am aiming towards the year 2009: the bicentennial celebration of the birth of Darwin and the sesquicentennial of the first edition of On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life:
Teaching since 1972 has proven to be a challenging, daunting, exhilarating, and fantastic experience (and theatrical as well). For those of you who might have read my chapter in the previously mentioned Rice and McCurdy volume, perhaps you see the connection with this last set of words: CDEF! Since 1990 I have presented Darwin in the "first person" in my classes and at our 92nd Annual Meetings in November 1993 (Washington, D.C.), I presented Charles R. Darwin: Happy 116th Anniversary! and a brief snippet of a 1993 Darwin videotape from a classroom lecture. For that Washington D.C. paper, I argued that "an understanding of the context of the content provides us with a greater appreciation of the development of anthropological thought" and I attempt to do this with films (and other visuals in my classes). Darwin is clearly an important individual and there is a tremendous amount of information with which to work (the "Darwin Industry" as it has been called); indeed, in his September 23, 1999 lecture presented in Stockholm, Sweden, Ernst Mayr ("the author of some of the 20th century's most influential volumes on evolution") eloquently presented the "wide reach of Darwin's ideas" and his tremendous impact today: "Modern thought is most dependent on the influence of Charles Darwin." (Ernst Mayr, 2000, Darwin's Influence On Modern Thought. Scientific American, July 2000, Vol. 283, No. 1, pages 79-83.) Words from the 19th century physician and author, Oliver Wendell Holmes (1809-1885) seem most appropriate for considering the impact of the words and images of Charles Darwin: "The mind, once expanded to the dimensions of larger ideas, never returns to its original size" and the "larger idea" that Darwin gave us was natural selection!
November was an important month for Darwin: on November 17, 1877, Darwin received an Honorary Doctorate of Laws, from his alma mater (Cambridge University), where he received his B.A. in 1830 (and hence the title of my 1993 paper). In an earlier November, November 3, 1859, Darwin wrote concerning the forthcoming publication of On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. "I have received your kind note & the copy: I am infinitely pleased & proud at the appearance of my child" and on November 13, 1859, Darwin wrote to Alfred R. Wallace (1823-1913), telling him that he is asking his publisher to send him a copy of Origin, with the admonishment: "Remember it is only an abstract & very much condensed. God knows what the public will think." Frederick Burkhardt et al. [Editors], 1991, The Correspondence of Charles Darwin Volume 7 1858-1859 Supplement to the Correspondence 1821-1847 (Cambridge University Press), pages 365 and 375.
Incidentally, even though I am writing and presenting about Darwin today, it should be noted that twenty-two years ago this day, on November 15, 1978, Margaret Mead died in New York City. An excellent issue of the American Anthropologist (D.L. Olmstead, Editor), entitled In Memorium: Margaret Mead (1901-1978) is called to your attention (Vol. 82, No. 2, June 1980). I have a fondness for Mead: everyone here today knows the difficulty in organizing sessions for professional meetings and early in 1972 I proposed a session for our national meetings (held in Toronto that year) and it was accepted. "Recent Work in Samoa And Tonga: Methodological Situations And the Data" and the December 1972 session was packed. We brand-new Ph.D. recipients, four from the University of Oregon (myself, Frank Young, Max Stanton, and the late Keith Morton), and Shulamit Decktor-Korn, duly presented our papers. People came, however, not necessarily to listen to our fresh thoughts, but to see the indomitable Margaret Mead, who, along with Lowell D. Holmes and Bob Tonkinson, was one of our discussants! People may be critical of Margaret Mead, as we may be critical of anyone, but she was a supporter of the discipline and I enjoyed our correspondence both before and after that December 1972 tumultuous session.
COMMUNITY, CREATIVITY, INVOLVEMENT, AND KNOW YOUR AUDIENCE
Be involved in what you are doing and get your students involved in what you are doing; learn something about your students, for they are not faceless masses but have had some truly "humanizing" experiences of their own. Anthropology is as "real" as you make it: and if you are bored with it, your students will surely know that you are bored with it! (Your colleagues and peers will also know that you are bored.) The theatre (just as the classroom!), creates an ephemeral sense of community and intimacy for both performers and patrons (or instructor and students). The theatrical performance lasts but an afternoon (or an evening) and then is over; for the academic classroom, the ephemeral sense of community can last for an academic quarter, a semester, or perhaps four years: but it ends. If it is a great and wonderful experience, enjoy and savour it! If it is a bad one, forget it for life is too short: but try and make it the best one you can make it be.
Howard Gardner, of Harvard University, has written extensively on "multiple intelligences" (and uses Darwin as an example of an individual who exemplifies the "intelligence of a naturalist" has written the following which is quite appropriate (I believe) for someone discussing teaching (and by association, "individual differences" - or perhaps "multiple intelligences" of the students that we interact with):
"As educators, we face a stark choice: ignore these differences or acknowledge them. Sometimes they are ignored out of ignorance, sometimes they are ignored because educators are either frustrated by the differences, or convinced that individuals are more likely to become members of a community if they can be more alike. But those who ignore the differences are not being fair--and are typically focusing only on the language logic mind.... To the extent that the student and the teacher share that focus, the student will do well and consider herself [or himself!] smart. But if the student has a fundamentally different kind of mind, she [or he] is likely to feel stupid--at least while attending that school [or that particular class]. What is the alternative? One possibility is individually configured education--an education that takes individual differences seriously and, insofar as possible, crafts practices that serve different kinds of minds equally well. ... The crucial ingredient is a commitment to knowing the minds--the persons--of individual students. This means learning about each student's background, strengths, interests, preferences, anxieties, experiences, and goals, not to stereotype or to preordain but rather to ensure that educational decisions are made on the basis of an up-to-date profile of the student [stress added]." Howard Gardner, 1999, Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences (NY: Basic Books), pages 150-151.
COMMENTS AND EVENTUAL CONCLUSIONS
I enjoy words and clearly enjoy the graceful prose of Jean Giraudoux (1882-1944) in Madwoman of Chaillot (1945), as opposed to the prosody of modernism, as evidenced by the following:
"Some anthropologists complain that the use of the term modernism is simply a valorization of aesthetics over social science, and in a sense that objection is undeniable. However, so symbiotic has the relationship become between artistic theory and anthropology that a focus upon modernism can no longer be seen as the privileging of literature, say, over social science" [stress added]." Marc Manganaro, 1990, Textual Play, Power, and Cultural Critique: An Orientation To Modernist Anthropology. In Modernist Anthropology: From Fieldwork to Text, edited by Marc Manganaro, page 5.)
I prefer the crispness of Anton Chehkov (1860-1904) in Three Sisters (1901), as opposed to "reflexive" modernization, as evidenced by the following:
"Reflexive modernization is a social theoretical construct raised in response to the long-standing intellectual trend of the late 1970a through the present of speaking in terms of postmodernism and positing a present era of postmodernity. Although it incorporates the critical power of postmodernist discourse to disrupt the existing establishment of narratives and frameworks of social thought, reflexive modernization seeks to ground and systematize these critical initiatives in more sociological and empirical terms. Reflexive modernization thus does not so much oppose the idea of postmodernity as specify it for social thought. The construct is prominently developed in the recent writings of.... [stress added]." George E. Marcus, 1999, Critical Anthropology Now: An Introduction. In Critical Anthropology Now: Unexpected Contexts, Shifting Constituencies, Changing Agendas, edited by George A. Marcus [Santa Fe, New Mexico], pages 3-28, page 11.
Read, synthesize, travel, and create your own understanding! It was great fun (and work!) to portray Darwin and it continues to be great fun to read about him and read some of the available correspondence (both on the web, in a reduced format, and in various volumes). Take everything I have written and presented about Darwin cum grano salis and form your own opinion!
It is great fun to read about Darwin and learn that he was called "Bobby" while a young man, as well as "Charley" and "Philos" by Captain Robert Fitzroy (1805-1865) of HMS Beagle. In 1831, FitzRoy was planning the survey mission that would eventually have HMS Beagle and her crew away from England from December 1831 to October of 1836:
"Was there room on the Beagle for someone from the outside world who would share his scientific tastes and make good use of his time on a surveying expedition--a gentlemen, of course, who could dine with him as an equal, share his expenses, and help maintain a semblance of normal life beyond the pressures of the South American survey?" Janet Browne, 1995, Charles Darwin - Voyaging: Volume I Of A Biography, page 149.
FitzRoy eventually chose Darwin, and the rest is history! As Darwin himself wrote: "The voyage of the Beagle has been by far the most important event in my life and has determined my whole career...." (Nora Barlow, 1958, The Autobiography of Charles Darwin 1809-1882, With original omissions restored Edited with Appendix and Notes by his grand-daughter Nora Barlow (NY: W.W. Norton 1969 edition), page 76). In October of 1833, while Darwin was on shore in South America, and FitzRoy was on the Beagle, FitzRoy wrote:
"My dear Darwin[:] Two hours since, I received your epistle, dated 26th. and most punctually and immediately am about to answer your queries. (mirabile!!)
But firstly of the first--my good Philos why have you told me nothing of your hairbreadth escapes & moving accidents[.] How many times did you flee from the Indians? How many precipices did you fall over? How many bogs did you fall into?--How often were you carried away by the floods? and how many times were you kilt?--that you were not kilt dead I have visible evidence in your handwriting,--as well as in a columnar paragraph in Mr. Love's unamiable paper. ...Philos--be not irate--have patience and I will tell thee all. ... Adios Philos--Ever faithfully yours. Robt. FitzRoy." Frederick Burkhardt et al. [Editors], 1985, The Correspondence of Charles Darwin Volume 1 1821-1836(Cambridge University Press), page 336.
This would eventually be the same Robert FitzRoy who slashed his own throat on April 30, 1865, believing that he had unleashed Darwin upon the world! As Thomson has written, FitzRoy "finished it all, by cutting his throat. Thus ended the brilliantly inventive, partly-mad life of one of the most highly intellectual naval officers of the century." Keith S. Thomson, 1995, HMS Beagle: The Story of Darwin's Ship (NY: W.W. Norton), page 208.
It is interesting to note that while Darwin was a Cambridge graduate, and knew his Geology (and beetles!), and was probably aware of the work of the eminent Geologist Charles Lyell (1797-1875), FitzRoy did play a part in the Darwin-Lyell connection. In 1830, the first volume of Lyell's Principles of Geology was published:
"FitzRoy had made a present to him [Charles Darwin] of the first volume before they left England, a gift reflecting FitzRoy's interest in the subject, and also the fact that he had met Lyell some months earlier when the geologist asked for several observations to be made in South America on his behalf. Teasingly, FitzRoy gave Darwin another present at the same time in the shape of an English grammar. Like [ mate and assistant surveyor, John Lort] Stokes, he put little faith in a Cambridge education. Inscribed in the front and dated 1831, the grammar went into the poop cabin locker along with Lyell." Janet Browne, 1995, Charles Darwin - Voyaging: Volume I Of A Biography, page 186.
In my attempt to "understand" some of the individuals involved with Darwin during his time, I have been to see FitzRoy's home in London (38 Onslow Square, SW7), as well as the area where Charles Darwin and Emma Wedgwood Darwin lived (110 Gower Street, WC1), where Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895) maintained his residence (38 Marlborough Place, NW), as well as Down House, Luxted Road, Downe, Kent (where Mr. and Mrs. Charles Darwin moved to, from London, in September 1842). In North America, I have also visited the Rhea County Courthouse (Dayton, Tennessee) where the celebrated "Scopes Trial" of 1925 was held.
It is unfortunate to read others who quote Darwin and (who at times) quote him so badly for their purposes. Consider an article which appeared in 1982 (in the defunct) Science magazine entitled "On the Life of Mr. Darwin," written by a "Contributing Editor." After presenting an interesting "interview" with Darwin, the "editor" concluded with the following quote:
"There is a grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed laws [sic.] of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved." Roger Bingham, 1982, On The Life Of Mr. Darwin. Science 82, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 34-39, page 39.
Not only did Bingham not cite Darwin's specific reference to the "Creator" but he also pluralized the "law" of gravity into many laws! If one is familiar with Darwin, one notes the difference, for in the closing words of the 1860 edition of Origin Darwin had the following:
"Thus, from the war of nature, from famine and death, the most exalted object of which we are capable of conceiving, namely the production of higher animals directly follows. There is a grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator [stress added] into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved."
Denise Shekerjian writes in her 1990 masterful publication entitled Uncommon Genius: How Great Ideas Are Born (dealing with various individuals who have received MacArthur awards, or "genius grants"), that Steven J. Gould's "favorite motto of all time derives from the distinguished architect Mies van der Rohe (1886-1969): 'God dwells in the details'" (1990: page 4). It strikes me, however, that there are always certain details that Gould sees fit to omit when writing about Charles R. Darwin. In a 1993 publication, for some reason, Gould ended his essay entitled "Shoemaker And Morning Star" in the following manner:
"And I remembered that Charles Darwin had drawn the very same contrast in the final lines of the Origin of Species. When asking himself, in one climactic paragraph, to define the essence of the differences between life and the inanimate cosmos, Darwin chose the directional character of evolution vs. the cyclic repeatability of our clockwork solar system [and Gould then quotes the following from Darwin]: 'There is a grandeur in this view of life.... [these "...." are placed by Gould in his quote, which continues as follows] Whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved.'" Stephen J. Gould, 1993, Shoemaker And Morning Star. Eight Little Piggies: Reflections In Natural History , pp. 206-217, pages 216-217.
Gould must have had a reason for not mentioning Darwin's reference to the "Creator" (added by Darwin himself in the second edition of 1860), but it is not obvious to the casual reader. Why does Gould not quote for (for example) from the sixth edition?
Incidentally, one deduces that Gould is quoting from the 1st edition of Origin since Peckham's massive variorum edition (expanded upon below) points out that Darwin had a "comma" between "being" and 'evolved" and by the 6th edition of 1872, Darwin had changed the working to read "being evolved." (Morse Peckham [Editor], 1959, The Origin of Species by Charles Darwin: A Variorum Text (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press), page 105). It is interesting to note that Mies van der Rohe also followed the precept of St. Augustine and St. Thomas Acquinas: "Beauty is the splendour of Truth." (Peter Blake, 1960, Mies van der Rohe: Architecture and Structure. (Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books; 1968 reprinted edition) [originally published in 1964 by Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. in The Master Builders], page 15.)
Throughout this paper, I have attempted to stress the basic humanity of Darwin, a point others have also noted; I also stress the importance of reading items for yourself and forming your own opinions! Do your own research and go back to the "original" whenever possible and not to what some "commentator" says about the "original" (even though that commentator be Gould or Urbanowicz or ....). As I stated at the 1998 Meetings of the Southwestern Anthropological Society and The California Folklore Society:
"Science is not neutral and the personality and background of every participant plays a role in the ever-developing story: hence, my continuous desire to humanize Darwin and perhaps better understand him. By looking at the individuals who write about Darwin, we learn something about Darwin and we also learn something about the person who writes about Darwin. For some strange (and personal reason) individuals who write about Darwin often choose to select points for their own purposes." http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Darwin_Folklore.html
Darwin was human and was:
"...very sensitive to criticism, and tried hard to satisfy all his critics by making appropriate alterations and accommodating conflicting points of view. This process is far more evident in Origin, where the first edition nowadays seems much superior to the sixth and last edition." John Bonner and Robert May, 1981, "Preface" in Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man And Selection In Relation To Sex , page xxxv.
In this 1981 reprint of Darwin's Descent, Bonner and May point out that they chose to reprint the 1871 edition and not the second edition of 1874 because "Darwin had an unfortunate habit, in his revisions, of rewriting some of the freshness out of the initial work." John Bonner and Robert May, 1981, "Preface" in Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man And Selection In Relation To Sex , page xxxiv.
In reading Darwin, which "Darwin are you reading?" This is nothing but the same question that the distinguished Sir Gavin de Beer (once a Director of the Natural History Department of the British Museum, London) asked:
"How many, even among professional biologists and geologists, read Darwin's original works? They would be astonished to find that in addition to the demonstrations of fact and theory for which they are justly famous, they [Darwin's original works] contain an inexhaustible supply of problems for research of central importance at the present day [stress added]." Gavin De Beer, 1964, Charles Darwin: Evolution by Natural Selection (NY: Doubleday), page vi.
Origin is readily available in numerous versions (paperback, hardback, and on the web), but what edition of Origin do you have? Darwin took his critics to heart and the various revisions in Origin (for example) have been documented:
"...in response to numerous criticisms Darwin undertook constant revisions between the book's first appearance in 1859 and the sixth edition of 1872. The later editions thus differ considerably from the first, and the last edition contains an additional chapter (chapter 7) dealing with objections to the theory. These changes tend to obscure the original argument and the first edition is thus by far the clearest expression of Darwin's insight [STRESS added]." Peter J. Bowler, 1990, Charles Darwin: The Man And His Influence, page 144.
Everyone makes mistakes. Allison Jolly has written a wonderful 1999 book entitled Lucy's Legacy: Sex And Intelligence in Human Evolution wherein it is (erroneously) written about Darwin's Origin that: "He kept the last paragraph of his masterpiece unchanged through all successive editions of the Origin" and then there is a quote (from the first edition) on page 16: "There is a grandeur ." This "unchanged" statement is totally incorrect. Even though I have not counted every word in the six editions of Origin, in 1959 Morse Peckham published a variorum edition wherein each line for each of the six editions was counted and I do know that in the second Origin edition of 1860 Darwin included, apparently at the behest of Lyell, the term "Creator" as mentioned. Which "version" of Darwin are you reading?
The concept of different interpretations of Darwin over time, as well as CHANGES in Darwin's own thinking, is vital for an understanding of Darwin. In almost every item I place on the WWW concerning Darwin, I attempt to include the following table (based on Morse Peckham, Editor, 1959, The Origin of Species by Charles Darwin: A Variorum Text, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press); Origin went through six editions in Darwin's lifetime (in addition to his numerous other publications), and please think about the work that went into the following six editions of Origin from 1859-1872:
In the 5th edition of 1869, at the suggestion of Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913), Darwin used (for the first time) the famous phrase (borrowed from Herbert Spencer [1820-1903]): "Survival of the Fittest." In the 6th edition of 1872, "On" was dropped from the title. In the 1st edition of 1859, Darwin only had the following phrase about human beings: "In the distant future I see open fields for far more important researches. Psychology will be based on a new foundation, that of the necessary acquirement of each mental power and capacity by gradation. Light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history."
In the 2nd edition of Origin, published in 1860, Darwin also added in reference to "the Creator" and this remained in all editions published in his lifetime. Even Jonathan Weiner, the Pulitzer-prize winning author of the excellent 1994 The Beak of the Finch, saw fit in his 1999 work entitled Time, Love, and Memory: A Great Biologist and his Quest for the Origins of Behavior (1999, page 14), dealing with the research of Seymour Benzer, to only paraphrase Darwin's closing words, using the words "grandeur" and "evolved" but no "Creator." Paying attention to small details made me appreciate Ross Shideler's 1999 publication, entitled Questioning The Father: From Darwin To Zola, Ibsen, Strindberg, and Hardy (Stanford University Press), wherein it is pointed out that in the second edition of Origin, Darwin has "by the Creator" (1999, page 21; also see Gillian Beer, 1983, Darwin's Plots: Evolutionary Narrative In Darwin, George Eliot and Nineteenth-Century Fiction [London: 1985 ARK Paperback, imprint of Routledge & Kegan Paul], page 54]).
Egregious references to Darwin (and Huxley) appear in Parker and McKinney's 1999 publication entitled Origins of Intelligence: The Evolution of Cognitive Development in Monkeys, Apes, and Humans, wherein the following appears: "Ever since Darwin (1930) proclaimed that human intelligence arose through natural selection and since Huxley (1959) proclaimed the genealogical affinity between humans and great apes...." (1999, page 3) and one thinks "1930" and "1959"? Going to the references provides no solution, for a reader sees "Darwin, C. (1930). The Descent of man. New York: Appleton and Co." as well as "Huxley, T.H. (1959). Man's place in nature. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press" and where does one discover that these gentlemen actually published their respective works in the 19th century? How does the first-time reader have any sense of history? Read the publication yourself and form your own opinion!
Incidentally, from my perspective, Gould is consistent when he quotes Darwin (and leaving out reference to the term "Creator"): see for example "The Bare Bones of Natural Science" in his 1996 publication Full House: The Spread of Excellence From Plato To Darwin (pages 135-146, especially page 141). Gould, unfortunately in my opinion, is also consistent when he quotes Darwin without providing the reader with a specific reference: see, for example, his "Darwin's American Soulmate: A Bird's-Eye View" in his 1998 publication Leonardo's Mountain Of Clams And The Diet of Worms, pages 99-118, (which is an otherwise excellent chapter dealing with Darwin and James Dwight Dana [1813-1895]. In this chapter, Gould ends the chapter as follows:
"Consider, in closing, how the two men treated Plato, the greatest of all intellectual Gods. Dana simply revered his name and his concept of a permanent realm of idealized perfection. Darwin delighted in challenging the master--in showing how simply, and how elegantly, the new evolutionary view could interpret and explain some of the great mysteries and arcana of the ages. Just one comment, privately penned in one of Darwin's youthful notebooks, after he returned to London on the Beagle, captures this fundamental difference between Darwin's flexibility and Dana's immobility. With one line, Darwin cuts through two thousand years of traditional interpretation for innate concepts of the human brain. They are not, he nearly shouts for joy, manifestations of Platonic absolutes transmitted from the ideal realm of archetypes, but simple inheritances from our past:
Plato says in Phaedo that 'our imaginary ideas' arise from the pre-existence of the soul, and are not derivable from experience. Read monkeys for preexistence!'" Stephen J. Gould, 1998, Darwin's American Soulmate: A Bird's-Eye View. Leonardo's Mountain Of Clams And The Diet of Worms, page 118.
Just when and where did the youthful Darwin pen these words? A reader might be interested in a reference to something like the 1987 publication, edited by Paul H. Barrett [et. al] entitled Charles Darwin's Notebooks, 1839-1844, Geology, Transmutation of Species, Metaphysical Enquiries wherein one can read the following from Darwin's Notebook M of 1838:
"Plato <<Erasmus [Alvey Darwin]>> says in Phaedo that our 'necessary ideas' arise from the preexistence of the soul, are not derivable from experience.--read monkeys for preexistence." Paul H. Barrett [et. al] entitled Charles Darwin's Notebooks, 1839-1844, Geology, Transmutation of Species, Metaphysical Enquiries , page 551.
Might there be another "Notebook" that Gould quotes from? The one I have has "necessary ideas" and not Gould's "imaginary ideas."
"Confusion" that might come from a reading of "Gould on Darwin" was perhaps brought to the attention of the public with Robert Wright's 1999 essay in The New Yorker entitled: "Accidental Creationist: Why Stephen Jay Gould is bad for evolution" (December 13, 1999, pages 56-65). Wright, the 1994 author of The Moral Animal: Evolutionary Psychology And Everyday Life, has an interesting statement which clearly reinforces my 1998 words above: "Science is not neutral..." for Wright has the following: "Full disclosure: I made the criticism of Gould's book [1989, Wonderful Life], and he has since written unfavorable things about my work" (R. Wright, 1999, page 57). The debate on words dealing with "Darwin" is extensive, and citing Barzun ("here is not the place to trace out the lines of thought"), let me simply add the following:
"Nothing said or written has, to this day, succeeded in erasing the confusion between Evolution and natural Selection. Likewise, scientists are still convinced that Origin of Species assigns natural selection as the cause of evolution, whereas the sixth and last edition of the book  reinstates two others: Lamarck's use and disuse and environmental influences. Darwin later wrote a large book illustrating the further role of sexual selection . This cloudy state of affairs has even thickened. Here is not the place to trace out the lines of thought that lead from Darwin to the quite different Darwinism and on to the conflicting beliefs that are now held by the authorities in various centers of research and publication. Nobody questions evolution--there seems no reason to, but what is taught about its character and its mechanism is by no means consistent; yet the diversity of views is rarely confided to the student or educated reader [stress added]." Jacques Barzun, 2000, From Dawn To Decadence: 500 Years of Western Cultural Life - 1500 To The Present (NY: HarperCollins), page 571.
Finally, lest the reader think I seek only to nit-pick poor scholarship or documentation, let me praise the outstanding and amazing Paul R. Ehrlich publication (2000) entitled Human Natures: Genes, Cultures and the Human Prospect. Fantastic! With some 331 pages of text and 100 pages of 1,901 footnotes, Ehrlich cites some 2,574 references (giving original year of publication and what latest edition he might be citing from) to make his (excellent) Darwinian point!
"The basic explanation of evolution, our own and that of every other organism, traces to one of the most influential books ever written, Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species, published in 1859." Paul R. Ehrlich, 2000, Human Natures: Genes, Cultures and the Human Prospect, page 16.
"There is no easy formula for understanding the human past or today's human natures or for projecting the human future. We have clues about where we're going, but we can't tell for certain where we're going to end up. We know that we are apes, but we cannot be classified simplistically as 'naked apes' or 'killer apes' or 'moral apes.' We are products of a long and complex process of genetic and cultural evolution and gene-culture coevolution. Our past was complicated; so is our present, and so will be our future. Those who claim to have simple solutions for complex problems are most often wrong, but nonetheless the search for broad generalities is necessary. We'll never deal with the devils in the details unless we see the big picture." Paul R. Ehrlich, 2000, Human Natures: Genes, Cultures and the Human Prospect, page 331.
Whenever you can, read everything in the original. Please read Darwin and form your own opinions (but you will have to do quite a bit of reading to form a "true" opinion of Darwin's point of view and his changes through time). Martin Gardner, writing in The Sacred Beetle And Other Great Essays in Science (1984) includes Darwin's "Recapitulation and Conclusions" chapter from Origin in his collection of essays and has the following:
"Darwin himself, as a young biologist aboard H.M.S. Beagle, was so thoroughly orthodox that the ship's officers laughed at his propensity for quoting Scripture. Then 'disbelief crept over me at a very slow rate,' he recalled, 'but was at last complete. The rate was so slow that I felt no distress.' The phrase 'by the creator,' in the final sentence of the selection chosen here, did not appear in the first edition of Origin of Species. It was added to the second edition to conciliate angry clerics. Darwin later wrote, 'I have long since regretted that I truckled to public opinion and used the Pentateuchal term of creation, by which I really meant 'appeared' by some wholly unknown process [stress added].'" Martin Gardner, 1984, The Sacred Beetle And Other Great Essays in Science, page 5.
The phrase "Darwin later wrote" by Gardner refers (as Gillespie has pointed out) to a personal letter from Darwin to Joseph Hooker on 29 March 1863. Darwin continued his thoughts with the following sentence: "It is mere rubbish, thinking at present of the origin of life; one might as well think of the origin of matter." Neal C. Gillespie, 1979, Charles Darwin And The Problem of Creation, page 8.
Who was Darwin and what is his impact? Darwin was a 19th century scientist, a leading naturalist of the day. Charles R. Darwin was not lacking in faith, for the faith that he held, however, was that of a scientist: there are some things which are simply not knowable and let us go on to what we can try and understand! Perhaps we should consider the words of the Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-1968) who stated it well in this century: "Science investigates; religion interprets. Science gives man knowledge which is power; religion gives man wisdom which is control."
"We have a veritable Hegelian contradiction. Darwinism is sexist. Darwinism is feminist. How can this be? The obvious answer is that, in some sense, Darwinism is simply a clotheshorse on which people will hang any ideology that they find comforting. You are a sexist? Darwinism will accommodate you. You are a feminist? Darwinism will accommodate you, too [stress added]." Michael Ruse, 1998, "Is Darwin Sexist? (And If It Is, So What?)" in A House Built on Sand: Exposing Postmodernist Myths About Science, edited by Noretta Koertge, page 121.
Darwin was not an atheist who rejected all religious beliefs and denied the existence of God; he was, however, unwilling to accept supernatural (culturally biased) explanations for the natural (neutral) world of nature that he observed all around him. Perhaps Darwin should have quoted the words of the Scottish historian and essayist, Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881): "I don't pretend to understand the Universe - it's a great deal bigger than I am . . . People ought to be modester." In his 1876 Autobiography, Darwin wrote that at the time of Origin he deserved "to be called a Theist." Ideas and perspectives change over time and on the following page Darwin stated:
"...it has very gradually with many fluctuations become weaker. ... I cannot pretend to throw the least light on such abstruse problems [as the existence of God]. The mystery of the beginning of all things is insoluble by us; and I for one must be content to remain an Agnostic." Nora Barlow, 1958, The Autobiography of Charles Darwin 1809-1882, With original omissions restored Edited with Appendix and Notes by his grand-daughter Nora Barlow (NY: W.W. Norton 1969 edition), pages 93-94; Frances Darwin, 1892 , The Autobiography of Charles Darwin and Selected Letters (NY: Dover Publications, Inc.), page 66; as well as, S.E. Hyman, 1963, Darwin For Today, page 371.
His aforementioned friend and associate, Thomas Henry Huxley, coined the term "agnostic" in 1869. An agnostic is defined as "a person who believes that the human mind cannot know whether there is a God or an ultimate cause, or anything beyond material phenomena" and Darwin's philosophy was a problem for his wife Emma, who maintained a deep religious conviction throughout her life; his agnostic beliefs did "make her sad" and uneasy for his sake. (Gavin de Beer, 1964, Charles Darwin: Evolution By Natural Selection, page 269.)
Darwin wrote as a scientist of his times and saw what numerous other individuals had seen and then had some new interpretations! Darwin also wrote in metaphors and perhaps one of the best summary statements of Darwin's effort comes from the previously cited Shekerjian:
"Leaving aside the intuitive, tender, poetic beauty of a metaphor (if beauty can ever be dismissed so lightly), what is useful about this sort of wordsmithing is that by comparing dissimilar things we are able to comprehend the unfamiliar in familiar terms. There, precisely, lies the creative power of metaphor: it uses something we know well to explain what has eluded us. This is easily appreciated in the sciences. Darwin's most fertile metaphor in his efforts to comprehend evolution, for example, was the branching tree [stress added]." Denise Shekerjian, 1990, Uncommon Genius: How Great Ideas Are Born, page 102.
Although we may wish to be "the guide on the side" (as current technological phraseology has it), we must also continue to be "the sage on the stage" for if we are not knowledgeable about the "facts" who shall be?
Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882) was an extremely important individual for a variety of reasons: the data he collected, the experiments he conducted, the books he wrote (more than twenty), and the theories and ideas he proposed influenced a variety of disciplines, from anthropology to zoology as well as business and biology, ecology, geology, and the general social sciences. We now have areas of research (and businesses) that are called "Darwinian Medicine" as well as "Evolutionary Psychology." The "Darwin Industry" (a term first coined by?) is alive and well, and as the above-mentioned Gillian Beer pointed out in the second edition of Darwin's Plots, published in the year 2000:
"Darwin has grown younger in recent years. He is no longer the authoritative old man with a beard substituting for God. Instead his work and life are again in contention and debate. Sociologists, microbiologists, linguists, sociobiologists, philosophers, feminists, psychologists, biographers, geneticists, novelists, poets, post-colonialists, have their say." Gillian Beer, 2000, Darwin's Plots: Evolutionary Narrative In Darwin, George Eliot and Nineteenth-Century Fiction (Second Edition) (Cambridge University Press), page xvii.
Given Darwin's technique for soliciting information from individuals all over the globe (the "Darwin Correspondence" has more than 15,000 letters that were exchanged between Charles Darwin and others), I truly believe that Charles R. Darwin would have embraced the World Wide Web for the "tool" that it is: a device for sharing ideas and information around the globe! The "Darwin Industry" is alive and well, not only in printed materials but World Wide Web information: consider some "search engine hits" for "Charles R. Darwin" that provided the following information on November 6, 2000: Google had 71,400 items; Northern Light had 48,163 items; All The Web had 52,048 items; Alta Vista Search had 2,718,925 items; Raging Search had 25,776 items; and MonkeySweat had 53,469 items! Obviously, just as with people, all "search engines" are not created equal!
The November 6, 2000 data may be compared with the following from an October 17, 2000 search, as reported in "Charlie on Darwin" on October 26, 2000: last month, Google had 89,300 items; Northern Light had 45,508 items; All The Web had 52,940 items; Alta Vista Search had 2,760,910 items; Iatlas.com had 1,860,208 items; Raging Search had 25,581 items; and MonkeySweat had those 53,469 items. In an interesting book entitled The Talmud And The Internet: A Journey Between Worlds, Jonathan Rosen writes that "the business of life is to learn, not to know" (2000, page 33) for he writes:
"I have often thought, contemplating a page of the Talmud, that it bears an uncanny resemblance to a home page on the Internet, where nothing is whole in itself but where icons and text boxes are doorways through which visitors pass into an infinity of cross-referenced texts and conversations." Jonathan Rosen, 2000, The Talmud And The Internet: A Journey Between Worlds (NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux), pages 8-9.
Charles Darwin would have loved the World Wide Web for his business was to learn! How does one "evaluate" and "use" this wide range of information? One does it just as Darwin did, carefully, patiently, and slowly, for as Darwin wrote:
"False facts are highly injurious to the progress of science, for they often endure long; but false views, if supported by some evidence, do little harm, for every one takes a salutary pleasure in proving their falseness: and when this is done, one path towards error is closed and the road to truth is often at the same time opened." Charles R. Darwin [1809-1882], The Descent of Man And Selection in Relation to Sex, 1871 [1981 Princeton University Press edition, with Introduction by John T. Bonner and Robert M. May], Chapter 21, page 385.
It is interesting how things "go around." It was in 1973, at the 72nd Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, held in New Orleans, Louisiana, November 28 - December 2, that I was part of a panel discussion (organized by Denise O'Brien) at a session entitled "Anthropological Fiction: A Novel Approach To Culture." Other presenters included Laura Bohannan, Virginia Hymes, Morton Klass, L.L. Langness, as well as Denise O'Brien and Andrew Lyons; discussants that day were Erving Goffman and George McDonough. After receiving my Ph.D. from the University of Oregon in August 1972, I had taught at the University of Minnesota (as stated above) for the 1972-1973 academic year and in Fall 1973 I was in my first semester of full-time teaching (four courses/semester) at California State University, Chico, and was attempting to use everything and anything in the classroom, including ethnographic facts and ethnographic fiction! I was aware of the 1939 science fiction item by A.E. van Vogt entitled The Voyage of the Space Beagle and I was thinking of using, for certain classes, the 1972 publication by the distinguished Garrett Hardin: Exploring New Ethics For Survival: The Voyage of the Spaceship Beagle. Consider, if you will, van Vogt's description of something called "Nexialism" and how these 'science fiction words" could possibly be used for getting undergraduates exposed to anthropology:
"...the science of joining in an orderly fashion the knowledge of one field of learning with that of other fields. It provides techniques for speeding up the processes of absorbing knowledge and of using effectively what has been learned." A.E. van Vogt, 1939,The Voyage of the Space Beagle (1963, NY: Macfadden), page 49.
CSU, Chico, had some ~12,000 students in 1973 (and there are now some ~16,000 students). I was learning "how" to teach: I already knew the "what" ("Anthropology") but HOW did one do it? El momento de la verdad was occuring on a regular (and frequent) basis and I was learning to adapt to the California State University, Chico environment. As the distinguished anthropologist Gregory Bateson (1904-1980), and last husband of Margaret Mead, wrote: "The unit of survival [or adaptation] is organism plus environment. We are learning by bitter experience that the organism which destroys its environment destroys itself" (Gregory Bateson, 1972, Steps to an Ecology of Mind [San Francisco: Chandler], page 483); and in keeping with some of other ideas in my chapter in the Rice and McCurdy volume, please see Vincent Lardo, 1999, Lawrence Sanders McNally's Dilemma ( NY: Berkley), page 267.
Aside from a thirteen-year administrative stint (1975-1988), when I did do some teaching, I have been a full-time teacher since 1972. I teach, write/publish, attend professional meetings, and at the 1973 meeting in New Orleans, some twenty-seven years ago, I presented a paper entitled "Anthropology and (Good) Science Fiction." Andrew Lyons (of the Department of Sociology, Rutgers University, Newark) presented an intriguing paper entitled "Why Anthropologists Should Read 'The Water Babies'" and as I recall, there were precious few of us who had even heard of this 1863 publication by Charles Kingsley (1819-1875), let alone have read it! Yet, as Steve Jones pointed out in his 1999 publication entitled Darwin's Ghost: The Origin of Species Updated, it was Kingsley (author, Professor of Modern History at Cambridge University, and Chaplain to Queen Victoria from 1859 to 1875) who was "the first person to turn Darwinism to theological ends [stress added]" with The Water Babies (Steve Jones, 1999, page 122). Some recent words concerning Water Babies are interesting, even though the author wrote: "Doing full justice to The Water-Babies, getting near to tying up all its shoe-ties in a single essay is impossible."
"'What is the story of the Water-Babies about?,' an Admiral Sir George Back wrote to a friend. 'This extraordinary book,' he called it--and well he might. For The Water-Babies: A Fairy Tale for a Land-Baby (1863) is an exceedingly curious, overdetermined, heavy-laden, oddly multivalent text. Its omnivorous crankiness, its weird omni-comprehensiveness reflected well, of course, the impulsive, hot-headed, manic-depressive, often nearly hysterical charging about from cause to cause, issue to issue, of its author the Reverend Canon Charles Kingsley--all at once, or at one time or another, a sanitary reformer, Christian Socialist, poet, novelist, parish priest, befriender of the poor, tutor to the Prince of Wales, devoted re-reader of Rabelais and bondage fetishist." Valentine Cunningham, 2000, Soiled Fairy: The Water-Babies in Its Time. Victorian Fiction, Harold Bloom [Editor], 2000 (NY/Philadelphia: Chelsea House), pages 321-339, page 322 and 321.
Perhaps I should have paid more attention to that 1973 New Orleans American Anthropological Association presentation and then possibly, with much more reading, synthesizing, and teaching and thinking over the years, I might have been able to have produced something like the delightful Dear Mr. Darwin: Letters On The Evolution of Life And Human Behavior (2000, by Gabriel Dover), wherein Dover (who writes to Darwin and writes back as Darwin) has Darwin stating:
"I am so glad you have taken the time and trouble to write to me. It is one of the saddest aspects of human existence that, as soon as one passes away, it is generally assumed that the deceased has no further interest in what he or she spent a great part of life investigating. From what you tell me of the Darwin industry of scholars in your day, busy seeking out every nuance of my life and thoughts, I have to conclude that there is indeed life after death [stress added]." Gabriel Dover, 2000, Dear Mr. Darwin: Letters On The Evolution of Life And Human Behavior (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson), page 3.
Al Alvarez, 2000, The World Series of Poker. Poker Digest, Vol. 3, No. 9, April 21-May 4, 2000, pages 34-37.
Nora Barlow, 1958, The Autobiography of Charles Darwin 1809-882, With original omissions restored Edited with Appendix and Notes by his grand-daughter Nora Barlow (NY: W.W. Norton 1969 edition).
Paul H. Barrett [et. al], 1987,Charles Darwin's Notebooks, 1839-1844, Geology, Transmutation of Species, Metaphysical Enquiries (British Museum [Natural History]) (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press).
Jacques Barzun, 2000, From Dawn To Decadence: 500 Years of Western Cultural Life - 1500 To The Present (NY: HarperCollins).
Gregory Bateson, 1972, Steps to an Ecology of Mind (San Francisco: Chandler).
Gillian Beer, 1983, Darwin's Plots: Evolutionary Narrative In Darwin, George Eliot and Nineteenth-Century Fiction (London: 1985 ARK Paperback, imprint of Routledge & Kegan Paul).
Gillian Beer, 2000, Darwin's Plots: Evolutionary Narrative In Darwin, George Eliot and Nineteenth-Century Fiction (Second Edition) (Cambridge University Press).
Roger Bingham, 1982, On The Life Of Mr. Darwin. Science 82, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 34-39.
Peter Blake, 1960, Mies van der Rohe: Architecture and Structure. (Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books; 1968 reprinted edition) [originally published in 1964 by Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. in The Master Builders].
Harold Bloom [Editor], 2000, Victorian Fiction (NY/Philadelphia: Chelsea House).
John Bonner and Robert May, 1981, Preface. Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man And Selection In Relatiuon To Sex [1871 edition] (NJ: Princeton University Press).
Peter J. Bowler, 1990, Charles Darwin: The Man And His Influence (Oxford).
Janet Browne, 1995, Charles Darwin - Voyaging: Volume I Of A Biography (NY: Alfred A. Knopf).
Frederick Burkhardt et al. [Editors], 1985, The Correspondence of Charles Darwin Volume 1 1821-1836(Cambridge University Press). [Note: an on-line "calendar" appears at: http://www.lib.cam.ac.uk/Departments/Darwin/calintro.html]
Frederick Burkhardt et al. [Editors], 1991, The Correspondence of Charles Darwin Volume 7 1858-1859 Supplement to the Correspondence 1821-1847 (Cambridge University Press). [Note: an on-line "calendar" appears at: http://www.lib.cam.ac.uk/Departments/Darwin/calintro.html]
Valentine Cunningham, 2000, Soiled Fairy: The Water-Babies in Its Time. Victorian Fiction, Harold Bloom [Editor], 2000 (NY/Philadelphia: Chelsea House), pages 321-339.
Charles R. Darwin, 1859 (as well as): 1860, 1861, 1866, 1869, and 1872, On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life [Note: this is the on-line version of the 1859 edition].
Charles R. Darwin, 1871, The Descent of Man And Selection in Relation to Sex (1981 Princeton University Press edition, with Introduction by John T. Bonner and Robert M. May).
Frances Darwin, 1892 , The Autobiography of Charles Darwin and Selected Letters (NY: Dover Publications, Inc.).
Gavin De Beer, 1964, Charles Darwin: Evolution by Natural Selection (NY: Doubleday).
Gabriel Dover, 2000, Dear Mr. Darwin: Letters On The Evolution of Life And Human Behavior (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson).
Richard M. Eakin, 1975, Great Scientists Speak Again (University of California Press).
Paul R. Ehrlich, 2000, Human Natures: Genes, Cultures and the Human Prospect (Washington, D.C./Covelo, CA: Island Press/Shearwater Books).
Howard Gardner, 1999, Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences (NY: Basic Books).
Martin Gardner, 1984, The Sacred Beetle And Other Great Essays in Science (NY: New American Library).
Gabriella Giannachi and Mary Luckhurst [editors], 1999, On Directing: Interviews With Directors, edited by Gabriella Giannachi and Mary Luckhurst (NY: St. Martin's Griffin).
Neal C. Gillespie, 1979, Charles Darwin And The Problem of Creation (University of Chicago Press).
Stephen J. Gould, 1993, Shoemaker And Morning Star. Eight Little Piggies: Reflections In Natural History (NY: W.W. Norton & Co.), pages 206-217.
Stephen J. Gould, 1996, The Bare Bones of Natural Science. Full House: The Spread of Excellence From Plato To Darwin (NY: Harmony Books), pages 135-146.
Stephen J. Gould, 1998, Darwin's American Soulmate: A Bird's-Eye View. Leonardo's Mountain Of Clams And The Diet of Worms (NY: Harmony Books), pages 99-118.
Lawrence Grobel, 1999, Talking With Michener (Jackson: University of Mississippi Press).
Garrett Hardin, 1972, Exploring New Ethics For Survival: The Voyage of the Spaceship Beagle (1973) (Baltimore: Penguin/Pelican Books).
Stanley Edgar Hyman, 1963, Darwin for Today (New York: The Viking Press).
Charles Kinglsey, 1863, The water-babies; a fairy tale for a land-baby. Illustrated by Rosalie K. Fry.(1957, NY: Dutton).
Allison Jolly, 1999, Lucy's Legacy: Sex And Intelligence in Human Evolution (Harvard University Press).
Steve Jones, 1999, Darwin's Ghost: The Origin of Species Updated (NY: Random House).
Vincent Lardo, 1999, Lawrence Sanders McNally's Dilemma ( NY: Berkley).
Charles Lyell, 1830-1833, Principles of Geology, Being An Attempt To Explain The Former Changes Of The Earth's Surface, By Reference To Causes Now In Operation (London: John Murray). [Edited by James A. Secord, 1997, Penguin Books.]
Andrew Lyons, 1972, Why Anthropologists Should Read 'The Water Babies.' (For the 72nd Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, New Orleans, Louisiana, Nov 28 - Dec 2.)
Paul Lyons [Editor], 1999, The Quotable Gambler (NY: The Lyons Press).
Marc Manganaro, 1990, Textual Play, Power, and Cultural Critique: An Orientation To Modernist Anthropology. In Modernist Anthropology: From Fieldwork to Text, edited by Marc Manganaro (Princeton University Press).
George E. Marcus, 1999, Critical Anthropology Now: An Introduction. Critical Anthropology Now: Unexpected Contexts, Shifting Constituencies, Changing Agendas, edited by George A. Marcus (Santa Fe, New Mexico), pages 3-28.
Ernst Mayr, 2000, Darwin's Influence On Modern Thought. Scientific American, July 2000, Vol. 283, No. 1, pages 79-83.
James A. Michener, 1992, The World is my Home: A Memoir (NY: Random House).
Katie Mitchell, 1999, In On Directing: Interviews With Directors, edited by Gabriella Giannachi and Mary Luckhurst (NY: St. Martin's Griffin).
Wendy Northcutt, 2000, The Darwin Awards: Evolution in Action (Dutton).
D.L. Olmstead [Editor-in-Chief], 1980, In Memorium: Margaret Mead (1901-1978), American Anthropologist entitled (Vol. 82, No. 2, June 1980).
Sue Taylor Parker and Michael L. McKinney, 1999, Origins of Intelligence: The Evolution of Cognitive Development in Monkeys, Apes, and Humans (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press).
Susan Pate, Randy Wonzong, and Donna Breed, 1996, A Beginning Actor's Companion, 3rd edition (Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co.)
Morse Peckham [Editor], 1959, The Origin of Species by Charles Darwin: A Variorum Text (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press).
Patricia Rice and David McCurdy [Editors], 2000, Strategies in Teaching Anthropology (Prentice-Hall).
Jonathan Rosen, 2000, The Talmud And The Internet: A Journey Between Worlds (NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux).
Michael Ruse, 1998, Is Darwin Sexist? (And If It Is, So What?). A House Built on Sand: Exposing Postmodernist Myths About Science, edited by Noretta Koertge (Oxford University Press).
Franz Schulze [Editor], 1989, Mies van der Rohe: Critical Essays (Cambridge: MIT Press).
Denise Shekerjian, 1990, Uncommon Genius: How Great Ideas Are Born (NY: Penguin Books).
Ross Shideler, 1999, Questioning The Father: From Darwin To Zola, Ibsen, Strindberg, and Hardy (Stanford University Press).
Keith S. Thomson, 1995, HMS Beagle: The Story of Darwin's Ship (NY: W.W. Norton).
Charles F. Urbanowicz, 1972, Tongan Social Structure: Data From An Ethnographic Reconstruction. (For the 71st Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Toronto, Canada, November 29-December 3.)
Charles F. Urbanowicz, 1973, Anthropology and (Good) Science Fiction. (For the 72nd Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, New Orleans, Louisiana, Nov 28 - Dec 2.)
Charles F. Urbanowicz, 1992, Four-Field Commentary. Anthropology Newsletter [American Anthropological Association, Washington, D.C.], Vol. 33, No. 9: 3.
Charles F. Urbanowicz, 1993, Charles R. Darwin: Happy 116th Anniversary! (For the 92nd Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Washington, D.C., November 17-21.)
Charles F. Urbanowicz, 1998a, Folklore Concerning Charles R. Darwin. (For the 1998 Annual Meeting of the Southwestern Anthropological Society and The California Folklore Society, Sacramento, California, April 16-18, 1998.)
Charles F. Urbanowicz, 1998b, Gambling (Gaming) In The United States of America From An Anthropological Perspective. Presented at the 14th ICAES [International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences] Meetings on the Anthropology of Tourism for the 1998 Congress held at the College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia, July 29-August 2, 1998.
Charles F. Urbanowicz, 1999, Three Sisters [by Anton Chekhov]. http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/3Sisters.htm
Charles F. Urbanowicz, 2000a, Darwin 2000-2001 [Self]Test One).
Charles F. Urbanowicz, 2000b, Mnemonics, Quotations, Cartoons, And A Notebook: "Tricks" For Appreciating Cultural Diversity. Strategies in Teaching Anthropology (Edited by Patricia C. Rice and David W. McCurdy) (NJ: Prentice-Hall), pages 132-140.
Charles F. Urbanowicz, 2000c, Madwoman of Chaillot [by Jean Giraudoux]. http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/ChaillotWordsMisc.htm.
Charles F. Urbanowicz, in press Gambling Into The 21st Century. The Anthropology Of Tourism: Hosts And Guests in the 20th Century, 3rd edition, Valene Smith, Editor (NY: Cognizant Communication Corp.)
A.E. van Vogt, 1939,The Voyage of the Space Beagle (1963, NY: Macfadden).
Jonathan Weiner, 1994, The Beak of the Finch (NY: Vintage Books).
Jonathan Weiner, 1999, Time, Love, and Memory: A Great Biologist and his Quest for the Origins of Behavior (NY: Knopf).
Robert Wright, 1994, The Moral Animal: Evolutionary Psychology And Everyday Life (NY: Pantheon Books).
Robert Wright, 1999, Accidental Creationist: Why Stepen J. Gould is bad for evolution. The New Yorker, Vol. 75, No. 38 (December 13, 1999), pages 56-65.
"It is not the strongest of the species that survives,
nor the most intelligent,
but [rather] the [one] most responsive to change."
Attributed to Charles Darwin?
[Note: In the Galápagos Islands in July 2000, I purchased a shirt with these words printed on it;
I have also been directed to a web site which gives "Charles Darwin" as the author of this statement
Interchange, Home of the Change Cycle Products, Training and Seminars].
In addition, I have seen dates of 1835 and 1859 for this statement.
As of this writing, unfortunately, I cannot find a specific Darwin reference for this phrase,
and hence I state: attributed to Charles R. Darwin (1809-1882).
APPENDIX I: SELECTED URBANOWICZ DARWIN WWW REFERENCES ONLY:
[2000a Charlie on Darwin} 26 October 2000
CELT/Anthropology Forum presentation at CSU, Chico].
#2. http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/AAUW2000.html [2000b South American words} Presented by my wife Sadie and me at the AAUW [American Association of University Women] Meeting in Chico, California, October 6, 2000.
#3. http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/SoAmGIslands.html [2000c South American visuals].
#4. http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/CELTFall2000ConfSubm.html (2000d CELT Conference Proposal submission dated 10 April 2000].
#5. http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/CeltMarch2000DarwinSubmiss.htm [2000e CELT Proposal For Project Darwin: 2000-2001, submitted 29 March 2000].
#6. http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/DarwinMiscSp2000.html [Spring 2000f Darwin Miscellaneous Information]
#7. http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/SelfTesting/DarwinTestOne.htm [January 2000g Darwin Self-Test #1].
#8. http://mole.csuchico.edu:8080/ramgen/archive/darwinvoyage.rm [1999a 22 minute video available on your desktop with REALPLAYER; this is tape #2 of the proposed four-part series: it takes "Darwin" from England to South America.].
#9. http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/DarwinMiscSep99.html [1999b Darwin Misc September]} "Generic" Darwin handout for a variety of Fall 1999 classroom presentations, including Anthropology and Philosophy; previous guest lectures on Darwin have also been given for Art and Mathematics.].
#10. http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/DarwinSp99Presentations.html [1999c Spring Handout for ART 197 and PHIL 108 presentations.].
#11. http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/DarwinPhil108.htm [1998a Fall Handout for PHIL 108 Presentation].
#12. http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/F98Homecoming.html [1998b Fall Handout for Homecoming Presentation].
#13. http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/ANTH300.html [1998c Fall ANTH 300 presentation].
#14. http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/DarwinArt197.html [1998d September presentation for ART 197].
#15. http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/PowerPoint/DarwinModernismSep98/ [1998e September PowerPoint Presentation for Art 197].
#16. http://rce.csuchico.edu/rv/Darwin.html [1998f May: 15 Minute Video Report for the Office of the Provost} prepared as part of my "Master Teacher" Report.].
#17. http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Darwin_Folklore.html [1998g: Folklore Concerning Charles R. Darwin. For the Southwestern Anthropological Society Meetings] also please see:
#18. http://orion.csuchico.edu/Pages/vol40issue2/n.darwin.html [1998h: Chantal Lamers, Darwin's Insight Evolves To CD-ROM. The Orion, Vol. 40, Issue 2, February 4, page 1 and page 8.].
#19.http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Jan'98_Millennium_Paper.html [1998i January Presentation dealing with Technology and the Future].
#20. http://mole.csuchico.edu:8080/ramgen/archive/darwinreflections.rm [1997a, 18 minute video available on your desktop with REALPLAYER; this is tape #1 of the proposed four-part series: it "sets the setting" of Darwin in England].
#21. http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Forum/Darwin_Sep'97.html [1997b Fall Anthropology Forum Presentation].
#22. http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Forum/darwin.mov [1996a Fourteen Second Darwin "Quick Time" Movie].
#23. http://www.csuchico.edu/anth/CASP/1996.html [1996b publication, including chapter on Darwin by the Chico Anthropological Society].
#24. http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Forum/Nov7-96.html [with Donna Crowe & Kathy Fernandes} 1996 Fall Anthropology Forum presentation].
#25. http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Darwin/DarwinSem-S95.html [1995a January ANTH Seminar paper].
#26. http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Darwin116.html [1993 November Darwin presentation at the American Anthropological Association Meetings].
#27. http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Forum/Feb11-93.html [1993 Fall Anthropology Forum Presentation].
APPENDIX II: VARIOUS DARWIN-APPROPRIATE WWW SITES:
[Charles Darwin: Curriculum Vitae]
http://www.literature.org/authors/darwin-charles/the-origin-of-the-species/ [Charles Darwin} Origin of Species]
http://www.library.ucla.edu/libraries/biomed/his/darwin/darintro.htm [Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle - Birds]
http://tom.cs.cmu.edu/cgi-bin/book/lookup?num=2010 [Autobiography of Charles Darwin from Project Gutenberg]
http://tom.cs.cmu.edu/cgi-bin/book/lookup?num=1227 [The Expression of The Emotions in Man And Animals by Charles Darwin from Project Gutenberg]
http://www.infidels.org/library/historical/charles_darwin/descent_of_man/ [The Descent of Man by Charles Darwin]
http://pauillac.inria.fr/~clerger/Darwin.html [Darwin's Theory of Atoll Formation]
http://cc.owu.edu/~librweb/f2darwin.htm [Darwin's 1858 Linnaean Society Paper]
http://hawklord.members.beeb.net/darwinworms.htm [Charles Darwin's Book on Garden Earth Worms]
http://www.Geocities.com/Heartland/3479/Darwin.html [Charles R. Darwin 1809-1882} actually the "Wedgwood" geneology]
[December 6-13, 1998 "field trip" to the Galapagos
http://www.wwf.org/galapagos [Gálapagos Islands]
http://www.horizon.fr/galapagos/pinson.html [Les Pinsons de Darwin} Darwin's Finches - in French]
http://www.biology.com/visitors/tour/voyage/offer.html [Voyage: Charles Darwin]
http://www.terindell.com/asylum/jason/darwin.html [Charles Darwin and the Galapagos]
http://www.cs.swarthmore.edu/~binde/jason/geography.html [Overview of the Galápagos Islands]
http://www.terraquest.com/galapagos/wildlife/island/finch.html [Virtual Galápagos: Wildlife - Darwin's Finches]
http://www.ecuadorexplorer.com/ [EcuadorExplorer.com - online guide to Ecuador and the Galapagos]
http://www.terraquest.com/galapagos/ [Virtual Galápagos]
http://www.iexplore.com/multimedia/galapagos.jhtml [iExplore | Multimedia Presentations} The Galápagos Islands]
http://pubs.nsta.org/galapagos/ [National Science Teachers Association: Galápagos]
http://vcourseware5.calstatela.edu/ [Virtual Courseware for Science Education} Note: Fee-based]
[Charles Darwin's Country home: Down House]
http://www.shef.ac.uk/~psysc/darwin/dar.html [On Darwin]
http://www.lib.cam.ac.uk/Departments/Darwin/calintro.html [On-Line Calendar of the Correrspondence of Charles Darwin]
[The Charles Darwin Foundation for the Galapagos islands]
http://www.galapagos.org/cdf.htm [Charles Darwin Foundation, Inc.]
http://www.gruts.demon.co.uk/darwin/index.htm [The Friends of Charles Darwin Home Page]
http://www.ilkley.org/darwin/ [The Ilkley Pages: Darwin Gardens...]
http://www.erasmus-darwin.org/ [The Erasmus Darwin Foundation]
[Spencer - The Person - Successful Author]
http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Darwin.html [George Howard Darwin: 1845-1912]
http://www.shef.ac.uk/~psysc/darwin/dar.html ["Darwin's Metaphor" by Prof. Robert M. Young]
http://www.ed.uiuc.edu/people/gac/without_miracles/ ["Without Miracles" by Gary Cziko]
http://www.uib.no/zoo/classics/new_species.txt [Alfred Russel Wallace 1855 paper)
http://www.uib.no/zoo/classics/varieties.html [Alfred Russel Wallace 1858 paper]
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/thuxley.html [Thomas Henry Huxley: 1824-1895]
http://research.med.umkc.edu/tlwbiostats/historyGalton.html [Historical Perspective: Sir Francis Galton, 1822-1911]
http://www.mq.edu.au/~ockham/y6405.html [Darwin & Huxley on Ethics and Society]
http://netspace.org/MendelWeb/ [Gregor Mendel = MendelWeb]
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/owen.html [Richard Owen: 1804-1892]
http://www.dimensional.com/~randl/scopes.htm [The Scopes "Monkey Trial," or "A 1925 Media Circus"
http://www.edweek.org/ew/vol-15/25tenn.h15 [70 Years After Scopes, Evolution Hot Topic Again]
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_443000/443006.stm [BBC News: Darwin Gets A Makeover]
http://clubs.asua.arizona.edu/~darwin/ [The Charles Darwin Experience!]
http://www.darwinmagazine.com/ [Business Evolving in the Information Age]
http://darwin.ameritrade.com/ [Options Trading sumulation / game from Ameritech]
http://www.people.virginia.edu/~rjh9u/darwmed.html [Darwinian Medicine]
http://www.evoyage.com/Whatis.html [What is Evolutionary Psychology?]
[Official Darwin Awards} "...showing us just how uncommon common
sense can be." Wendy Northcutt, 2000, The Darwin Awards: Evolution
in Action (Dutton).
APPENDIX III: SOME VISUALS:
There are only two "visuals" on this web page; you are encouraged, however, to direct your browser to:
where you will find numerous "Darwin Visuals Only."
# # #
To go to the home page of Charles
To go to the home page of the Department of Anthropology.
To go to the home page of California State University, Chico.
[This page printed from http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Darwin2000.html]
For more information, please contact Charles
Anthropology Department, CSU,