THE DARWIN PROJECT:1996 to 2004!

Dr. Charles F. Urbanowicz (Professor of Anthropology) and Ms. Donna Crowe (Media Production Specialist)
California State University, Chico / Chico, California 95929-0400(Urbanowicz) and 95929-0005 (Crowe)
email: email:

21 October 2004 [1]

[This page printed from]

(1) © [All Rights Reserved.] To be presented from 1-> 2:50pm in Studio A of the Meriam library on October 21, 2004, at the Tenth Annual Conference on Learning and Teaching sponsored by CELT (Center for Excellence in Learning and Teaching), October 21-22, 2004, at CSU, Chico.

This session discusses the process in creating a product, four videos (on a DVD) for students. Each video (from 17 to 27 minutes apiece) will be shown and the creative process will be discussed. Urbanowicz (Anthropology) portrays Darwin in the first person. Crowe (Instructional Media Center) coordinated the entire production.


Martha Acuña, Charlie Urbanowicz, Karen Adelman, Clark Brandstatt, and Donna Crowe.



This two-hour CELT session deals with the process that allowed us to create a finished product. Four videotapes (ranging in length from 17 to 27 minutes) were created for classroom use wherein Charles F. Urbanowicz (Professor of Anthropology) portrays Charles R. Darwin in the first person. The videos are an attempt (through the use of multimedia) to convey what Freeman Dyson wrote about Albert Einstein: "… shows him as he was--not asuperhuman genius but a human genius, and all the greater for being ahuman being" (In Alice Calaprice, 1996, The Quotable Einstein,page xiii).

The content was Darwin and the conduit to deliver the information was a multimedia production. The eventual consumer or client was thought to be any individual (singly or in a classroom situation) who would have an interest in Darwin: this interest could be in anthropology, biology, geology, history, or a host of other disciplines that have been influenced by the ideas put forward by Darwin. Those interested in teaching should also find the content (and technique) of the DVD of value. With all of this in mind, there is obviously the need for coordination! Ms. Donna Crowe (Technology and Learning Program and InstructionalMedia Center) was the coordinator of completing the production!Without coordination one inevitably has a fifth "C" and that isCHAOS!  

FIGURE #1: 4 C Paradigm.

The four Darwin videos (also available on the web and in DVD format) will be shown in their entirety; brief introductory remarks will be made for each video before it is shown and comments on the creative process will be made after each segment; a three minuteslide show on Darwin's life, available only on the DVD, will also beshown to session participants. Questions will be answered fromparticipants.  

Video #1 (1997): Charles Darwin - Reflections: TheBeginning [In England]. [~17 minutes runningtime.]

Video #2 (1999): Charles Darwin - Part One: TheVoyage [From England to South America] [~22 minutesrunning time.] 

Video #3 (2001): Charles Darwin - Part Two: TheVoyage [South America to the Galápagos and Back ToEngland] [~27 minutes running time.] 

Video #4 (2003): Charles Darwin - Reflections: A Man ofScience [In England]. [~24 minutes runningtime.]

The four "Darwin videos" as well as four "Darwin Self-tests" are on the web. From the Technology and Learning Program (TLP) on campus, Urbanowicz learned about a free self-test-creation program developed by the University of Victoria. Available at the program is relatively easy to work with for classroom purposes. The "Darwin Project" was only possible from 1996-2004 as a result of various campus resources: in 1995-1996, Dr. Royd Weintraub (then Director of the Instructional Media Center, IMC) allowed Donna to devote a portion of her time on research on Darwin and Donna wrote the eventual script for the production. CELT provided modest funding for some consumables for the videotaping session (1996) as well as funding for Donna to hire a student assistant to work on editing thevideotape. In fall 2000, Charlie received a CELT "LargeGrant For The Enhancement of Instruction" (one course off in fall2000) to continue working on the project.   

Initial videotaping of "Urbanowicz as Darwin" took place over a four day period in April 1996 in Studio "A" in the Meriam Library at CSU, Chico. Charlie was first encouraged to "perform" as Darwin in the first person by Professor Lou Nevins (now retired from IMC at California State University, Chico). That first presentation of "Urbanowicz as Darwin" was for the (now defunct) closed circuit television campus network known as ITFS (or Instructional Television For Students). That Darwin presentation was made in February 1993. Prior to the 1996 videotaping, Donna did the extensive extensive research and wrote the script for a four-day videotaping session. After videotaping was completed, Donna coordinated and edited the creation and quest for graphics to add to the four videotapes and the interpretation of Charles Darwin by Charles Urbanowicz was only possible because of a tremendous teamwork approach, spearheaded by Donna. Donna was the writer, producer, and co-director of the entire production (and edited three of the four videos). The other Co-Director was Mr. Clark Brandstatt (also of IMC). The narrator was Dr. Lynn Elliot (Department of English, CSU, Chico) and additional voices were provided by the following individuals: Alicia Croyle, Kris Frost, Brantly Payne, Michelle L. Smith, Alice Burkart-Roberts, Nanette Quintero, Jeff Hoheimer, Michael D. Jordan, Ryan Palmer, Karen Adelman, Steve Herman, Clark Brandstatt, and Terry Nolan. Camera operators were Kathleen Myers, Tony Bergman, and Karen Adelman. Costume and make-up were provided by Ms. Martha Acuña (now retired, from the Department of Theatre Arts, CSU, Chico). The teleprompter was handled by Karen Adelman and run-through readers were Marilyn Cervantes and Lou Nevins (both of IMC). Computer Graphics were created by H. Chris Ficken, Randy Wall, Derek Krauss, and Rachel Jupin (all of IMC). Our appreciationand special thanks are also given to Dr. Randy Wonzong andProfessor Marty Gilbert (Theatre Arts Department, CSU,Chico). 

TARGET AUDIENCE: Anyone interested in Darwin in the 21st century and anyone interested in how to create a DVD utilizing campusfacilities and working in a collaborative and creative environmentwith several individuals. The importance of Darwin is clearlyevidenced by the following statement:

"Evolutionary theory has transformed the way humans view their past, present, and future. In domains as diverse as genetic engineering, sociobiology, race, gender, and the environmental balance of our planet, evolution affects the relationship between human beings and nature in fundamental and controversial ways. However, the controversial nature of evolutionary biology is not a recent phenomenon. The most well-known landmark in the development of evolutionary theory is the publication of Charles Darwin's Origin of Species in 1859 [stress added]." Martin Fichman, 2002, Evolutionary Theory and Victorian Culture (NY: Humanity Books), page 9.

OBJECTIVES: (#1) To share with the audience the specific Darwin content and (#2) provide information on the seven-year creative process (which was longer than Darwin's trip around the world in HMS Beagle!). Support from various campus units (including successful and unsuccessful CELT funding, IMC activities, and TLP activities) will be discussed. Problems encountered along the way will also be shared with the audience and suggestions will be made as to how future (and perhaps less ambitious) multimedia projects might be accomplished for instructional purposes at CSU, Chico (and perhaps shared with the entire California State University system). As Donna remarked whenthe fourth video was finally edited to completion: "The entireproject took longer than the voyage of the Beagleitself!" 

Incidentally, Charlie has published about portrayingDarwin in the first person as follows:

"A few years ago, I decided to appear in class as a theorist, in this case, Charles Darwin, and present his (now my character's) thoughts about his research and theory and his response to some of his critics in a way that would more closely involve students. Appearing as Darwin, in costume (and shaved head) is not a new idea: Zoology professor Richard Eakin portrayed great scientists in his classes at Berkeley in the 60s and 70s. (See Eakin 1975 [Great Scientists Speak Again. University of California Press]) I have presented Darwin in the first person since 1990. Students could listen to Darwin as a person, and ask him questions about his theory and contributions to science. Recently, I converted the presentation to video tape and show several visuals showing Darwin's place in 19th century scientific thought. Sudents seem to like this approach and display increased involvement and enthusiasm about theory [stress added]." Charles F. Urbanowicz, 2002, Teaching as Theatre. Strategies in Teaching Anthropology, Second Edition (2002), edited by Patricia Rice & David W. McCurdy, Editors (NJ: Prentice Hall), pages 147-149, page 147.

Elsewhere Charlie has published the following:

"Perhaps no individual has done as much as Charles Robert Darwin did to help us (at least partially) to understand the question: 'why are there so many different kinds of living things?' A decisive event that led to his perspective on the question was when he was chosen by Captain Robert FitzRoy [1805-1865] to be the "gentleman naturalist" on board HMS Beagle (with no naval duties to perform). Darwin, however, conducted a great deal of research and in April 1832 Robert McCormick (1800-1890), who was the official naturalist on the Beagle, was "invalided out" back to England and Darwin was the naturalist for the rest of the voyage. His observations in the Galápagos are particularly important to the evolution of his own thinking: 'The natural history of these islands is eminently curious, and well deserves attention. … Hence, both in space and time, we seem to be brought somewhat near to that great fact--that mystery of mysteries--the first appearance of new beings on this earth." [stress added]'" Charles F. Urbanowicz, 2002, There Is A Grandeur in This View of Life. Darwin Day Collection One: The Best Single Idea Ever (2002) edited by Amanda Chesworth et al. (Albuquerque, New Mexico: Tangled Bank Press), pages 67-70, page 67.

Darwin has had an impact and his impact continues to this day:

"Darwin's work, in particular, radically unnerved thousands who held a biblical view of humankind's historical story; and to this day the implications of his thinking for biology (and even psychology and sociology) have been profound. He himself became an agnostic and saw no great overall moral or philosophical meaning in the long chronology of our being, which he regarded, rather, as a story of accidents and incidents, of chance and circumstance as they all came to bear on 'natural selection.' Although Copernicus [1473-1543] and Galileo [1564-1642] and Newton [1642-1727] have been absorbed, so to speak, by traditional Christianity, by no means has Darwin's view of our origin and destiny been universally integrated into the teachings, the theology, of many religions that rely upon the Bible for their inspiration, their sense of who we are, where we came from, how our purpose here ought to be described. It was one thing for scientists to probe the planets, declare that this place we inhabit is only one spot in a seemingly endless number of places in an ever expanding universe, or to examine closely our body's cells, or othse of other creatures; it was quite another matter to suggest that we ourselves are merely an aspect of an ever changing nature, that our 'origin' was not 'divine' but a consequence of a biological saga of sorts [stress added]." Robert Coles, 1999, The Secular Mind (Princeton University Press), pages 50-51.

Indeed, the following from The Wall Street Journal in 1999pointed out the complexity (and impact) of Darwin's legacy:

"Whatever the controversies that surround him, Charles Darwin was certainly the most important natural scientist of the past century; he may become the most important social scientist of the next. His great insight--that humans are animals and that their behavior, like that of all animals, is shaped by evolution--is now making its way into social theory. In economics, linguistics, anthropology and psychology, scholars are attempting to see how our evolved nature, interacting with particular environments, generates the ways we trade and speak, live with others and with ourselves [stress added]." Anon., The Wall Street Journal, May 27, 1999, page A24

Depending on how one counts his monographs, Darwin published more than thirty major items in his lifetime on such diverse (yet related!) topics as flowers (1877), vegetables (1876), breeding animals (1839), vegetable mould (1881), climbing plants (1876), zoology (1836-1838), worms (1869), coral reefs (1842), as well as The Expression of the Emotions in Man And Animals (1872) and A Monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, With Figures Of All TheSpecies (1851 and 1854). (This last two-volume workwas the result of eight years of research into this barnacle!) Darwinwas a genius! 

Today there is something known as the "Darwin Industry" which has resulted in such publications as Edna Healy's outstanding Emma Darwin: The Inspirational Wife of a Genius (2001), Merryl Davies's Darwin And Fundamentalism (2000), Gabriel Dover's Dear Mr. Darwin: Letters On The Evolution of Life And Human Behavior (2000), Phillip E. Johnson's Defeating Darwinism By Opening Minds (1997), Randal Keynes's Darwin, His Daughter, and Human Evolution (2002), Janet Browne's outstanding 2002 publication entitled Charles Darwin: The Power of Place (Volume II of a Biography, which is an excellent companion volume to her earlier 1995 volume entitled Charles Darwin: Voyaging (Volume I of a Biography), S. Alter's Darwin and The Linguistic Image (1999), Finding Darwin's God: A Scientist's Search For Common Ground Between God And Evolution (1999 by Kenneth R. Miller), Gerald Weissmann's 1998 Darwin's Audubon: Science and The Liberal Imagination, Matthew Chapman's 2000/2001 Trials Of The Monkey, as well as Darwin and Archaeology: A Handbook of Key Concepts (a 2002 publication edited by John Hart and John Terrell). Indeed, it is in this last item that theeditors have an excellent statement, well-summarazing "why" interestin Darwin took off so rapidly after 1859 (and why it continuesto this day):

"But what then is evolution? Although it may sound unconventional to say so, Charles Darwin's theory of evolution is above all else a theory of history. While initially offered as an encompassing theory about the origin of new species by means of NATURAL SELECTION, Darwin's insights into the causes of biological evolution and persistence soon proved to be so powerful that many have sought to apply Darwinian theory to human affairs--to use Darwin's ways of thinking about history and evolution to explain not only our own oigins as a remarkably clever kind of animal (see BIOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS), but also our human ways and the history of human institutions and social practices (major elements of what many anthropologists and others call CULTURE) [stress added]." John Terrell and John Hart, 2002, Darwin and Archaeology: A Handbook of Key Concepts (Westport, Connecticut: Bergin & Garvey), page 2.  


Urbanowicz has been interested in Charles R. Darwin since 1965 and Crowe has been reading and research about Darwin for almost a decade. What Donna and Charlie did in creating the videos was to "humanize" Charles R. Darwin and place him within the context of histimes and discuss some of the impact (and interpretations) of hiswork. An interesting statement by a Darwin scholar is thefollowing:

"The fact is that Charles Darwin was in almost all respects a fairly standard example of the nineteenth century student, well off, active in field sports, working hard enough to avoid academic failure, but a long way from academic success [stress added]." Peter Brent 1981, Charles Darwin: A Man Of Enlarged Curiosity (NY: Harper & Row), page 89.

Darwin definitely proved many individuals wrong, and nothing is as clear as his monumental 1859 publication (and subsequent editions of 1860, 1861, 1866, 1869, and 1872): On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life [Note: this is the on-line version of the 1859 edition]; Darwin himself was to write in his Autobiography that the Origin "is no doubt the chief work of my life [stress added]" (Nora Barlow, 1958, The Autobiography of Charles Darwin 1809-1882: With Original OmissionsRestored Edited With An Appendix And Notes By His Grand-Daughter,page 122); and a succinct statement on Charles Darwin is thefollowing:

"He was an Englishman who went on a five-year voyage when he was young and then retired to a house in the country, not far from London [sixteen miles southeast]. He wrote an account of his voyage, and then he wrote a book setting down his theory of evolution, based on a process he called natural selection, a theory that provided the foundation for modern biology. He was often ill and never left England again [stress added]." John P. Wiley, Jr., 1998, Expressions: The Visible Link. Smithsonian, June, pages 22-24, page 22.

In Charlie's attempts to "understand" Darwin and some of the individuals involved with him during his time, he and his wife Sadie have been to the Galápagos Islands (2000) and he has been to FitzRoy's home in London (38 Onslow Square, SW7) as well as the area where Charles Darwin and Mrs. Charles Darwin (Emma Wedgwood) lived (110 Gower Street, WC1), and where Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895) maintained his residence (38 Marlborough Place, NW). Charlie has been to Down house twice (1991 and 1999), Luxted Road, Downe, Kent (where Mr. and Mrs. Charles Darwin moved to, from London, in September 1842). In North America, Charlie has visited (1997) the Rhea County Courthouse (Dayton, Tennessee) where the celebrated "Scopes Trial" of 1925 was held. Charlie and Donna both reside in Chico,California, a community that Joseph Hooker (1817-1911) visitedin the late 19th century, meeting John (1819-1900) and Annie(1839-1918) Bidwell. It is indeed a small world!

In virtually everything Charlie presents about Darwin he points out that when Origin was published in 1859, it was an immediate (and controversial) success. In attempting to understand Darwin, and the impact of his ideas through time, the following information should be of interest: every edition of Origin published in Charles R. Darwin's lifetime is different! He re-wrote every-single-one and all are different! The reason it is important to point out the various editions of Origin is demonstrated by the following chart, based on information in the excellent 1959 publication of Morse Peckham [Editor] entitledThe Origin Of Species By Charles Darwin: A Variorum Text). The concept of change is definitely vital to an understanding of Darwin, whether you are reading Darwin himself orreading about him and I include the following tabular information onDarwin's Origin in virtually everything I present orwrite:




9 eliminated
483 rewritten
30 added
7 %
33 eliminated
617 rewritten
266 added
14 %
36 eliminated
1073 rewritten
435 added
21 %
178 eliminated
1770 rewritten
227 added
29 %
63 eliminated
1699 rewritten
571 added
21-29 %

If one is reluctant to read ALL of Darwin's Origin as indicated, there is a delightful book by Maurice Sagoff (1970)which is called to your attention: Shrinklits: Seventy of theWorld's Towering Classics Cut Down To Size (New York: WorkmanPublishing) wherein the following appears on page 99:

"All creatures strive;
The fit survive.

Out of this surge
Species emerge.

'Throw the bum out!'
Is Nature's shout.

And 'Class will tell'
Sex-wise as well.

The age-old race
To win or place

(At least to show)
Persists, although

The way things look
None Dares make book."

Charles R. Darwin took great care not to write about Homosapiens in Origin in 1859 and all he had to sayabout "man" was the following:

"In the distant future I see open fields for far more important researches. Psychology will be based on a new foundation, that of the necessary acquirement of each mental power and capacity by gradation. Light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history. [Chapter XV: "Recapitulation And Conclusion"]

In the 5th edition of 1869, Darwin used (for the firsttime) the famous phrase (borrowed from Herbert Spencer[1820-1903]): "Survival of the Fittest." In the 2ndedition of 1860 Darwin wrote the following:

"Thus, from the war of nature, from famine and death, the most exalted object which we are capable of conceiving, namely, the production of the higher animals, directly follows. There is a grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator [stress added] into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being evolved."

In his 1839 publication TheVoyage Of The Beagle, Darwin wrote the following:

"Among the scenes which are deeply impressed on my mind, none exceed in subliminity the primeval forests undefaced by the hand of man; whether those of Brazil, where the powers of Life are predominant, or those of Tierra del Fuego, where Death and Decay prevail. Both are temples filled with the varied productions of the God of Nature:--no one can stand in these solitudes unmoved, and not feel that there is more in man than the mere breath of his body [STRESS added]" 1839, page 436.

If one has to know some "basics" concerning Charles R. Darwin,consider the following six points:

"Charles Darwin, whose theory of evolution changed the world, was born in 1809; although he demonstrated enthusiasm for nature and loved to collect fossils and shells, he was an indifferent student.

At Cambridge University, Darwin's friendship with professors of botany and geology led to his commission as a research assistant attached to a scientific voyage of the British ship, the H.M.S. Beagle.

The five-year journey on the Beagle around the world gave Darwin exposure to the world and the experience to allow him to oursue his lifelong goal of discovering how life originated and changed over time.

Observations in his travels fed Darwin's growing conviction that newer species, because they are more aggressive, are capable of supplanting established species in a particular locale.

Darwin noted, however, that no species, even the most aggressive, can overrun the Earth unchecked. Some mechanism, he reasoned, comes into play to stop invading species from completely taking over from established species.

According to Darwin, the creatures inhabiting the Galapagos must have pursued their own avenues of development, even though they once must have shared a common ancestory." Leslie Alan Horvitz, 2002, The Complete Idiot's Guide To Evolution (Indianapolis: Alpha Books), page 91.

As Darwin wrote about the Galápagos Islands:

"The natural history of these islands is eminently curious, and well deserves attention. … Hence, both in space and time, we seem to be brought somewhat near to that great fact--that mystery of mysteries--the first appearance of new beings on this earth [stress added]." Charles Darwin, 1845, The Voyage of the Beagle [Edited by Leonard Engel, 1962, NY: Doubleday], pages 378-379.

Please consider the words of the Pulitzer PrizeWinner (1940) and Nobel Prize Winner (1962) John Steinbeck(1902-1968) on Charles R. Darwin:

"In a way, ours is the older method, somewhat like that of Darwin on the Beagle.He was called a 'naturalist'. He wanted to see everything, rocks and flora and fauna; marine and terrestrial. We came to envy this Darwin on his sailing ship. He had so much room and so much time. ... This is the proper pace for a naturalist. Faced with all things he [or she] cannot hurry. We must have time to think and to look and to consider [stress added]." John Steinbeck, 1951, The Log From The Sea of Cortez [1967 printing: Pan Books: London], page 123.

That is what a successful CELT conference and academic situation provides for us: time to think and look and learn and to consider. Finally, in addition to all of the words and ideas wehave shared for this CELT session, Charlie also adheres to thefollowing words of Thomas Keneally (remembered perhaps for being theauthor of Schindler's List (1982):

"A play [or a classroom lecture or a public presentation] should make you understand something new. If it tells you what you already know, you leave it as ignorant as you went in [stress added]." (The character John Wisehammer. In Timberlake Wertenbaker's Our Country's Good [based upon the novel The Playmaker by Thomas Keneally], 1989, Act II, sc. 7, page 89.]

Perhaps the term "ignorant" is too harsh but hopefully you havesome new ideas and information from this session.

# # #


SPECIFIC URBANOWICZ DARWIN ITEMS (all in reverse chronologicalorder):

2003 Charles Darwin: - Part Three: A Man of Science. [ ~Twenty-four Minute Video. Darwin from South America, through the Galápagos Islands, and back to England.] []Produced and Edited by Ms. Donna Crowe: Instructional Media Center,CSU, Chico. Available via the Internet with REAL PLAYER[].

Within a few years of his return to England, Charles Darwin happily settled into marriage, moved to a quiet house in the country, and begun a routine of research and writing which would occupy the rest of his life. In this episode discover why Darwin (Professor Charles Urbanowicz) waited over 20 years to publish his groundbreaking work Origin of Species, and learn how ill health, family tragedies, friends, respected colleagues and ardent supporters shaped his life and career.

2001 Charles Darwin: - Part Two: The Voyage. [ ~Twenty-seven Minute Video. Darwin from South America, through the Galápagos Islands, and back to England.] []Edited by Ms. Vilma Hernandez and Produced by Ms. Donna Crowe:Instructional Media Center, CSU, Chico. Available via theInternet with REAL PLAYER [].

The second half of the historic journey of the HMS Beagle finds Charles Darwin exploring more of South America and several islands in the Pacific. In this episode, Charley Darwin (Professor Charles Urbanowicz) views several active volcanoes, experiences an earthquake, treks to the Andes, explores the Galapagos Islands, and then heads for home.

1999 Charles Darwin: - Part One: The Voyage. [ ~Twenty-two Minute Video. Darwin sailing from England to South America.] []Produced and Edited by Ms. Donna Crowe: Instructional Media Center,CSU, Chico. Available via the Internet with REAL PLAYER[].

Sail along with Charley Darwin on the first half of his historic journey around the world aboard the HMS Beagle. In this second video in the series, Charley Darwin (Professor Charles Urbanowicz ) travels from England to unexplored reaches of South America and along the way he confronts slavery, rides with gauchos, experiences gunboat diplomacy, encounters a future dictator of Argentina, explores uncharted rivers, and discovers dinosaur bones.

1997 Charles Darwin: Reflections - Part one: The Beginning. [ ~Seventeen Minutes Video. Darwin in England]. [].Produced and Edited by Ms. Donna Crowe: Instructional Media Center,CSU, Chico. Available via the Internet with REAL PLAYER[].

Imagine that you could visit with Charles Darwin as he remembers his youth. Perhaps you could learn what early experiences sharpened his power of observation and contributed to his unique perspective of the world. Join Dr. Charles Urbanowicz as he portrays the fascinating and very human Charley Darwin in the first program of the series Charles Darwin: Reflections: The Beginning.

Urbanowicz-Generated Darwin Self-Tests:

2004 Self-Test Four} September 2004).

2003 Self-Test Three} October 2003).

2001 Self-Test Two} November 2001].

2000 2000-2001 [Self]Test One} January 2000).


Others Urbanowicz Darwin-Related Sites:

2004a][Four Darwin Videos From CSU, Chico. Presented on February 12and February 19, 2004 at The Anthropology Forum, CSU, Chico.]

2004b [For a workshop on January 10, 2004, sponsored by the OutreachPrograms of the California Academy of Sciences (San Francisco) andheld at the Museum of Anthropology at California State University,Chico].

2003'iDarwin.html [Teaching As Theatre Once Again: Darwin in the Classroom (And Beyond). (For the Hawai'i International Conference on Arts andHumanities, Honolulu, Hawai'i, January 12-15, 2003.) [Alsopublished in The Conference Proceedings, CD-ROM:ISSN#1541-5899.]

2002a, [There Is A Grandeur in This View Of Life. Darwin Day Collection One: The Single Best Idea Ever (2002) Edited by AmandaChesworth et al. (Albuquerque, New Mexico: Tangled BankPress), pages 67-70. [NOTE: This is a shortened version of2002b below.]

2002b [On Darwin: Countdown to 2008/2009]. For "Darwin Day"activities, sponsored by HAGSA [The HumanistAssociation of the Greater SacramentoArea], Sacramento, California, February 10, 2002].

2002c [Teaching as Theatre. Strategies in TeachingAnthropology, Second Edition (2002), edited by Patricia Rice& David W. McCurdy, Editors (NJ: Prentice Hall), pages147-149.]

2001a a presentation to the 7th grade "Life Science" classroom ofMs. Tiana Scott, Maywood Middle School, Corning, CA, February28).

2001b The Galápagos Islands: Every Little Bit Helps.The Chico Enterprise-Record, Sunday, February 25 (page E1 andE2) and see:

2000a Teaching As Theatre: Some Classroom Ideas, Specifically Those ConcerningCharles R. Darwin (1809-1882) for the 99th AnnualMeeting of the American Anthropological Association, San Francisco,CA (November 15-19).

2000b[Darwin Visuals} November 10, 2000].

1998][Folklore Concerning Charles R. Darwin. For the 1998 Meetings ofthe Southwestern Anthropological Society and The California FolkloreSociety, Sacramento, California, April 16-18, 1998.]

1990[A Dossier on Darwin: A Letter to the Editor; originallypublished in the Chico [California] Enterprise-Recordon September 26, 1990, page 4B.]

1965 [Darwin - 1859: An Important Historical Event. For SPEECH100, Western Washington State College [now Western WashingtonUniversity], Bellingham, Washington, June 30, 1965.] 

SEVEN OTHER DARWIN-RELATED WEBSITES [Note: additional sites may be found at] [For a workshop on January 10, 2004, sponsored by the OutreachPrograms of the California Academy of Sciences (San Francisco) andheld at the Museum of Anthropology at California State University,Chico].[The Darwin Day Program][National Center For Science Education][The Writings of Charles Darwin on The Web] Voyage of the Beagle) Origin of Species)'s Paper Read at the Linnean Society Meeting[1858])[Galápagos Islands} The Charles Darwin Foundation]


There is a delightful book entitled Dear Mr. Darwin: Letters OnThe Evolution of Life And Human Behavior, wherein the author hasDarwin saying:

"I am so glad you have taken the time and trouble to write to me. It is one of the saddest aspects of human existence that, as soon as one passes away, it is generally assumed that the deceased has no further interest in what he or she spent a great part of life investigating. From what you tell me of the Darwin industry of scholars in your day, busy seeking out every nuance of my life and thoughts, I have to conclude that there is indeed life after death [stress added]." Gabriel Dover, 2000, Dear Mr. Darwin: Letters On The Evolution of Life And Human Behavior (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson), page 3. 

For-virtually-every web page I do I try to "update"the following information concerning "Darwin" and "Search Engines" onthe World Wide Web. Before examing the "Search Engine References"below, please consider the following:

"Google--or any search engine--isn't just another website; it's the lens through which we see that information, and it affects what we see and don't see. At the risk of waxing Orwellian, how we search affects what we find and by extension, how we learn what we know [stress added]. Lev Grossman, 2003, Search And Destroy. Time, December 22, 2003, pages 46-50, page 50.

And, for any readers of this page, please consider thefollowing from March 31, 2004:

"Ten years from now--maybe five or even less--we will recall Google circa 2004 and wonder how we could have tolerated it. ... A search engine of 2010 will know who you are, where you are and what you're doing, and look across every form of information to automatically find what will help you. That's when today's Google will seem as quaint as the special effects in an old Godzilla movie [stress added]." Kevin Maney, 2004, Future search efforts wil make Google look like 8-tracks. USA Today, March 31, 2004, page 4B.

On October 20, 2004, "search engine hits" for "Charles R. Darwin" resulted in the following information: Google had 296,000 items; Alta Vista Search had 596,000; WiseNuthad 5,186; and AllTheWebhad 496,000 web pages. Please consider previous search engineresults.

October 12, 2004
May 4, 2004
April 14, 2004
March 22, 2004
February 10, 2004
January 4, 2004
September 27, 2003
November 27, 2002*
May 2, 2002
February 6, 2002
October 17, 2001

* Additional search engine sites were consulted on variousdates on and before November 27, 2002: MonkeySweathad numerous items and NorthernLight had 2,720 items.

On May 2, 2002, MonkeySweathad numerous items and NorthernLight had 2,623 items.

On February 6, 2002, MonkeySweathad numerous items and NorthernLight had 2,587 items.

On October 17, 2001, MonkeySweathad numerous items and NorthernLight had 51,939 items.

Incidentally, on January 28, 1999 (pre-Google days!),Northern Light had 40,025 "hits" and Alta Vista had29,330.

Two things should be obvious: (#1) interest in Darwin continues and (#2), obviously, just as with people, all "search engines" are not created equal and there is "culturalselection" involved in everything we do! How does one "evaluate"and "use" this wide range of information? One does it just as Darwindid, carefully, patiently, and slowly, for as Darwin wrote:

"False facts are highly injurious to the progress of science, for they often endure long; but false views, if supported by some evidence, do little harm, for every one takes a salutary pleasure in proving their falseness: and when this is done, one path towards error is closed and the road to truth is often at the same time opened." Charles R. Darwin, 1871, The Descent of Man And Selection in Relation to Sex[1981 Princeton University Press edition, with Introduction by John T. Bonner and Robert M. May], Chapter 21, page 385.
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(1) © [All Rights Reserved.] To be presented from 1-> 2:50pm in Studio A of the Meriam library on October 21, 2004, at the Tenth Annual Conference on Learning and Teaching sponsored by CELT (Center forExcellence in Learning and Teaching), October21-22, 2004, at CSU, Chico. To return to the beginning of this page,please click here.

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