Dr. Charles F. Urbanowicz/Professor of Anthropology
California State University, Chico / Chico, California 95929-0400
530-898-6220 [Office]; 530-898-6192 [Dept.] FAX: 530-898-6143
e-mail: / home page:  

[This Page is printed from:]

15 May 2003 [1]

© [All Rights Reserved.] For a presentation (with visuals) on May 15, 2003 at The Anthropology Forum at California State University, Chico.



I. INTRODUCTION [Presentation Accompanied By A Video "Snippet" And A PowerPoint Presentation]

It is a delight to make today's presentation since the first "Anthropology Forum" I gave on this campus was in November 1973 and, thirty years later (although this is not November and not exactly "30" years later), the Forum still exists. One wonders what (and who?!) will be around in 2033? On October 4, 2002, I made my last forum presentation in this room, entitled "Comments on Pre-Contact Native American Sites." It was, I believe only my second-PowerPoint presentation Forum presentation and, true to a habit developed over the years, a version of that presentation was placed on the world wide web, just as a version of today's presentation is available (with a few visuals). I began one-page handouts because I am enthusiastic (nay, passionate) about what I do and I know I talk rapidly: the handouts and the web pages facilitate note-taking assignments.

I received the B.A. in Sociology/Anthropology (1967) from Western Washington University (Bellingham) and began Graduate Work at the University of Oregon (Eugene) in 1967. In 1969 I received my M.A. in Anthropology from the University of Oregon and in 1970 my wife and I went to the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga where I began my fieldwork and in 1972 I received the Ph.D. in Anthropology from the University of Oregon. I taught at the University of Minnesota (1972-1973) and came to CSU, Chico in August 1973 (where I have been ever since, both as an administrator [1975-1988] and full-time teaching faculty member). This presentation is my 27th Anthropology Forum since 1973



On November 7, 1973, I made my first presentation at what was then call "Anthropology Looks At" and had the title of "Anthropology Looks at Science Fiction." That presentation was in Butte 305 but it began at the standard time of 4pm and it was the "Second in a series of monthly seminars" (Professor Turhon Murad made the first presentation a month earlier) and you will note it is now a weekly series! The Forums allowed us to make a seminar-like presentation and, indeed, later that month, I presented a shorter version of the Forum presentation as "Anthropology and (Good) Science Fiction" for the 72nd Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, New Orleans, Louisiana. At a Forum in 1976 I presented "Cultures: Fact or Fiction?" and in 1981, I spoke of "The Anthropology of the Future."

The Forums allowed us to try out ideas for courses and introduce ourselves to students on a one-time basis and my third Forum presentation was in May 1974, co-presented with (now retired) Anthropology Professor Tom Johnson. Tom and I spoke about a (then) relatively new curriculum program known as MACOS, or "Man, A Course Of Study" which was based on the education research of Harvard Professor Jerome Bruner, who described it as follows:

"The content of the course is man: his nature as a species, the forces that shaped and continue to shape his humanity. Three questions recur throughout: What is human about human beings? How did they get that way? How can they be made more so? [stress added]." Jerome S. Bruner, 1966, Toward A Theory of Instruction (Harvard University Press), page 74.

I am absolutely delighted that the ideas and words of Bruner have prevailed to this day, and I call your attention to the current California State University, Chico catalog description for Social Science 103 (which began using MACOS in 1975):

"Consideration of humans as a species. What is human about human beings? What forces shape human beings? How can humans be made more human? Exploration of the evolutionary process through comparative studies of non-Western cultures: innate behavior, adaptation, and socialization. Required for Liberal Studies majors. This is an approved Non-Western course [stress added]." The 2003-2005 University Catalog, page 604.

Many things are still with us!

My next Anthropology Forum didn't come until 1976 when I presented "Cultures: Fact or Fiction?" and in 1981 I spoke of "The Anthropology of the Future." I was gradually becoming interested in "technology" and "science fact" issues as well as education and over 1975-1977 I was the Social Science Coordinator in the College of Behavioral and Social Sciences and then in 1977 I became the Associate Dean in The Center for Regional and Continuing Education on this campus, a position I held for eleven years (until 1988). At a 1980 Forum I spoke of "Space Industrialization" and in 1981 the topic was "The Anthropology of the Future." Finally, the last of the specific "science fiction or science fact" presentations was made at a 1990 Forum when I spoke of "Perspectives on Science Fiction and Science Fact."

Interestingly enough, my "science fiction" interests began to overlap with the "science fact" of the times and in 1998 I made a Forum presentation entitled "One Anthropologist Looks At The Future of Education And Technology." (Incidentally, over the years, non-Forum presentations dealing with "technology and the future" were made at various professional meetings and this included a 1991 paper (with Lou Nevins of the Instructional media Center and now retired) in Washington, D.C. entitled "Extra-Terrestrial Education: Not Science Fiction At All." This was based on our "distance education" work that we had been involved with for more than a decade and while it was a "scientific fact" in 1991, it would have been science fiction in 1891! Other non-Forum presentations, available on the web, and perhaps an "outgrowth" of that first 1973 Forum presentation include a 1991 presentation entitled "Information Technology for the pacific basin" as well as a 1998 item entitled "Twenty-Five/Twenty-Five, or Hindsight Is Always Somewhat "Perfect" (But Perhaps We Can Invent The Future!)" and a 2000 paper on "Computers And Technology Into The Twenty-First Century: You Ain't Seen Nothing Yet (Again!)."

The Anthropology Forum has always been an excellent vehicle to sharing some beginning ideas and, even though the World Wide Web wasn't around in 1973, I have placed the "Abstract" of the 1973 presentation on the web and have listed all of the science fiction/science fact web papers that came after that first paper. One cannot help but wonder about the next 30 years, considering the changes we have all seen in the past decade:

"Ten years ago [in 1993], Marc Andreesen [then 21 years old] was making $6.85 an hour at a computer lab. He went on to found Netscape. That changed everything. ... his belly spilled out of rag-tag clothes, and he littered his car with fast-food wrappers. Now, he is slim and stylishly dressed. Parked outside is his impeccably clean Mercedes coupe. ... In 1993, the Internet was almost solely used by academic research scientists and the military. Navigating it required memorizing arcane text commands. Only a few years before [1991], in a research lab in Switzerland, Tim Berners-Lee [born in 1955] created the hypertext links that formed the basis for the World Wide Web, but that was still text-only and not meant for research. No one had created a visual way to navigate the Net. There was no way to put up images. Andreesen, Totic, Mittelhauser and a cabal of students worked part-time at the university's [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champagne] famed computer lab, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA). There, the idea of a visual browser bubbled to the surface. Andreesen and fellow NCSA worker Eric Bina grabbed it. The concept, Andreesen says, 'was just there, waiting for somebody to actually do it. The two slammed together the code for the first graphical browser. On March 14, 1993, Andreesen put it on NCSA's Internet site. He introduced it: 'NCSA Mosaic provides a consistent and easy-to use hypermedia-based interface into a wide variety of information sources [stress added]." Kevin Maney, 2003, Ten years ago, who knew what his code would do? USA Today, March 10, 2003, pages B1 + B2.

Changes have occured and will continue to occur and universities will change:

"Colleges will not, of course, disappear--but over time they will be dramatically altered in nature as students and professors adopt cyberspace as their primary window into the laboratory of life. The distinctions between academic and applied research will become blurred as academic and commercial researchers begin to tap into the same sources of information and exchange in cyberspace [stress added]." David B. Whittle, 1997, Cyberspace: The Human Dimension (NY: W.H. Freeman), page 217.

Incidentally, it is interesting to note that some of my "interests" have come "full circle" (so-to-speak) and earlier this year I read Lana Whited's edited volume entitled The Ivory Tower and Harry Potter (Lana A. Whited, 2002, [Columbia: University of Missouri Press]) wherein various aspects of Harry Potter ("Science Fiction"?) were discussed within the academic realm! 



Things change over time and while grounded in the present, I am aware of the past, and am still interested in the future.

"In 1950, the population of Chico was 12,722. The population more than doubled by 1980, to 26,601. During the past two decades, those numbers have increased to 64,581 in the City limits, and approximately 95,000 in the Chico Urban Area. Projections provided by the Butte County Association of Governments (BCAG) lists the population [of the city of Chico] at 75,879 in the year 2010, 85,364 in 2015, 90,035 in 2020, and 108,039 in the year 2025 [stress added]." Anon., 2002, Celebrate the Building Industry! Special Section ("Industrial Barbecue 2002") of The Chico Enterprise-Record, June 18, 2002, page 3.

What will the future bring the State of California, the community of Chico, and California State University, Chico?

"California's population continues to grow by more than 500,000 people a year. Such growth brings a host of challenges--how to provide enough affordable housing, adequate transportation, schools and jobs. In order to address these challenges, local cities and governments should be encouraged to work together and create regional growth management policies [stress added]." Elizabeth Klementowski, 2002, Flawed solution to an imaginary problem. The San Francisco Chronicle, June 18, 2002, page A19.

On Changes in California: "Almost 70,000 acres of California's open space was devoured by a growing population lured to the state by its booming economy from 1996 to 1998, according to a state report released Wednesday [October 11, 2000]. The urban sprawl is driven by California's influx of roughly 700,000 people a year [stress added]." Open space continues vanish act in state. (Associated Press) The Sacramento Bee, October 12, 2000, page A3.

On June 24, 2001, an article based on research from the University of California, Davis appeared in The Sacramento Bee (Alvin D. Sokolow, "How Much State Farmland Is Disappearing?" pages L1 and L6). The research pointed out that 49,700 acres of California farmland disappears each year and since the campus of California State University, Chico (excluding the University farm) is 119 acres, approximately 417 Chico State campuses turn into various buildings every year! And we can continue to see growth in Chico: one week ago today, on May 8, 2003, the Chico Enterprise-Record had the following headline article on page 1: "We're still growing: Chico breaches 100,000 population" by Laura Urseny (Business Editor). On January 1, 2002, the estimated "Chico urban area" population was 99,375 and on January 1, 2003 it was 100,500 (page 2).



Pacific / Tongan

I started off my anthropological career with an interest in the Pacific and while I never made a specific "Tongan presentation" to an Anthropology Forum audience, Tongan information certainly made its way into my various classes in 30 years. My interests in Tonga have definitely declined since I have not been back there since 1971 and Tonga has certainly changed (see, for example, Helen Morton Lee's 2003 Tongans Overseas: Between Two Shores as well as the edited volume by Paul Spickard [et al.], 2002, Pacific Diaspora: Island People In The United States And Across the Pacific). The Pacific, however, was covered in the Forum: in 1974 it was "Tourism and Culture Change" and at this point I must definitely acknowledge and thank my colleague Dr. Valene Smith for getting me to Chico! Valene interviewed me at our national meetings in Toronto in 1972 (where I was presenting a paper based on my Tongan Ph.D. research) and in August 1973, I began teaching at CSU, Chico. Last year, in the professional journal entitled Tourism Recreation Research Valene was rightly described in the following manner:

"Valene Smith is the Margaret Mead [1901-1978] of the anthropology of tourism; she played a pioneering role in the initiation of the field as an academic enterprise, contributed to its theoretical foundations, conducted extensive empirical research on tourism-related topics in diverse settings and--last but not least--contributed significantly to the popularization of the field, primarily through her [volumes entitled] 'Hosts and Guests,' the several editions of which span a quarter of a century [stress added]." Erik Cohen, 2002, Review of Hosts and Guests Revisited: Tourism issues of the 21st Century. Tourism Recreation Research, Vol. 27, No. 3, pages 108-111, page 108.

Valene Smith is an amazing woman, and incidentally, in 1983 we had a symposium at the Forum where I presented "A Pacific Anthropologist's View" which was a discussion of the work of Margaret Mead (1901-1978)! In 1989 my Forum presentation on the Pacific was "The Islands of Hawai'i: 750A.D. to 1989" and in 1991, it was "Prelude to Pearl Harbor: Operation Hawai'i" followed by a 1993 presentation entitled "Peoples & Cultures of the Pacific: Okeania est omnis divisa in partes tres." Along the way, I continue to learn a lot about the Pacific Islands and your attention is called to four fascinating volumes (all in the Meriam Library) mentioned in those Forums: the first publication dates from 1909 and is entitled The Valor of Ignorance, by the American Homer Lea (1876-1911) which provided the militarists of Japan with a blueprint for the eventual 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawai'i. It was most interesting to read the "Introduction" by Clare Booth to a 1942 edition of Valor of Ignorance:

"Writing eight years before the outbreak of World War I, twenty-nine years before the Japanese attach of Manchuria, thirty-three years before the outbreak of World War II, Homer Lea states, as militarily axiomatic, that all these dire events--including the surprise attack on Hawaii--would be in time and space, inevitable [stress added]." Clare Booth, Introduction, 1942, Valor of Ignorance (NY: Harper & Brothers), page xiii.  

The title of a second volume of interest, Hawaii Under The Rising Sun: Japan's Plans for Conquest After Pearl Harbor (published in 1984 by John J. Stephan) should speak for iteslf. Another interesting volume was The Plot To Seize The White House, a 1973 volume by Jules Archer. Dealing with the history of two-time Congressional Medal of Honor Winner, United States Marine Major General Smedley Darlington Butler (1881-1940); the following struck me as most poignant in the 1990s as well as in 2003: "War is a racket to protect economic interests, not our country, and our soldiers are sent to die on foreign soil to protect investments by big business" (Jules Archer, The Plot To Seize The White House, page 207). Finally, the 1985 volume entitled Japan's Secret War (by Robert K. Wilcox) begins as follows:

"Shortly after World War II had ended, American intelligence in the Pacific received a shocking report: The Japanese, just prior to their surrender, had developed and successfully test-fired an atomic bomb. The project had been housed in or near Konan (Japanese name for Hungnam), Korea, in the peninsula's North. The war had ended before the weapon could be used, and the plant where it had been made was now in Russian hands [stress added]." Robert K. Wilcox, 1985, Japan's Secret War (NY: William Morrow & Co.), page 15.

Fascinating stuff, history and anthropology, and I am reminded of the phrase of Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964) "History is written by the victors" as well as the American Senator Hiram Johnson (1866-1945) semi-prophetic statement in 1918: "The first casualty when war comes is truth." As many know, I teach ANTH 296 (History and Theory) and it is interesting to consider the 1938 words of Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942):

"For, to quote William James [1842-1910], 'Progress is a terrible thing.' It is terrible to those of us who half a century ago were born into a world of peace and order; who cherished legitimate hopes of stability and gradual development; and who now have to live through the dishonesty and immorality of the very historical happenings. I refer to the events of the last few years which seem to demonstrate once more than Might is Right; that bluff, impudence and aggression succeed where a decent readiness to co-operate has failed [stress added]." From the "Introduction" to Jomo Kenyatta, 1938, Facing Mount Kenya: The Tribal Life of the Gikuyu (NY: 1962 Vintage Books edition], page ix.


Tourism / Gaming-Gambling

The Forum was, and continues to be a useful vehicle to deal with certain research interests. As my teaching and research interests shifted, tourism and gambling/gaming made their way into Forum presentations, including "Gambling or Gaming: Which Is It?" in 1996 as well as "Proposition 5 And Native American Gaming Issues" in 1998. And then there is Charles Darwin (1809-1882)! Incidentally, numerous Forum presentation contributed to various professional publications and videotapes. To repeat, the Forum was, and continues to be, a useful vehicle to deal with certain research interests, including my own interests in "gaming/gambling" presented in this room:

"Gambling has held human beings in thrall for millennia. It has been engaged in everywhere, from the dregs of society to the most respectable circles. Pontius Pilate's soldiers cast lots for Christ's robe as He suffered on the cross. The Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius was regularly accompanied by his personal croupier. The Earl of Sandwich invented the snack that bears his name so that he could avoid leaving the gaming table in order to eat. George Washington hosted games in his tent during the American Revolution. Gambling is synonymous with the Wild West. And 'Luck Be A Lady Tonight' is one of the most memorable numbers in Guys and Dolls, a musical about a compulsive gambler and his floating crap game [stress added]." Peter L. Bernstein, 1996, Against The Gods: The Remarkable Story of Risk, page 12.

The United States of America has a lengthy history of interest in gaming (called "gambling" or "entertainment" to some) and "gaming" generates a tremendous amount of revenue, has great visibility, and is creating some interesting partnerships. Four events contributed to today's domestic gambling: (#1) State lotteries, beginning in New Hampshire in 1964; (#2) Holiday Inn entering gaming in 1978; (#3) the passage of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (IGRA) by the United States Congress in 1988; (#4) and human nature. My research interests in "gambling/gaming" obviously developed out of my general research into tourism which began in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga in 1970 and 1971; several publications (and presentations) resulted from that period of my life and specific references are provided below. Living in northern California, with an obvious proximity to Reno, sparked my interest in what the industry calls "gaming" but is really known as "gambling." Papers and publications have resulted from this interest and specific references are also provided at the end of this paper. There has been a lengthy history gaming (called "gambling" or "entertainment" to some) in the Americas and Native Americans are becoming very big "players" in contemporary 21st century activities!

A Native American tribe in Connecticut has the largest casino in the world: Foxwoods Resort and Casino and when it opened on February 15, 1992 Foxwoods employed 2,300 people. In January 1999, Foxwoods employed 11,000 people. The following appeared in 1998:

"The Mashantucket Pequots' dazzling national lobbying office [in Washington, D.C.] reflects the success of the tribe's Connecticut casino. The etched glass walls, custom woodwork, turquoise frieze and Native American art rival the capital's swankiest clubs and blue-chip law offices. Gambling has brought a few Indian tribes, like the Pequots, breathtaking wealth. For many others, it has brought subsistence, a break from oppressive poverty. And it has brought a lot of them to Washington to defend their new business [stress added]." Jim Drinkard, 1998, Casinos, lobbying are winning combination for tribes. USA Today, February 12, 1998, page 10A.

In February 2003, the Pequot Times reported that they had a $54,400,000 "slot win" in December 2002 and gave $13,600,000 to the State of Connecticut (Pequot Times, February 2003, page 11. In 1998, when Proposition 5 was being discussed in California, the following was frightening to many individuals:

"Imagine a California with 40 or more Foxwood-sized gaming facilities, many lining the thoroughfares leading from Southern California to the Nevada border, each aggressively wooing the millions of customers from the population centers of Anaheim and San Diego to the gambling meccas of Las Vegas, Reno, Stateline, and Laughlin. That's the doomsday prediction of some gaming observers watching the action in California.... [stress added]." Matt Connor, 1998, Nevada's Bad California Dream. International Gaming & Wagering Business, July 1998, page 1, pages 26-31, page 1 and 26.

On Wednesday, May 14, 2003, the following appeared in The Sacramento Bee:

"Placer County - Thunder Valley, California's newest Indian casino, will open June 9, officials for the United Auburn Indian Community announced Tuesday. The $215 million complex at Industrial and Athens avenues off highway 65 will feature several restaurants and bars, as well as a 75,000-square-foot casino with 1,906 slot and video-poker machines and 100 table games. It will be operated for the tribe by Station Casinos Inc., a Las Vegas-based company. The 10 a.m. June 9 public opening will follow a private fund-raising event for the UCD [University of California, Davis] Cancer Research Center on June 7 and a private reception for tribal members the next day. The 47-acre site in an unincorporated area of Placer County was taken into trust for the 247-member tribe last year by the federal government. The opening will bring to 52 the number of operating casinos in California [stress added]." Steve Wiegand, 2003, Placer Indian casino's public opening set for June 9. The Sacramento Bee, page B2.

The growth of Native American casinos in California is increasing and to place the size of various facilities into context, please consider the following data:

Foxwoods, Connecticut [The Mashantucket Pequots]
In excess of 320,000 square feet
 Mohegan Sun, Connecticut
Rumsey Band (Capay Valley), California
263,000 (after expansion)
MGM Mirage, Las Vegas, Nevada
Bellagio, Las Vegas, Nevada
Excalibur, Las Vegas. Nevada
Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada
Rumsey Band (Capay Valley), California
113,000 (existing)
La Reve (proposed for 2005 in Las Vegas, Nevada)
Bally's Las Vegas, Nevada
The Reno Hilton, Nevada
An American "Football" field
57,600 square feet
One Acre of land
43,560 square feet

California gaming and Las Vegas activities will be very interesting to follow in the future, for as Michael Connelly pointed out in his 2003 novel: "It had been about three years since I'd been on the strip but Vegas was a place that taught that time was relative. In three years it had all seemed to change again. I saw new resorts and attractions, taxicabs with electronic ad placards on their roofs, monorails connecting the casinos." Michael Connelly, 2003, Lost Light (Boston: Little, Brown and Company), page 241. Las Vegas is changing as you read this because of events occurring outside of Las Vegas!

"American Indians in Southern California are giving just that a try, going Las Vegas in style to drain customers from Nevada. As a result, Californians, who account for about 35 percent of Nevada's gambling revenues, are beginning to have viable gambling alternatives at home. The threat from California to Reno area casinos has been better recognized than the danger in South Nevada, but the reality is starting to sink in in both areas. Said American Gaming Association President Frank Fahrenkopf: 'Historically, expanding markets in the U.S., including California, have not had a negative impact on Nevada. Now, the caveat is they could have an impact on Northern Nevada and even off-Strip properties (in downtown Las Vegas and Laughlin).' California casino operators' winnings have soared from $ 1.4 billion to more than $ 4.3 billion since the passage of Proposition 1A authorized the wave of Indian gaming, surpassing New Jersey and making the state second only to Nevada's $ 9.3 billion [stress added]." Rod Smith, 2002, Indian Casinos in Southern California Compete With Las Vegas Attractions. The Las Vegas Review-Journal, December 15.


Charles Darwin

My research interests on gambling or gaming as well as Proposition 5 were presented in this room but I was always interested in Darwin. Although some may think it strange to see so much of my recent interests in Charles Darwin (1809-1882), perhaps I was struck by the following words from 1981:

"The fact is that Charles Darwin was in almost all respects a fairly standard example of the nineteenth century student, well off, active in field sports, working hard enough to avoid academic failure, but a long way from academic success." Peter Brent, 1981, Charles Darwin: A Man Of Enlarged Curiosity (NY: Harper & Row), page 89.

Consider the fact that Darwin was interested in large numbers or populations, natural selection, as well as "chance" in what has been termed "survival of the fittest" (a phrase coined by Herbert Spencer [1820-1903]) and, Darwin, as a young man, was also unsure of his future career. I graduated from high school in 1960 and after attending New York University (New York City) for 1960-1961, I flunked out of NYU and enlisted in the United States Air Force (1961-1965). My wife and I were married in 1963 and after I was honorably discharged, I became a full-time student at Western Washington State College (now Western Washington University) in Bellingham, Washington. In 1965 I was enrolled in various classes and an early paper I did for a Speech 100 class was entitled "Darwin - 1859: An Important Historical Event." Chance or serendipity? As Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) stated (in translation!) in 1854: "In the fields of observation chance favors only the prepared mind." In 1965, I was finally prepared for "education" (and received the BA., M.A. and Ph.D. in seven years) and was "prepared" for anthropology and Darwin. I have pursued my Darwin interests to date and still find the man interesting! Darwin was the topic of numerous Forum presentations over the years, beginning in 1990 and continuing to 2001 (1990, 1993, 1994a, 1994b, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000, and 2001) and I believe in every single Forum presentation I point out the "changes" in Darwin over the years, especially his monumental 1859 work simply known as Origin, or more properly entitled On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life (this is the on-line version of the first edition of 1859 edition).

The concept of change is definitely vital to an understanding of Darwin, whether you are reading Darwin himself or reading about him. In this context it is important to know that every edition of Origin published in Charles Darwin's lifetime is different! He re-wrote every-single-one and all are different! Various sentences were deleted ("cut"), or re-written, or added for each edition. In everything I write about Darwin I emphasize this by including the following table, based on information in the excellent 1959 publication of Morse Peckham [Editor] entitled The Origin Of Species By Charles Darwin: A Variorum Text.




9 eliminated
483 rewritten
30 added
7 %
33 eliminated
617 rewritten
266 added
14 %
36 eliminated
1073 rewritten
435 added
21 %
178 eliminated
1770 rewritten
227 added
29 %
63 eliminated
1699 rewritten
571 added
21-29 %

One of the most significant changes in the various editions of Origin is demonstrated by a passage that is frequently quoted by numerous individuals (including the late Stephen J. Gould [1941-2002]):

"Thus, from the war of nature, from famine and death, the most exalted object which we are capable of conceiving, namely. the production of the higher animals, directly follows. There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved." [stress added] (Origin, 1st. Edition 1859).

Individuals choose the words they use (including Darwin, Gould, and Urbanowicz) and in all editions of Origin published in Darwin's lifetime, from 1860 onwards, the above phrase was re-worded to read as follows:

"Thus, from the war of nature, from famine and death, the most exalted object of which we are capable of conceiving, namely the production of higher animals directly follows. There is a grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved." [stress added]

Please note the inclusion of the term "Creator" by Darwin! Human beings are most complicated individuals and it is fascinating to learn about Darwin and think about the people who write and cite Darwin. Three Darwin videos (referenced at the end of this presentation) have resulted from my research interests and the fantastic enthusiasm and skill of Ms. Donna Crowe of the University's Instructional Media Center. Donna hasalso created a "test" Darwin DVD and we hope to do much more with Darwin over the next few years.

Incidentally, one might ask, why so much interest in an English Naturalist/Scientist of the 19th century? Well, the year 2009 is approaching and it will be the bicentennial of Darwin's birth as well as the sesquicentennial of the first edition of Origin and I am preparing for that year; I also like the following words, most applicable to Darwin by Harold Bloom in his 2002 publication entitled Genius: A Mosaic of One Hundred Exemplary Creative Minds (NY: Warner Books): "Time, which destroys us, reduces what is not genius to rubbish" (page 814). Although Bloom did not write of Darwin, the sentiment is most appropriate: Darwin was a genius and I wish to convey that to as many individuals as possible. In addition, I also love the phrasing of David McCollough when he responded to the question "What responsibilities do you think a writer of history has to posterity?"

"I guess I want very much for others to experience the enlargement of one's own life that comes with knowing about the lives and experiences and accomplishments and failings and voices of others who went before us. To understand that one need not be provincial in time any more than one would be provincial in space [stress added]." Diane Osen, 2002, The Book That Changed My Life: Interviews With National Book Award Winners And Finalists (NY: Modern Library), page 106.



I am not anticipating that this will be my "last" Anthropology Forum, but I liked the symmetry of 1973->2003 for a title! I am now in my 30th year at this wonderful institution and "retirement" from teaching ("into something" as my wife states) is looming on the horizon. I enjoy teaching and for the 1997-1997 Academic Years I was designated a "Master Teacher" by this institution, an honor I was nominated for by the first Forum presenter, my colleague and friend Dr. Turhon Murad! Who can predict the future? We can only invent it!

Research interests change over time: Darwin continues to be my "passion" but the "Theatre" also calls: while I have yet to make a "Forum presentation" on the nuances of theatrical performances (from the "insiders" point of view, since I have been an actor and dramaturge for several campus productions, and please see the references below), who knows what the future might bring? In Time of March 17, 2003: "Into the spotlight: Theater gives seniors an outlet for self-expression, therapy, socializing and sheer fun [stress added]" and:

"Experts in health and aging agree that participation in the arts is a powerful antidote to the ravages of time--a view that has only recently gained popularity in the health-care world." Sally S. Stitch, March 17, 2003, Time Bonus Section, No Page numbers. [And see:,9171,1101030317-430840,00.html]

My Theatre colleagues have allowed me to participate in so many of their productions and I am enthused by their following words:

"Acting is one of the most exciting, enjoyable, and creative art forms in existence. It can also be one of the most daunting, challenging, and humbling experience anyone can face. Cultural anthropologists tell us that acting, at least in ritual form, is as old as the first humans sitting around the prehistoric campfire playing out for the gathered community the roles of demons, hunted animals, or even rain spirits [stress added]." Susan Pate, Randy Wonzong, Donna Breed, 1996, A Beginning Actor's Companion, 3rd edition, page 1.

Acting, as well as teaching, has been fun and continues to be fun and who knows when and where it all will end. In all that I do, I attempt to stress the word "attitude" in what we do and I often quote the words of Harlen Adams (1904-1997): "The most important word in the English language is attitude. Love and hate, work and play, hope and fear, our attitudinal response to all these situations, impresses me as being the guide." We need to think about what we are doing at all times. As for what the future will bring, that is anyone's guess but I know I'll be there as long as I can, for as Darwin wrote: "There is a grandeur in this view of life...."

# # #


2002,] [Comments on Pre-Contact Native American Metropolitan Sites.] (For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, October 10.]

2001, [Darwin Then and Now: Who Was Charles Darwin? The Legacy of an Evolutionary Biologist. For the combined "Anthropology Forum" and CAPE [Center for Applied and Professional Ethics] session at CSU, Chico, October 25.]

2000, Charlie on Darwin [For the 26 October combined CELT [Center for Excellence in Learning and Teaching] and Anthropology Forum Presentation at CSU, Chico (]

1999, [Charles R. Darwin: Fall 1999 Miscellaneous Information For Various Activities; including CSU, Chico ANTH 198 [Anthropology Forum: The Evolution of Digital Darwin, September 23)], CSU, Chico ANTH 300 [Core Seminar in Cultural Anthropology, September 30], and CSU, Chico PHIL 108, Ethics And Human Happiness, [November 17].

1998a, Proposition 5 And Native American Gaming Issues. [For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, October 8.]

1998b, One Anthropologist Looks At The Future Of Education And Technology. [For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, April 30.]

1997, "Darwin Continues To Evolve: Urbanowicz On Darwin (Again!)." [For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, September 11.]

1996a, [with Donna Crowe and Kathy Fernandes] Darwin Evolves: Multimedia (Videotape+) For Instructional Purposes.[For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, November 7.]

1996b, Gambling or Gaming: Which Is It? [For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, April 11.]

1995, [with Billl Lerch] Experience that Counts: From Anthropology To.... [For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, February 9.]

1994a On Darwin (For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, September 15.)

1994b, Charles R. Darwin. [For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, February 10.]

1993a, Peoples & Cultures of the Pacific: Okeania est omnis divisa in partes tres. [For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, September 30.]

1993b, Charles R. Darwin: (1809-1882). [For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, February 11.]

1991, Prelude to Pearl Harbor: Operation Hawai'i. [For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, December 5.]

1991, London: Legacy of Legends. [For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, May 9.]

1990a, Charles R. Darwin: My Life and My Times. [For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, October 4.]

1990b, Perspectives on Science Fiction and Science Fact. [For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, March 8.]

1989, The Islands of Hawai'i: 750A.D. to 1989. [For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, September 21.]

1983 A Pacific Anthropologist's View. [For the CSU, Chico Symposium entitled "Margaret Mead [1901-1978] and Her Critics" at the Anthropology Forum, CSU, Chico, May 12.]

1981, The Anthropology of the Future. [For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, March 19.]

1980, Space Industrialization. [For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, April 19.]

1976, Cultures: Fact or Fiction? [For the CSU, Chico Anthropology House Forum known as "El Mundo" on November 11.]

1974a, Tourism and Culture Change. [For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, December 5.]

1974b, [with T. W. Johnson] Man: A Course of Study. [For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, May 8.]

1973, Science Fiction. [For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, November 7.]


in progress [Urbanowicz Citations On The Web].

2003'iDarwin.html [Teaching As Theatre Once Again: Darwin in the Classroom (And Beyond). (For the Hawai'i International Conference on Arts and Humanities, Honolulu, Hawai'i, January 12-15, 2003.) [Also published in The Conference Proceedings, CD-ROM: ISSN#1541-5899.]

2002a, [There Is A Grandeur in This View Of Life. Darwin Day Collection One: The Single Best Idea Ever (2002) Edited by Amanda Chesworth et al. (Albuquerque, New Mexico: Tangled Bank Press), pages 67-70. [NOTE: This is a shortened version of 2002b below.]

2002b, [On Darwin: Countdown to 2008/2009]. For "Darwin Day" activities, sponsored by HAGSA [The Humanist Association of the Greater Sacramento Area], Sacramento, California, February 10, 2002].

2002c Teaching As Theatre. Strategies in Teaching Anthropology, Second Edition (2002), edited by Patricia Rice & David W. McCurdy, Editors (NJ: Prentice Hall), pages 147-149. [NOTE: This is a shortened version of 2000b below.]

2001a, Charles Darwin: - Part Two: The Voyage. [ ~Twenty-two Minute Video. Darwin from South America, through the Galápagos Islands, and back to England.] [] Edited by Ms. Vilma Hernandez and Produced by Ms. Donna Crowe: Instructional Media Center, CSU, Chico. Available via the Internet with REAL PLAYER [].

2001b, (Darwin 2001 Self-Test Two].

2001c The Galápagos Islands: Every Little Bit Helps. The Chico Enterprise-Record, Sunday, February 25 (page E1 and E2) and see:

2000a, (Darwin 2000-2001 [Self]Test One)

2000b Teaching As Theatre: Some Classroom Ideas, Specifically Those Concerning Charles R. Darwin (1809-1882) for the 99th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, San Francisco, CA (November 15-19).

2000c (Charles Darwin-Related Visuals Only) [November 10]).

2000d (2000, South American Visuals Only [November 3]).

2000e South American Research: Words [with Sadie Urbanowicz]. (For the 6 October 2000 AAUW [American Association of University Women] Meeting in Chico, CA).

1999, Charles Darwin: - Part One: The Voyage. [ ~Twenty-two Minute Video. Darwin sailing from England to South America.] [] Produced and Edited by Ms. Donna Crowe: Instructional Media Center, CSU, Chico. Available via the Internet with REAL PLAYER [].

1997, Charles Darwin: Reflections - Part one: The Beginning. [ ~Seventeen Minute Video: Darwin in England]. []. Produced and Edited by Ms. Donna Crowe: Instructional Media Center, CSU, Chico. Available via the Internet with REAL PLAYER [].

1996a [with Donna Crowe] Fourteen Second Darwin Quick Time Movie.

1996b [with Donna Crowe] Charles Darwin: Reflections. (For CSU, Chico THEA 124, October 24.)

1996b Urbanowicz on Darwin. The Chico Anthropological Society Papers, Number 16, pages 55-114.

1996d Urbanowicz on Darwin, [] (CSU, Chico Spring 1995/Fall 1996).

1990 A Letter To The Editor [Concerning Charles R. Darwin]. [Chico Enterprise-Record], September 26, page B4.

1965 Darwin - 1859: An Important Historical Event. (For SPEECH 100, Western Washington State College [now Western Washington University], Bellingham, Washington, June 30).


2003a, [May 4, 2003} Some "Sacred" Cities of America (Part II): Honolulu (Hawai'i), Las Vegas (Nevada), and Washington, D.C.

2003b, [April 8, 2003} Power And Scarcity: Tourism In The Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga (1970-1971) and Tourism / Gambling / Gaming Interests (1970-2003). For ANTH 161]

2003c, [April 16, 2003} Native Americans: Gambling, Gaming, And Growth. For ANTH 16].

2002a, [October 6, 2002} Some Sacred "Cities" of the America (Part I): Cahokia (North America), Chichén Itzá (The Yucután), and Machu Pichu (Perú).

2002b, [September 30, 2002} A "Story" (Vision or nightmare?) of the Region in 2027.)  

2000a, [Computers And Technology Into The Twenty-First Century: You Ain't Seen nothing Yet (Again).

2000b Mnemonics, Quotations, Cartoons, And A Notebook: "Tricks" For Appreciating Cultural Diversity Strategies in Teaching Anthropology, Patricia Rice & David W. McCurdy, Editors (NJ: Prentice Hall), pages 132-140.

1998a,'98_Millennium_Paper.html [January 5, 1998} Twenty-five/Twenty-Five, or Hindsight is Always Somewhat "Perfect" (But Perhaps We Can invent the Future).

1998b, Gambling (Gaming) In The United States of America From An Anthropological Perspective. Presented at the 14th ICAES [International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences] Meetings on the Anthropology of Tourism for the 1998 Congress held at Williamsburg, Virginia, July 29-August 2, 1998.

1997a, [Camping is Great: But Nothing Beats Home: Across The USA in Pursuite of Educational Technology] Inside Chico, Vol 26, No. 3 (September 25), Page 2.

1997b, When Does It End? Urbanowicz & "Gaming" (Again!). [For the Northern California Geographical Society, November 9.]

1996a, To Gamble, Or Not To Gamble? Is There A Question? [For the Chico Breakfast Lions Club Meeting, Chico, California, December 10.]

1996b, An Anthropologist looks At The Geography of Gaming. [For the Meeting of the Northern California Geographical Society, December 8.]

1994 Comments After The Iridium Session @ Cancun: Two (Or More?) Cultures? (For the Annual Meeting of the Society for Applied Anthropology, Cancun, Mexico, April 13-17.)

1991a Information Technology for the Pacific Basin. (For the 17th Pacific Science Congress, Honolulu, Hawai'i, May 27-June 2.)

1991b [with C. Louis Nevins] Extra-Terrestrial Education: Not Science Fiction at All. (For the Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C., February 14-19).

1988 The Potential of the Pacific: Some Suggestions from California State University, Chico. (For the 1988 Annual Meeting of The Pacific Telecommunications Council, Honolulu, Hawai'i, February 15-19.)


2003, Bertolt Brecht (1898-1956) and The Caucasian Chalk Circle [] directed by Professor Sue Pate, March 4-9, 2003. [Dramaturge information and also performed as several characters.]

2002a, Visuals From The Birds (of Fall 2002) [], directed by Professor Cynthia Lammel, November 12-17, 2002.

2002b, The New Moon (of Fall 2002) [] directed by Professor Joel Rogers, October 23-27, 2002, the Fall 2002 operetta; also performed as M. Beaunoir.

2002c, Dramaturge information [] and performed as "Abraham Kaplan" " in Street Scene, the Spring 2002 California State University, Chico production, directed by Dr. Randy Wonzong, March 6-10, 2002.

2001a, A Few Mark Beal Specifics. [ ] For the California State University, Chico Summer 2001 Court Theatre Memories and More (Sixth Annual Benefit Performance, June 10, 2001).

2001b, On Mark A. Beal. [] For the California State University, Chico Summer 2001 Court Theatre Memories and More (Sixth Annual Benefit Performance, June 10, 2001.

2001c, Dramaturge information [ ] For the California State University, Chico Spring 2001 production of The Miss Firecracker Contest, Directed by Professor Sue Pate, April 3-8, 2001.

2000a, Reprised the role of "Reverend Dr. Harper" (Arsenic and Old Lace) For the California State University, Chico Summer 2000 Court Theatre Potpourri, Fifth Annual Benefit Performance, June 11, 2000.

2000b, Dramaturge information [] and performed as "Dr. Gaspard Jadin" and "Sewer Man" in The Madwoman of Chaillot, the California State University, Chico Spring 2000 production, Directed by Professor Sue Pate, March 7-12, 2000.

1999a, Performed as "Reverend Dr. Harper" in Arsenic and Old Lace, the Fall 1999 Encore (Chico Community Production), directed by Gary Hibbs, November 5-14, 1999.

1999b, Performed as "Ferapont Spiridonych" in The Three Sisters, the California State University, Chico Spring 1999 production, directed by Dr. Sue Pate, March 10-14, 1999.

1999c, (Phrases From Ferapont Spiridonych, also known as Charlie Urbanowicz: For The Production of Anton Chekov's Three Sisters, Directed by Dr. Sue Pate, March 10-14,1999.

1998, Performed as "Russian Intruder" in See How They Run (one of California State University, Chico's 1998 Summer Court Theatre ensemble productions), directed by Dr. Sue Pate, July 7-11, 1998.

1996a, Performed as a "waiter" in La Bohème, the California State University, Chico Fall 1996 production, directed by Professor Gwen Curatilo, November 12-17, 1996.

1996b, Performed as "Dr. Amos D. Keller" in Inherit The Wind, the California State University, Chico Spring 1996 production, directed by Dr. Randy Wonzong, March 12-17, 1996.




From: Bill Keane's "Family Circus" (May 10, 2001).
No Date.


Ronald Clark, 1967, Queen Victoria's Bomb (London: 1967 Panther Edition).
Philip K. Dick, 1962, The Man In The High Castle (NY: 1964 Pupolar Libarary Edition).

1973 publication by Jules Archer (NY: Hawthorn Books, Inc.)
1984 Publication by John J. Stephan (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press).

View To Diamond Head. [Photo by Charles F. Urbanowicz, 2003]

View From Diamond Head. [Photo by Charles F. Urbanowicz, 2003]

U.S.S. Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor, 'Oahu, Hawai'i. [Photo by Charles F. Urbanowicz, 2003]
U.S.S. Missouri, Pearl Harbor, 'Oahu, Hawai'i. [Photo by Charles F. Urbanowicz, 2003]

View From The Beach At Waikiki. [Photo by Charles F. Urbanowicz, 1980s]

April 8, 1997 -> May 24, 1997 Sabbatical Research.

The Las Vegas Strip (2001) as viewed from the Stratosphere Tower. [Photo by Charles F. Urbanowicz]

Las Vegas "Vic" (2001) on Fremont Street, Las Vegas, Nevada. [Photo by Charles F. Urbanowicz]
MGM Grand (2001) on the "Strip" in las Vegas, Nevada. [Photo by Charles F. Urbanowicz]

Rolling Hills Casino (2002), Corning, California. [Photo by Charles F. Urbanowicz]
Colusa Casino (2002), Colusa, California. [Photo by Charles F. Urbanowicz]
Cache Creek Casino (2002), Brooks, California. [Photo by Charles F. Urbanowicz]

At the entrance to the grounds of Down House, Kent, England; Photo by "Sadie" Urbanowicz [1999].
[Photo by Charles F. Urbanowicz, Natural History Museum, London (1999). [See (]

Darwin Day Collection One (2002) edited by Amanda Chesworth et al. (Albuquerque, New Mexico: Tangle Bank Press). (And see: [Darwin Day Organization]

View of Monks Mound, Cahokia (Collinsville, Illinois). [Photo by Charles F. Urbanowicz, 2000] [See]
"The Caracol ("snail"). This is the only circular edifice in all of northern Mayan territory. Its tower was used as an astronomical observatory." Pierre Ivanoff, 1973, Monuments of Civilization: Maya (NY: Grosset & Dunlop)., page 114. [Photo by Charles F. Urbanowicz] [See]

View of Machu Picchu, Perú @ approximately 8,000 feet [~2,438 meters]. [Photo by Charles F. Urbanowicz, 2000] [See]
Close-up of Machu Picchu, Perú. [Photo by Charles F. Urbanowicz, 2000] [See]


Charlie Urbanowicz in "Darwin, California 93522."
From The Caucasian Chalk Circle (2003). See

As M. Beaunoir in The New Moon (2002). See:
As Abraham Kaplan in Street Scene (2002). See

As Dr. Gaspard Jardin in The Madwoman of Chaillot (2000). See:]
As the "King of the Sewers" in The Madwoman of Chaillot (2000). See:]

As Ferapont Spiridonych in The Three Sisters (1999). See
As the Reverend Dr. Harper in Arsenic and Old Lace (1999).

As the "Russian Intruder" in See How They Run (1998).
As Dr. Abraham Keller in Inherit The Wind (1996).
As the "Headwaiter" in La Bohème (1996).

"The most important word in the English language is attitude. Love and hate, work and play, hope and fear, our attitudinal response to all these situations, impresses me as being the guide." Harlen Adams (1904-1997)

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(1) © [All Rights Reserved.] For a presentation on May 15, 2003 (with visuals) at the Anthropology Forum at California State University, Chico.

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 [~8,433 words]} 15 May 2003

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